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    and proposals aim to leading to the various browsers ability to deliver a wide

    variety of media and accessibility options to the client possibly without employing


    Typically web pages are classified as Static ordynamic.

    Static pages dont change content and layout with every request unless a

    human (web master or programmer) manually updates the page.

    Dynamic pages adapt their content and/or appearance depending on the end-

    users input or interaction or changes in the computing environment (user,

    time database modifications, etc.) content can be changed on the client side

    (end-users computer ) by using client-side scripting languages (JavaScript,

    Jscript, Action script, media players and PDF reader plug-ins, etc.) to alter

    DOM elements ( DHTML). Dynamic content is often compiled on the server

    utilizing server-side scripting languages (PHP, ASP, PERL, ColdFusion,

    JSP, Python, etc.). Both approaches are usually in complex applications.

    With growing specialization within communication design and information

    technology field, there is a strong tendency to draw a clear line between web

    design specifically for web pages and web development for the overall


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    Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi, the father of peace through non-violence concept,

    and Pr.Johan Galtung the principal founder of the discipline of Peace and conflict

    studies, through his concept of conflict transformation by peaceful means, Great

    Lakes Peace Network Foundation is a non-profit network of a volunteers team

    involved in peace building, sustainable development and any other field related to

    the respect of human dignity.

    GLPN was created in 1994 by Dr.Claude Shema-Rutagengwa, under GLPI label-

    Great Lakes Peace Initiative- but later changed status and name, then switched to

    the new status and actual name which is:

    GLPN-The great Lakes Peace Network Foundation", with a priceless joint work

    ofAnke Weisheit (The creation of GLPN is mainly based on the situation in the

    so called The great Lakes region of Africa-GLRA due to the intractability of the

    cruel conflict in that area.

    Therefore, the former Germany-Belgium colony is regarded as a field of interest

    motivated political conflict between powerful countries since decades ago. This

    context motivated GLPN to work locally for peace and sustainable development in

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    this region, but at the same time to have remarkable direct transformative impacts

    on external actors who are fueling the conflict in this region and vice-versa.

    GLPN believes that the experience gained from the great lakes region of Africa, as

    intractable conflict with multiple actors from different backgrounds or cultures,

    and different nations, can be a milestone towards remedying similar indocile

    conflict all over the world, and contribute to peacebuilding and conflict

    transformation in any other part of the world, through sharing experiences and

    using the effective methods succeeded in this region.

    Vision and Mission of GLPN: Great Lakes Peace Network Foundation is an

    independent peace and development network, non-profit organization aiming at

    peace by peaceful means. It inspires a passion for peace and sustainable

    development and other related fields focusing on a better and peaceful future for


    GLPN Foundation is a well-organized team of experts from different

    countries equipped with a variety of skills and experienced in peace, human rights,

    environment, gender and youth issues, etc... It promotes conflict-mitigation and

    reconciliation in general and in specific conflict affected areas through meticulous

    on-the-ground research, active listening, education and advocacy.

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    Major activities: Research, Training/Education, Expertise, Lobbying &

    advocacy, Activefacilitation.

    Fields: Peace building, Mediation/Reconciliation, Environment, Sustainable

    development, Gender & youth issues.


    There are millions of computer users browsing the internet every day and each one

    is looking at a different size monitor suing a different resolution. How each person

    sees the graphics on your website varies depending on their screen and there are no

    uniform standards for making your site friendly to everyone.

    Screen resolution refers to how many pixels your computer monitor will display,

    both vertically and horizontally. If you ever visited a website that did not fit your

    screen, making you scroll to the right to see the rest of the page, it was not entirely

    the designers fault. The website was just not created with your screen resolution.

    Not too long ago, the most common computer monitor featured a resolution of 480

    X 640. A number of people still surf the internet using this screen resolution, while

    todays popular monitor use a 1024 X 768 screen resolution and most website are

    optimized to be viewed on these higher resolution screens. Those still using lower

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    resolution displays will see website quite differently than those the site designed


    Todays monitor offer computer users a choice of several screen resolutions, with

    the lowest resolution being 400 X 600. With some any choices, it is often

    confusing for users to decide on the best settings, especially if they are not aware

    of the differences.

    Visitors to your site that are using monitors with low screen resolution will usually

    not see your entire page on their screen. They will have to scroll horizontally to see

    the right side of your page. Those using a higher screen resolution than what your

    site is designed for may see a small, thin strip that can be rather frustrating.

    Also among one of the problems encountered is the incapability of the browser

    window and viewing systems.

    For example some viewing systems will have limited options of fonts. This means

    that any special font will have to be placed inside an image so that they are

    accessible to all users.

    Another important constraint is the type of browser users view the page through.

    Different browsers interpret the display images and the HTML in a slightly

    different manner, which can lead to the picture being displayed incorrectly.

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    The main limitation is bandwidth, which mean how quickly information travels

    between the computer where your web site is located (your Web server), and the

    visitors computer. Even though 56.6kbps modems, and even 10Mbps cable

    modems are becoming more common, many people on the internet are still using

    28.8kbps modems.

    This means that the larger your Web pages are, the longer they take to download,

    and the less likely a visitor is to stick around to see them. One of the major tasks of

    a web site designer is to provide maximum content at a minimum file size.

    Graphics and animations are the big data-hogs. A screen sized photo in full colour

    can easily consume 2 megabytes of space, which would take a computer with a

    28.8kbps modem about a half-hour to download.


    With the revolution of World Wide Web (WWW), information could be accessed

    from one part of the globe to another. Organizations, schools, individuals,

    businesses are putting up their own websites. Having highlighted efficiency of the

    World Wide Web above, the researcher intends Putting Great Lakes Peace

    Network on the yellow pages i.e. easily accessible all over the globe in just a few


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    In this age of electronic commerce, career as a web designer can be a lucrative one.

    Demand of websites designers are at a constant rise as most of the businesses are

    attempting to initiate web presence. There are different website design companies

    that recruit talented and best of the breed web designers to facilitate their clients

    with appealing web portals with beautiful graphics and animated features. On the

    other hand, finding a cheap web designer is not at all a difficult task now, from the

    local community newspaper to yellow pages, several web design companies offer

    alluring options.

    A good website designer needs to increase his skills and abilities to identify what

    the visitors want at a rapid pace. There are several vocational training programs for

    the web designers and these courses are generally tailored to provide a clear insight

    on the latest tools and technologies that are used in the market. There are

    innumerable web designing companies that offer cheap web design and it is also

    necessary for the web designers nowadays to keep the designing cost lower. So, it

    is really a tricky job to balance the quality and hours of work to create the end

    product, i. e the website at a competitive rate.

    There remains different web development companies that can really help

    schools/institutions with effective solutions related to web presence. Self-study to

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    identify proper web Development Company is essential. We must remember that

    any wrong selection of web Design Company can just be waste of money. Now

    more than a few web design companies are offering free domain name and e-mail

    ids. Having e-mail with proper domain name is lucrative. We presence is now one

    of the most essential things that determine future of any business. Popularity of

    electronic commerce will be more and more with days and demand of website

    designers will be more.


    Having an organizational website enhances the following:

    1. Effective communication for members, scholars, activists, and intending


    2. Easy access to the administrative in case their office location is not present

    in a particular country, area, or community.

    3. Provision of educational resources in form of online/electronic articles

    where people can access them and information passed to appropriate


    4. Effective dissemination of news and upcoming events of the organization.

    5. Improved teaching and learning style.

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    6. To develop an understanding of technological processes among new internet

    users intending to understand it.

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    This study is limited to Green Lakes Peace Network online and does not provide

    an in-depth study to its activities overall, at the same time transforming them into a

    global organization accessible to billions of internet users all over the world.


    This research work was faced with a lot of difficulties. Time constraint was one of

    the limiting factors in carrying out this study.

    Financial constraint also constituted in carrying out an in depth study of this

    project. Limitations to the extent in which data could be collected also constituted

    a problem.

    Irregularities in power supply also dealt harshly with the researcher.

    In spite of the above mentioned difficulties, some data was collected which will be

    analysed later.


    While researching on this work, i came up with a couple of assumptions which


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    1. I would be able to finish this work before deadline

    2. In the long run, this research work would be accessed globally.


    DHTML Dynamic Hypertext Mark-up Language. it is a combination of HTML,

    Cascading Style Sheets, JavaScript and Macromedia Flash Mx used to create

    animated and interactive websites.

    HTML Hypertext Mark-up Language is a client-side scripting language for

    Website design.

    PHP (Archaic: Personal Home page) Hypertext Preprocessor. These languages

    work closely with the Web server to interpret the requests made from the World

    Wide Web, process these requests, interact with other programs on the server to

    fulfil the requests, and then indicate to the Web server exactly what to serve to the

    clients browser.

    SQL Structured Query Language, basically used in querying the databases to

    retrieve, updates, and review database

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    CSS Cascading Style Sheet. A client-side scripting language, used in styling the

    webpages for a greater user-experience.

    ASP Active Server Pages. A server-side scripting language like the PHP. These

    languages work closely with the Web server to interpret the requests made from

    the World Wide Web, process these requests, interact with other programs on the

    server to fulfil the requests, and then indicate to the Web server exactly what to

    serve to the clients browser.

    SERVER A specific application, called a Web server, will be responsible for

    communicating with the browser.

    PHOTOSHOP Graphics applications

    WEBSITE A website is a collection of information about a particular topic or


    APACHE A server technology, designed to assist the webmaster in utilizing

    database and Server technology.

    UNIX- an operating system

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    The essence of this chapter is to critically look at some salient literature review that

    has some theoretical relevance to this research work. In other to familiarize

    ourselves with the existing to facilitate the creativity, collaboration and sharing

    between users who are educated, interesting and more exploitative as the case may

    be when it comes to web design. But without doubt, it has produced some kind of

    effects on new programmers and sharing between users who are educated,

    interesting and more exploitative as the case may be when it comes to web design.

    But without doubt, it has produced some kind of effects on new programmers and

    students in the way they design their websites. Based on this, the chapter is divided

    into different sections which include:

    1. History of website

    2. Definition of website

    3. Designing a website

    4. Multidisciplinary Requirements

    5. Issues concerning website designing

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    6. Planning and documentation

    7. Website Planning.


    Tim Berners-Lee published what is considered to be the first website in august

    1991. Berners-Lee was the first to combine internet communication (which had

    been carrying email and UseNet for decades) with hypertext (which had also been

    around for decades, but limited to browsing information stored on a single

    computer, such as interactive CD-ROM design). Websites are written in a mark-

    up language called HTML, and early version of HTML were very basic, only

    giving a websites basic structure (heading and paragraphs), and the ability to link

    using hypertext. This was new and different from existing forms of communication

    users could easily navigate to other pages following hyperlinks from page to


    As the web and web design progressed, the mark-up language changed to become

    more complex and flexible, giving the ability to add objects like images and tables

    to a page. Features like tables, which were originally intended to be used to display

    tabular information, were soon subverted for use as invisible layout devices. With

    the advent Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), table-based layout is commonly regarded

    as out-dated. Database integrating technologies such as server-side scripting and

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    design standards like W3C changed and enhanced the way the web is made. As

    times change, websites are changing the code inside and visual design on the

    outside with ever-evolving programs and utilities.

    With the progression of the web, tens of thousands of web design companies have

    been established around the world to serve the growing demand for such work. As

    White and Crino (1981:228-245) remarked, with much of the information

    technology industry, many web design companies has been established in

    technology parks in the developing world as well as many western design

    companies setting up offices in countries such as India, Romania, and Russia to

    take advantage of the relatively lower labour rates found in such countries .

    (Rivanus, 2001)


    At a Seoul Digital Forum, Eric Schmodit (2007: 398), CEO of Google, was asked

    to define website. He responded thus:

    If i were to guess what website is, i would tell it is a different way of building

    applications... my prediction would be that website will ultimately be seen as

    applications which are pieced together. There are a number of characteristics: the

    applications are relatively small, the data is in the cloud, the application can run on

    any device, PC or mobile phone, the applications are distributed virally: literally by

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    social networks, by e-mail. You would not go to the store and purchase them...that

    is a different application model than we have ever seen in computing.

    According to Tim Berners-Lee (2006:57), the inventor of the World Wide Web

    (WWW) stated that:

    Web design or a website is when you have got an overlap of scalable vector

    graphic with everything ripping, folding and looking misty with huge space of data

    that anybody can have access to an unbelievable data resource that the internet


    In November 2006 at TechNet summit, Jerry Yang a founder and chief of Yahoo

    stated that, it is a power of internet to reach a critical mass with the capacity that

    can be done on network level, where we have being seeing richer devices over the

    last four years interacting with the network in the richer ways. Not only in

    hardware like game consoles and mobile devices but also in the software layer that

    you dont have to be a computer scientist to be able to create a program or create a

    network effect on business and application.

    Nova Spivack (2004:101) defined website as the third decade of web design (2010-

    2020) of which he suggested several level of maturity it will reach which

    simultaneously includes:

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    Ubiquitous connectivity

    Network Computing

    Open Technology

    Open identity

    Distributed database

    Intelligent application

    Negal Pack (2002:222) assumed that web page belong to a site that sells stuff

    online, the very fact that half the users cannot even see the page, translate into

    losses worth half the amount straightaway. He guessed that making a good case for

    the article raison d etre (web designing is).

    In his opinion, he said: a cocktail of creative skills and technical prowess is no

    less important than the other though he noticed that it is not possible to please

    everyone every time but most are simple enough to be rule of thumb. Images no

    doubt enhance the look of a page, but it is not advisable to go stuffing your page

    with truck load of images.

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    An interview with Bob Regal on accessibility at Macromedia (April 2oo3) by

    Negal Peak, he said: there are measures that shape the output tools against web

    and accessibility standard.


    A website is a collection of information about a particular topic or subject. As

    Boyle (2004: 562) opined, designing a web site is defined as the arrangement and

    creation of web pages that in turn make up a website. A web page consists of

    information for which the website is developed. A website might be compared to a

    book, where each page of the book is a web page.

    There are many aspects (design concerns) in this process, and due to the rapid

    development of the internet, new aspects may emerge. For non-commercial

    websites, the goals may vary depending on the desired exposure and response. For

    typical commercial websites, the basic aspects of design are:

    The content: The substance and information on the site should be

    relevant to the site and should target the area of the public that the

    website is concerned with.

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    The usability: the site should be user-friendly, with the interface and

    navigation simple and reliable.

    The appearance: the graphics and text should include a single style that

    flows throughout, to show consistency. They should be professional,

    appealing and relevant.

    The visibility: the must also be easy to find via most, if not all, major

    search engines and advertisement media.

    A website typically consists of text and images. The first page of a web site is

    known as the Home page or index. Some websites use what is commonly called a

    splash page. Splash pages might include a welcome message, language or region

    selection, or disclaimer. Each web page within a website is an HTML file which

    has its own URL. After each web page is created, they are typically linked together

    using a navigation menu composed of hyperlinks. Faster browsing speeds have led

    to shorter attention spans and more demanding online visitors and this has resulted

    in less use of Splash Pages, particular where commercial web sites are concerned.

    Once a website is completed, it must be published or upload in order be viewable

    to the public over the internet. This may be done using an FTP client. Once

    published, the master may use a variety of techniques to increase the traffic, or hits,

    that the web site receives. This may include submitting the website to a search

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    engine such as Google or Yahoo, exchanging links with other websites, creating

    affiliations with similar websites, etc.


    In their contribution, Bank and Gill (1995: 56) websites crosses disciplines of

    information systems, information technology and communication design. The

    website is an information system whose components are sometimes classified as

    front-end and back-end. The observable content (e.g. page layout, user interface,

    graphics, text, audio) is known as the front-end. The back-end comprises the

    organization and efficiency of the source code, invisible scripted functions, and the

    server-side components that process the output from the front-end. Depending on

    the size of a Web Development project, it may be carried out by a multi-skilled

    individual (sometimes called a web master), or a project manager may oversee

    collaborative design between group members with specialized skills (Kramer,



    As in collaborative designs, there are conflict between differing goals and methods

    of websites designs. These are a few of the on-going ones.

    2.6.1 Lack Collaboration In Design

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    In the early stages of the web, Dickson (2004: 455), there wasnt as much

    collaboration between web designs and larger advertising campaigns, customers

    transactions, social networking, intranets and extranets as there is now. Web pages

    are mainly static online brochures disconnected from the larger projects.

    Many web pages are still disconnected from larger projects. Special design

    considerations are necessary for use within these larger projects. These designs

    considerations are often overlooked, especially in cases where there is a lack of

    leadership, lack of understanding of why and technical knowledge of how to

    integrate, or lack of concern for the larger project in order to facilitate

    collaboration or compromise between departments, and less than optima use of

    web pages (Jerry,2000).

    2.6.2 Liquid Versus Fixed Layout

    On the web, the designer has no control over several factors, including the size of

    the browser window, the web browser used, the input devices used (mouse, touch

    screen, voice command, text, cell phone number pad, etc.) and the size, design, and

    other characteristics of the font users have available (installed) on their own


    As Brown (2006:456) stated, some designers choose to control the appearance of

    the elements of the elements on the screen by using specific width designations.

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    This control may be achieved in HTML through the use of (now disparaged) table-

    based design or more modern (and standard) div-based design, usually enhanced

    (and made more flexible) with CSS. When the text, images, and layout do not vary

    among browsers, this referred to as fixed-width design. Advocates of fixed-width

    design argue for the designers precise control over the layout of a site and the

    placement of object within pages (Shunula, 1999).

    Other designers choose a more liquid approach, one which arranges content

    flexible on users screens, responding to the size of their browser windows. For

    better or worse, they concede to users more control over the rendition of their.

    Proponents of liquid design prefer greater compatibility with users various choices

    of presentation and more efficient use of the screen space available. Liquid design

    can be achieved by setting the width of text blocks and page modules to a

    percentage of the page, or by avoiding specifying the width for these elements

    altogether, allowing them to expand or contract naturally in accordance with the

    width of the browser. It is more in keeping with the original concept of Hypertext

    Mark-up Language (HTML), that it should specify, not the appearance of text, but

    its contextual function, leaving the rendition to be decided by users various

    display devices.

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    Web pages designers (of both types) must consider how their pages will appear on

    various screen resolutions. Sometimes the most pragmatic choice is to all text

    width to vary between minimum and maximum values. This allows designers to

    avoid considering rare users equipment while still taking good advantage of

    available screen space.

    Similar to liquid layout is the optional fit to window feature with Adobe flash

    content. This is a fixed layout that optimally scales the content of the page without

    changing the arrangement or text wrapping when the browser is resized.


    As Levison (1980) said, documentation is used to visually plan the site while

    taking into account the purpose, audience and content, to design the site structure,

    content and interactions that are most suitable for the website. Documentation

    may be considered a prototype for the website a model which allows the website

    layout to be reviewed, resulting in suggested changes, improvements and/ or

    enhancements. This review process increases the likelihood of success of the


    First, the content is categorized and the information structure is formulated. The

    information structure is used to develop a document or visual diagram called a site

    map. This creates a visual of how the site will be interconnected, which helps in

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    deciding what content will be placed on what pages. There are three main ways of

    diagramming the website structure:

    Linear Website Diagrams will allow the user to move in predetermined


    Hierarchical structure (of Tree Design Website Diagrams) provide more than

    one path for users to take their destination;

    Branch Design Website Diagrams allow for any interconnections between

    web pages such as hyperlink within sentences.

    In addition to planning the structure, Rosen and Jerdee (1980: 30) the layout and

    interface of individual pages may be planned using a storyboard. In the process of

    storyboarding, a record is made of the description, purpose and title of each page in

    the site, and they are linked together according to the most effective and logical

    diagram type. Depending on the number of pages required for the website,

    documentation methods may include using pieces of paper and drawing lines to

    connect them, or creating the storyboard using computer software.

    Some or all the individual pages maybe designed in greater detail as a wireframe, a

    mock up model or comprehensive layout of what the page will actually look like.

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    This is often done in a graphic program, or layout design program. The wireframe

    has no other working functionality, only planning though it can be used for selling

    ideas to other web design companies 98% of US web users have the Flash Player

    installed. The percentage has remained fairly constant over the years; for example

    a study conducted by NPD Research in 2002 showed that 97.8% of US web users

    had the Flash player installed. Numbers vary depending on the detection scheme

    and research demographics. (Ballas, 1994).

    Flash detractors claim that Flash websites tend to be poorly designed, and often use

    confusing and non-standard user interfaces, such as inability to scale according to

    the size of the web browser, or its incompatibility with common browser features

    such as the back button. Up until recently, search engine crawlers rely on text to

    index websites. It is possible to specify alternate content to be displayed for the

    browsers that do not support Flash. Using alternate content will help search

    engines to understand the page, and can result in much better visibility for the

    page. However, the vast majority of Flash websites are not disability accessible

    (for screen readers, for example). An additional issue is that sites which commonly

    use alternate content for search engines to their human visitors are usually judged

    up to be spamming search engines and are automatically banned.

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    The most recent incarnation of Flashs scripting language (called ActionScript,

    which is an ECMA language similar to JavaScript) incorporated long awaited

    usability features such as respecting the browsers font size and allowing blind

    users to use screen readers. Actionscript 2.0 is an Object-Oriented language,

    allowing the Cascading Style Sheet (CSS), Extensible Mark-up Language (XML),

    and the design of class-based web applications (Ballas, 1994).


    Before creating and uploading a website, it is important to take the time to plan

    exactly what is needed in the website. Thoroughly considering the audience or

    target market, as well as defining the purpose and deciding what content will be

    developed are extremely important.

    2.8.1 Purpose Of The Website

    It is essential to define the purpose of the website as one of the steps in the

    planning process. A purpose statement should show focus based on what the

    website will accomplish and what the users will get from it. A clearly defined

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    purpose will help the rest of the planning process as the audience is identified

    and the content of the site developed. Setting short and long term goals for the

    website will help make the purpose clear and plan for the future when

    expansion, modification, and improvement will take place. Goal setting

    practices and measurable objectives should be identified to track the progress of

    the site and determine the success.

    2.8.2 Audience of The Website

    Defining the audience is a key step in the website planning process. The audience

    is the group of people who are expected to visit your website the market being

    targeted. These people will be viewing the website for a specific reason and its

    important to know exactly what they are looking for when they visit the site. A

    clearly defined purpose or goal of the site as well as an understanding of what

    visitor want to do or feel when they come to your site will help to identify the

    target audience. Upon considering who is most likely to need or use the content, a

    listing of characteristics common to users such as:

    Audience Characteristics

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    Information Preferences

    Computer Specification

    Web Experience

    Taking into account the characteristics of the audience will allow an effective

    website to be created that will deliver the desired content to the target audience.

    2.8.3 Content Evaluation of The Website

    Content evaluation and organization requires that the purpose of the website be

    clearly defined. Collecting a list of the necessary content organizing it according to

    the audiences needs is a key step in website planning. In the process of gathering

    the content being offered, any items that do not support the defined purpose or

    accomplish target audience objectives should be removed. It is a good idea to test

    the content and purpose on a focused group and compare the offerings to the

    audience needs. The next step is to organize the basic information structure by

    categorizing the content and organizing it according to users needs. Each category

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    should be named with a concise and descriptive title that will become a link on the

    website. Planning for the sites content ensures that the wants or needs to the target

    audience and the purpose of the site will be fulfilled.

    2.8.4 Compatibility And Restrictions

    Because of the market share of modern browsers (depending on your target

    market), the compatibility of your website with the viewers is restricted. For

    instance, a website that is designed for the majority of web surfers will be limited

    to the use of valid XHTML 1.0 strict or older, Cascading Style Sheets Level 1, and

    1024x768 display resolution. This is because internet explorer in not fully W3C

    standards compliant with modularity of XHMTL 1.1 and the majority of CSS

    beyond 1. A target market of more alternative browser (e.g. Firefox, Safari, Opera)

    users allow for more W3C compliance and thus a greater range of options for a

    web designer (Rivanus, 2001).

    Another restriction on webpage design is the use of different image file formats.

    The majority of users use GIF, JPEG, and PNG (with restrictions). Again Internet

    Explorer is a major restriction here, not fully supporting PNGs advance

    transparency features, resulting in the GIF format still being the most widely used

    graphic file format for transparent images.

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    Many websites incompatibilities go unnoticed by the designer and unreported by

    the users. The only way to be certain a website will work on a particular platform

    is to test it on that platform.




    This is a basic research and will employ a survey of design of data collection and


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    An extensive survey of Great Lakes Peace Network with high performance was

    conducted to study the effectiveness of the organization being accessible globally

    through the internet.

    At this juncture, it becomes important to state that this research work is mainly

    concerned with data collected from the following members of the organization:

    a) Claude Retagwengwa ( Founder)

    b) Prof John Gultang (Board of Trustee)

    c) Pr.Dr.Finn Tschudi (Trustee)

    d) Satoshi Ashikaga (Member)

    3.2Fact Finding Method Used

    The data used in this study were collected from two sources of data collection, the

    primary and secondary source.

    3.2.1 Primary Data Source

    The primary source came mainly from direct observation of events, thus carrying

    out personal or online interviews and through questionnaire.

    3.2.2 Interview

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    The researcher made use of interview method of data collection. This is an online

    conversation between the researcher and the respondent on the topic.

    3.2.3 Questionnaire

    The researcher made use of questionnaire method of data collection which


    a) Structured Questionnaire

    b) Unstructured Questionnaire

    Structured Questionnaire is the type of questionnaire which restricts the respondent

    from the answers provided for him for the questions. They are normally yes or

    no, true or false answers.

    Unstructured Questionnaire is the reverse of the structured questionnaire. The

    respondent is not restricted to the answers provided. No answers are in fact

    provided. He answers what he feels.

    3.2.2 Secondary Data Source

    This constitutes the existing literature on the subject matter of this research such


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    a) Textbooks

    b) Periodic journals

    c) Articles

    d) Great Lakes Peace Network ( overview data)


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    Fig. 3.1: Organizational Chart

    The organization activities are carried out by its Founder, Board of Trustees,

    members, lecturers, and the people at the administrative Unit.




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    In order to achieve a dynamic web development, the programmer made use of

    Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language (DHTML) for client-side scripting and

    (PHP) for the server-side scripting. A DHTML contains tags such as

    , while PHP contains tags such as

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    JavaScript and Macromedia Flash Mx used to create animated and interactive

    websites. The main drawback of DHTML is that it is very difficult to develop and


    During program implementation, the researcher incorporated DHTML in the form

    of style and web interaction.

    4.1.3 PHP

    PHP belongs to a class of languages known as middleware. These languages work

    closely with the Web server to interpret the requests made from the World Wide

    Web, process these requests, interact with other programs on the server to fulfil the

    requests, and then indicate to the Web server exactly what to serve to the clients


    The middleware is where youll be doing the vast majority of your work. With a

    little luck, you can have your Web server up and running without a whole lot of

    effort. And once it is up and running, you wont need to fool with it a whole lot.

    But as you are developing your applications, youll spend a lot of time writing

    code that makes your applications work. In addition to PHP, there are several

    languages that perform similar functions. Some of the more popular choices are

    ASP, Perl, and ColdFusion.

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    4.1.4 Server

    Almost all of the work of Web applications takes place on the server. A specific

    application, called a Web server, will be responsible for communicating with the


    A relational database server stores whatever information the application requires.

    Finally, you need a language to broker requests between the Web server and the

    database server; it will also be used to perform programmatic tasks on the

    information that comes to and from the Web server.

    But of course none of this is possible without an operating system. The Webserver,

    programming language, and database server you use must work well with your

    operating system. Apache

    The Apache Web server is the most popular Web server there is. It, like Linux,

    PHP, and MySQL, is an open-source project. Not surprisingly, Apache works best

    in UNIX environments, but also runs just fine under Windows.

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    Apache makes use of third-party modules. Because it is open source, anyone with

    the skill can write code that extends the functionality of Apache. PHP will most

    often run as an Apache extension, known as an Apache module.

    Apache is a great Web server. It is extremely quick and amazingly stable. The

    most frequently stated complaint about Apache is that, like many pieces of Unix

    software, there are limited graphical tools with which you can manipulate the

    application. You alter Apache by specifying options on the command line or by

    altering text files. When you come to Apache for the first time, all this can be a bit


    Though Apache works best on UNIX systems, there are also versions that run on

    Windows operating systems. Nobody, not even the Apache developers,

    recommends that Apache be run on a busy server under Windows. If you have

    decided to use the Windows platform for serving Web pages, youre better off

    using IIS.

    But there are conditions under which youll be glad Apache does run under

    Windows. You can run Apache, PHP, and MySQL on a Windows 98 machine and

    then transfer those applications to Linux with practically no changes to the scripts.

    This is the easiest way to go if you need to develop locally on Windows but to

    serve off a Unix/Apache server.

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    Identify the website to be designed

    (CASE STUDY Great Lake Peace Initiative)

    Consider the best technology/

    programming language to be

    employed (Server-Side Scripting)

    Identify the aims and objective of

    the proposed website

    List the number of Navigation menus including their names

    and their network

    Get pictures, audio files and

    animations ready and compress

    them to their lowest byte

    The text/write ups of the website


    Programming/ coding process begins

    (Home page first)

    Testing Testing

    Share the programs/codes into different web

    pages as required


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    The system being designed can be previewed to get a glimpse of the final output. It

    can aesthetically guide us towards a proper understanding of the final output and

    perceive what it like. See Appendix 11 and 111


    The system requirements are the software and hardware requirements. The

    software requires a set of instructions that controls a computers action. It is a

    computer program that accomplishes some specific applications or tasks. This

    software can be purchased or a user can develop the software from software


    The hardware requirements unlike the software refer to the physical components of

    the computer i.e. the peripherals in this design. The hardware and software

    requirements for this system are listed below.

    4.4.1 Software Requirements

    1. Dreamweaver CSS4

    2. Mozilla Fire Fox browser

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    3. A graphic application (Adobe Photoshop 7.0, CorelDraw etc.)

    4.4.2 Hardware Requirement

    1. Pentium processor (4 or above)

    2. RAM (256MB-2GB)

    3. Standard keyboard

    4. Hard disk (40 or above)

    5. A 1500v Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)


    Server-side scripting using PHP and client-side scripting using DHTML which is a

    mark-up language. For every task, navigation links are created to help the task, be

    it downloading forms, printing forms or making comment on website.

    Furthermore, the program i.e. well-structured with use of navigation links as well

    as sub menus such as:


    Home Page

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    Board and Staff

    Training and Research

    FAQ (frequently asked question)

    Whenever the user clicks on a particular navigation menu, it automatically links to

    the page requested by the user.

    In its organization, search Engine giant, Google was incorporated in all the web

    pages for easy connection or log on to other websites all over the globe.


    The aim here is to ensure that this program meets its requirements. A user can

    know virtually all aspects of Great Lakes Peace Network in just a matter of click.

    This program can link the user to parts of the globe within a few seconds.

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    At this stage of the work every eventuality has been subjected to the most vigorous

    examination as envisage on the specification.


    Since the program is made of mark-up tags i.e. mark-up languages, the following

    steps must be adhered to before the program can run:

    1. Boot the computer and make sure that Windows Operating System is

    installed in the system

    2. Click the start button, click on all programs, scroll and click on accessories

    and click on Notepad.

    3. Write all the required codes or programs on the Notepad and save with a

    filename and a filename extension of .dhtml or .php. at this juncture the

    TEXT editor automatically compiles into a HTML/web document.

    4. Queue in data into the database with WAMP SERVERS SQL and link to

    the websites.

    5. Open the web browser; go to localhost as provided by the SERVER

    technology. E.g. localhost/ww.glpn.org

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    5.1 SUMMARY

    Every organization has one thing in mind; have we fared well without a website so

    far, why would we need one now? The answer is simple, for advertising and wider

    broadcasting of information. Advertising is the chief success tool of every

    organization; your target audience needs to know that you are out there.

    A website has become an effective tool of running obtaining information. Internet

    today is used 24/7 and is accessible from anybody anywhere. People these days

    depend on the internet for everything, including pin or paper. Today you can obtain

    anything just by the click of a mouse button.

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    The question is, are you willing to foot the bills of obtaining one for your

    organization? The answer will take you a long way, if yes then you are ready to

    operate globally.

    With a website for your organization, members all over the world can effectively

    communicate together at a low cost. Newsletter can also be periodically posted on

    their e-mail box to remind them of an important date or event.

    Also a news section will go a long way in keeping members abreast of recent

    happenings within and outside the organization.

    Finally web development is expanding and changing in style, requiring the

    webmaster to periodically update.


    Based on the result of the survey, it is pertinent to make the following conclusions.

    1. Far more cheaper than print Advertising

    The internet is extremely different from print advertising in that space is cheap,

    your advertisement is accessible for a longer period of time, the content can be

    changed without having to ask someone to do it for you ( if you use a content

    management system), you can reach a wider audience.

    2. 24 Hours a Day, 7 Days a Week, 365 days a Year

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    The information included in the site will be available anytime, anyplace. No power

    failure, no hook. The internet is there to serve you every time. Even on public

    holidays or any other day of obligation, the internet is there to serve. No

    transmission failure.


    Internet can help the organization to grow stronger and increase its members faster;

    also opportunities provided by organizations can be savoured by the intended



    In order to remedy problems encountered in server-side scripting, web masters

    should incorporate server-side scripting technologies such as PHP Hypertext

    Preprocessor (PHP), Active Server Pages (ASP.NET). This new innovation would

    help create login controls, members portal where members and officials can create

    and modify their account.

    However, this log in controls and student portals would enable online registration

    for both students and staff; thereby eliminating the rigors of manual or paper


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    Search Engine Optimization (SEO) should be employed in Webpages. With Search

    Engine Optimization (SEO), keywords or virtually every word could be searched

    or accessed or sought after in the Webpages. For instance webmasters should

    incorporate access to search engines such as Google, Yahoo, Mama, and MSN etc.

    Webmasters should learn to control a page with CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) as it

    is the ultimate styling sheet and occupies less space.


    Albers, M.C. and Bergmen, E.C. (1995). The Audible Web: Auditory

    Enhancement for Mosaic. Proceedings of CHI; 95 (pp318-319). Denver:


    Ballas, J. A. (1994). Delivery of Information through sound. In G. Kramer (ED.),

    Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification and Auditory Interfaces (pp

    79- 94). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

    Britton, D.R. Jr. and Arthur, A.R (2004).Discovering Usability Improvements for

    Mosaic: Application of the Contextual Inquiry Technique with an Expert

    User. Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

    Bronette, A.A and Sarah, W.C. (2002). Usability Expertise Centre, Digital

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    Equipment Corp. Listening to Users about Internet Browsers: A Usability

    Study. New York: Prentice, 2007.

    Internet. (2006).Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Retrieved




    Jerry, H. A (2000). Benefits and Barriers: People with Disabilities and the

    National Information Infrastructure. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

    Kramer, G.E (1994).An Introduction to Auditory Display. In Kramer G.E.(ED.).

    Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

    Mynatt E.D and Keith E.W (2006).Mapping GUIs to Auditory Interfaces

    (Description of Mercator project for mapping graphical X-based interfaces

    to Auditory interfaces.) Journal of Business, 76(3), 499-514.

    OConnell, J. F., & Perkins, G. M. (2003). Microsoft Windows Guidelines for

    Accessible Software Design. White Paper, 76(3), 499-514.

    Rivanus, O.O. (2001). Review of Usability Study Information Collected at 1995

    CSUN. Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

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    Shumila D.S. (1999). Suggested Blind Access Features. Wilmington, MA: Great

    Source Education Group.

    Universal Resource Locator (URL)

    http://wikipedia.org/internet /







    Person completing questionnaire:

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    Rank In Organization:



    Name of Organization :


    May we contact you if further information/clarification is needed? (Yes) (No)



    May we use your name in our results: (Yes) (No)

    1. State the History of Great Lake Peace Network:

    2. What led to the founding of Great Lake Peace Network:

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    3. Please make a sketch of the organizational structure of Great Lake Peace



    5. What is the philosophy of Great Lake Peace Network:

    6. How can one Participate?

    Thanks for your cooperation.



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    body {

    color: #737373;

    font-size: 10px;

    font-family: verdana;

    background-color: #000;


    textarea,input,select {

    background-color: #FDFBFB;

    border: 1px solid #BBBBBB;

    padding: 2px;

    margin: 1px;

    font-size: 9px;

    color: #808080;


    a, a:link, a:active { color: #333; text-decoration: none; font-size: 15px; }

    a:visited {color: #333; text-decoration:none; font-size: 15px;}

    a:hover { border-bottom: 1px dotted #c1c1c1; color: #AAAAAA; }

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    img {border: none; color:campton}

    td {

    font-size: 12px;

    color: #7A7A7A;

    text-align: center;


    .style1 {

    font-size: 13px;

    color: #333333;

    text-align: justify;


    .chika {

    font-size: 10px;


    font-family: Verdana;

    border: #CC3 thick;



    body table tr td table tr td {

    font-size: 10px;

    text-align: justify;



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    document.MM_returnValue = true;



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    #CollapsiblePanel2 .CollapsiblePanelContent strong strong em span {

    font-size: 18px;


    #CollapsiblePanel2 .CollapsiblePanelContent strong strong em span {

    color: #000;


    #CollapsiblePanel2 .CollapsiblePanelContent strong strong em span {

    font-style: italic;


    #CollapsiblePanel2 .CollapsiblePanelContent strong strong em span {

    font-style: normal;


    #CollapsiblePanel2 .CollapsiblePanelContent strong strong em span {

    text-align: justify;


    #CollapsiblePanel2 .CollapsiblePanelContent strong strong em span {

    text-align: center;


    #CollapsiblePanel2 .CollapsiblePanelContent strong strong em span {

    font-size: 16px;


    #CollapsiblePanel2 .CollapsiblePanelContent strong strong em span {

    font-weight: bold;


    #CollapsiblePanel2 .CollapsiblePanelContent strong strong em span {

    font-weight: normal;



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    .style21 {color: #333333; }

    .style22 {color: #666666}

    .style23 {color: #666666; font-weight: bold; }





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    Dear visitor,

    On behalf of all members and friends

    of GLPN-Foundation,I warmly welcome you to the world of peace. Peace itself

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    is a crosscutting issue,inter-disciplinary matter which also touches all

    corners of our daily lives.

    Peace is a pivotal pillar of

    humanity, and humanity without peace, is a death in fact.In the effort to

    tackle the endless conflict in the world today,lets start it with a small

    scale, from our hearts, family, community, society,and then contribute to the

    whole world unanimously.

    Even though is tough task, but

    better try and see.I am sure that the results will be positive,if we do that

    from the bottom of heart,with good will, and tackle effectively the beneath

    of the issue,by responding non-violently to the basic needs of parties.

    GLPN is committed to contribute to

    the appeal for peace in the world,in order to immortalize the great ideas of

    the greater peace pioneers like Martin Luther King, H.E Nelson Mandela,

    Mahatma Gandhi, Pr.Johan Galtung and others,and teach about peace and

    incorporate it in our schools from the primary schoolsup to university levels

    for a bright and peaceful world of tomorrow.No doubt, you are among those who

    like peace and peaceful conflict transformation,the only pathway leads to a

    more desirable human condition.If so, the time has come for you and I to make

    peace instead of war,and transform conflict towards sustainable

    development.In this regard, you can contribute in one way or another to peace

    by joining us,or helping us with whatsoever you have and however you can.

    You are cordially welcome !May peace

    prevail in the world ! Warmly welcome to GLPN Foundation.

    Dr.Claude Shema-Rutagengwa

    (GLPN founder)

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    summer school now on! Click For Info

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    -H.E Nelson Mandela

    Site Search

    Search Google

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    mso-bidi-font-size:="" mso-fareast-font-family:="" ?times="" roman?;="" mso-

    fareast-language:="" times="" new="" mso-ansi-language:="" no-bok;="" ar-sa?

    ="" mso-bidi-language:="" de;="" 12.0pt;=""




    politics without principle;

    pleasure without conscience;

    wealth without work;

    knowledge without character;

    business without morality;

    science without humanity,

    and worship without sacrifice.

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    Do you have any experience,

    skills in peace&conflict studies,human


    psychology, laws, activism,

    sustainable development,

    gender/youth and child issues or any other

    simillar fields and willing to work with us as a volunteer,

    expert or member? Please,kindly join us,

    and we will be more than happy to work together

    with you.

    Just contact us


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    Greak Lakes Peace Network.

    Designed by Chika Onyenezi

    All right Reserved.

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