Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015;8(10):12678-12687www.ijcep.com /ISSN:1936-2625/IJCEP0013124
Original ArticleDifferentially expressed genes and microRNAs in bladder carcinoma cell line 5637 and T24 detected by RNA sequencing
Xiaoyuan Xu1, Xinping Wang1, Bin Fu2, Lirong Meng3, Bin Lang3
1Key laboratory of System Bio-medicine of Jiangxi Province, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang 332000, China; 2Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China; 3School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao, China
Received July 19, 2015; Accepted August 25, 2015; Epub October 1, 2015; Published October 15, 2015
Abstract: Bladder carcinoma is a common malignancy with complicated treatment methods due to its heterogene-ity. In this study, we focused on two bladder carcinoma cell lines, 5637 and T24, to compare their differences from the transcriptome level. RNA sequencing was used to generate the transcriptome data of the two cell line and the control cell line SV-HUC-1. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) of cell line 5637 and T24 were screened. Their annotation and analyses were conducted using gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) to predict their possible functions and pathways involved. Number of DEGs specific in cell line 5637, specific in cell line T24 and in both the cell lines was 880, 1512 and 1412, respectively. Number of differentially expressed miRNAs of the three categories was 7, 20 and 18, respec-tively. These DEGs and miRNAs participated in different biological processes and pathways, among which some were further verified by qRT-PCR. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including STAT1, TMEM173 and OAS3, were down-regulated in cell line 5637 compared to SV-HUC-1. NDOR1 and NDUFV1, genes related to mitochondrial me-tabolism, were up-regulated in cell line T24. miR-4257, miR-6733 and gene WNT9A and WNT10A were down-regu-lated in both the cell lines. Thus cell line 5637 might have lower chemotherapy resistance while T24 might exhibit abnormal mitochondrial metabolism. These results uncovered major differences between cell line 5637 and T24, which indicated the two cell lines, should be selectively used in bladder carcinoma research.
Keywords: Bladder carcinoma, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), microRNAs (miRNAs), chemotherapy resis-tance, mitochondrial metabolism
Bladder carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies with an increasing incidence in the world . The majority of the bladder carci-noma patients are non-muscle-invasive cancer . Though surgical cystectomies with adjuvant chemotherapy are efficient to primary bladder carcinoma , recurrence has occurred in about 70% of patients and 10-40% of the cases have developed to metastatic diseases ulti-mately . Moreover, a large proportion of advances bladder carcinoma patients are resistant to chemotherapy , characterized by some gene signatures, such as interferon-stim-ulated genes (ISGs) [6, 7]. Heterogeneity is a characteristic of bladder carcinoma, which means metastasis, treatment response, rela-
pse and clinical outcomes may vary remarkably among different individuals [8-10]. So a better understanding of biological properties and the molecular mechanisms of individual cancer cells is necessary and urgent.
DNA and RNA microarrays and sequencing have been widely used to identify mutations in blad-der carcinoma genomic regions and differen-tially expressed genes [11, 12]. Particularly, RNA sequencing has provided a reliable, quan-titative and sensitive method for studying tran-scriptome and microRNAs (miRNAs) . The development of sequencing methods has facili-tated studies on genome and transcriptome landscapes and genetic aberrations of chroma-tin remodeling genes in bladder carcinoma [10, 14].
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Both the non-muscle-invasive bladder carcino-ma cell line 5637 and the muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma cell line T24 have been used in numerous studies. A previous genomic study has compared these cell lines from their gene gains and losses, and pathways and bio-logical functions of the altered genes . But the transcriptome profiles of these cell lines are still unclear. Out study aimed at comparing cell line 5637 and T24 based on their transcrip-tome information. Their transcriptomes were sequenced using Illumina high-throughput sequencing and the data were analyzed with bioinformatics methods, using a normal blad-der cell line SV-HUC-1 as the control. We focused on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs in these cell lines and predicted their functions and pathways involved. Some DEGs and miR-NAs that might participate in cancer-related functions and pathways were further analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results might guide the differential treatments of bladder carcinoma subtypes.
Materials and methods
The human bladder carcinoma cell lines 5637 and T24, and the human uroepithelial cell line SV-HUC-1 were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). The cells were cultured in Dulbeccos Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM, Sigma-Aldrich, Shang- hai, China) medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, HyClone, Logan, Utah, USA) in humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2 at 37C.
RNA extraction and sequencing
Total RNAs from each cell sample were extract-ed by Trizol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manuals. DNA contamination was removed by DNase I (Invitrogen) and exam-ined by agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE). The quality and quantity of RNA samples were detected by AGE and NanoDrop 2000 (Thermo Scientific, Wilmington, DE, USA). mRNAs were
Table 1. Primers used in qRT-PCRPrimers Sequences (5 to 3)-actin-forward TCACCCTCTCTGTGCCCATCTACGA-actin-reverse CAGCGGAACCGCTCATTGCCAATGGSTAT1-forward CAGCTTGACTCAAAATTCCTGGASTAT1-reverse TGAAGATTACGCTTGCTTTTCCTTMEM173-forward CCAGAGCACACTCTCCGGTATMEM173-reverse CGCATTTGGGAGGGAGTAGTAOAS3-forward GAAGGAGTTCGTAGAGAAGGCGOAS3-reverse CCCTTGACAGTTTTCAGCACCU6 snRNA-forward CTCGCTTCGGCAGCACAU6 snRNA-reverse AACGCTTCACGAATTTGCGTUni-PCR AGTGCGAACTGTGGCGATRT-Stem GTCGTATCCAGTGCGAACTGTGGCGATCGGTACGGG CTACACTCGGCAATTGCACTGGATACGACmiR-6733-5p-PCR GGTGGGAAAGACAAACTCAGmiR-6733-5p-RT GTCGTATCCAGTGCGAACTGTGGCGATCGGTACGGGCTACACTCGGCAATTGCACTGGATACGACAACTmiR-4257-PCR GGCCAGAGGTGGGGACTmiR-4257-RT GTCGTATCCAGTGCGAACTGTGGCGATCGGTACGGGCTACACTCGGCAATTGCACTGGATACGACNDOR1-forward CTCCTACCCGGTGGTGAATCTNDOR1-reverse GCAAAGTCCATCTGACAGAGGNDUFV1-forward AGGATGAAGACCGGATTTTCACNDUFV1-reverse CAGTCACCTCGACTCAGGGAWNT9A-forward GACTGCCTTCCTCTATGCCWNT9A-reverse AGGTCGGGTGCCTCATCWNT10A-forward GGCAACCCGTCAGTCTWNT10A-reverse CATTCCCCACCTCCCATCT
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enriched by oligo(dT) and then digested by RNase III (Invitrogen) into fragments of about 200 nt. The library was constructed using TruSeq Stranded mRNA HT Sample Prep Kit (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). As to the miRNA sequencing, miRNAs were isolated and adapt-ers were added. Library was constructed using TruSeq Small RNA Library Preparation Kits (Illumina). Sequencing was performed by HiseqTM 2000 Sequencing System (Illumina).
Clean reads were generated by removing the low-quality reads and adapters. Assembly was conducted using Trinity . The sequencing quality was analyzed by RSeQC  and the quality was acceptable if Q20 was more than 95%. Annotation was performed using DAVID
Bioinformatics Resources 6.7 [17, 18] to describe the gene ontology (GO)  and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway . miRNAs were blast to miRBase 21 (http://www.mirbase.org/). DEGs and miR-NAs were selected according to the threshold within which the absolute value of log2fold-change (log2FC) is more than 1.00 . False discovery rate (FDR) control method was used to correct the P values  and terms with FDR < 0.05 were considered significant. Then reads per kilobase per million mapped reads (RPKM) was used to indicate the gene expression levels . The pathways were analyzed by Fishers exact test and 2 test. FDR < 0.05 was set as the threshold of significance.
qRT-PCR and statistical analysis
The complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of each sample for qRT-PCR analysis were synthesized from 1 g RNAs using PrimeScript RT-PCR Kit (TaKaRa, Dalian, China). qRT-PCR was conduct-ed on LightCycler 480 (Roche Applied Science, Shanghai, China) with cDNAs of 50 ng (Table 1) and specific primers in the reaction system. All the experiments were performed in triplicate. The relative expression level of genes and miR-NAs was normalized by -actin and U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), respectively. Data was calculated by 2-Ct method and analyzed by Students t-test. Differences were considered significant if P < 0.05. Statistical analyses were performed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 20 software (IBM, New York, USA).
DEGs and miRNAs in cell line 5637 and T24
The qualities of the three sequenced transcrip-tomes were all acceptable and a total of 12 Gb raw data were obtained, suggesting the RNA-sequencing data were qualified for further anal-yses. When searching for the DEGs of cell line 5637 and T24 compared to the control cell line SV-HUC-1, we categorized DEGs into three groups: DEGs specific to cell line 5637, DEGs specific to cell line T24 and DEGs found in both the cell lines (including the up-regulated and the down-regulated genes). Results showed that the DEG numbers of the three ca