73
Table of Contents Declaration.................................................... 3 Dedication..................................................... 4 List of Acronyms and Abbreviations.............................5 Abstract....................................................... 6 Chapter 1...................................................... 6 INTRODUCTION................................................... 6 1.1 Background................................................6 1.2 Statement of Research.....................................9 1.3 Research Problem..........................................9 1.4 Significance of the Study.................................9 1.5 Research Objectives......................................10 1.6 Scope of the Study.......................................10 1.7 Methodology..............................................11 1.8 Limitations..............................................13 1.9 Scheme of the report:....................................13 Chapter 2..................................................... 14 Literature Review............................................. 14 2.1 Personality..............................................14 2.2 Contextual Performance...................................21 2.6 Role of personality types and OCB........................21 2.7 Theoretical framework.....................................22 2.7.1 Variables..............................................22 CHAPTER 3..................................................... 24 Methodology................................................... 24 3.1 Intention of the study...................................24 3.2 Research understanding...................................24 3.3 Data.....................................................24 3.4 Data tool................................................25

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Table of ContentsDeclaration3Dedication4List of Acronyms and Abbreviations5Abstract6Chapter 16INTRODUCTION6

11 Background612 Statement of Research913 Research Problem914 Significance of the Study915 Research Objectives1016 Scope of the Study1017 Methodology1118 Limitations1319 Scheme of the report13

Chapter 214Literature Review14

21 Personality1422 Contextual Performance2126 Role of personality types and OCB21

27 Theoretical framework22271 Variables22

CHAPTER 324Methodology24

31 Intention of the study2432 Research understanding2433 Data2434 Data tool2535 Population2536 Sample size2537 Sampling Technique2538 Process of data26

CHAPTER 427

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS27Figure 4127Figure 4228Figure 4329Figure 4430Figure 4531Figure 4632Figure 4733Figure 4834Figure 4934Figure 41035Figure 41136Figure 41237Figure 41338Figure 41439Figure 41540Figure 41641Figure 41742Figure 41843Figure 41944Figure 42045Figure 42146Chapter 547Conclusion and recommendation47

51 DISCUSSION4752 CONCLUSION4853 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK48

References50Appendices54

Declaration

I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am

aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has

the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions

Studentrsquos Name ____________________

Date _____________________________

Dedication

Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON

Abstract

An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five

personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated

in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related

items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each

included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to

organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship

between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the

data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a

positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience

conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were

accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a

negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was

concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational

citizenship behavior

Chapter 1INTRODUCTION

11 Background

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a distinctive characteristic of individual

while doing work This concept was first explained in the early 1980s According to

Organs (1988) definition ldquoan individual behavior that is flexible and canrsquot be

recognized by the formal reward system and at the aggregate level adds to the

performance of an organization This special behavior has become a separate field in

the context of an organization and a lot of people has started working on it

The following research deals with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) that is a

type of Organizational behavior that goes beyond open role prospect This research is

about OCB because Organizational Behavior has a strong link to psychology which is a

very interesting field of science because it deals with something which is far away from

the vision of a person (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006)

Reviewing literature and different researches about OCB let the researcher to be able to

work on one of the (Kasper and Muhlbacher 2002) components of an organization-

meaning those people who are part of an organization and gives a link to the economic

and psychological views One of the most important questions regarding OCB ldquoWhy

employees show devotion to their work and go beyond what are the requirements of

their job descriptionsrdquo

According to Organ (1988 p4 cited in Podsakoff et al 2000 p 513) OCB is an

ldquoindividual behavior that is discretionary not directly or explicitly recognized by the

formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective

functioning of the organizationrdquo

Referring to the definition an OCB promotes the ldquowell-organized and successful

functioning of the organizationrdquo (Organ 1988) This effect can only be understood

through the observation of behavior of a lot of people Usually a single incidence of

OCB is the gesture of one person to another person such as helping a partner Such

actions are not recognized by others specially supervisors donrsquot notice these actions

(Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006)

Formal reward systems never take into consideration the actions of a co-worker which

he shows for his partner that is helping another person in his work

Thus OCB becomes part of an individual behavior and on the whole can be beneficial

to the organization OCB in organizational activities is understandable as OCB has a

positive affects on organizationrsquos efficiency and work performance

The loyalty of individual OCB results in the increased performance of an organization

which is proved by different studies (Podsakoff and Mackenzie 1997)

Gathering all the results from different researches Podsakoff and Mackenzie (1997)

found that there is strong support for fact that OCB plays a key role in the performance

of an organization As OCB has a positive effect on the performance of an organization

but still there is no reward given for it in physical terms

The following conclusion can be drawn from the above mentioned aspects of OCB if it

is assumed that managers are able to influence OCB the personality of a person will be

influenced and companies will start hiring person who is in favor of OCB thus

providing favorable conditions to workers Keeping in view the part of the definition

which reveal that OCB plays a key role in the performance of an organization it can be

concluded that an organization will perform better if people are hired who are most

likely engaged in OCB

12 Statement of Research

The association of personality types and organizational citizenship behavior

This research mainly focus will be on the factor to find the personality factor which is

related to OCB

13 Research Problem

To find out the relationship among the fig five personality factors and the

Organizational citizenship behavior

14 Significance of the Study

Human resource management is a very dynamic field Researches add new knowledge

to the present concept and thought regarding employeersquos factor which are of great

importance to not only different organizations but to the field of HRM Studying

personality types and their relationship organizational citizenship behavior will increase

and add the present knowledge of HRM As NGO s are hiring a lot of employees

while providing benefits to the community through their services may be this study

will highlight something new which can be of interest and importance for the NGO

sector while hiring and recruiting individuals for their organization This research study

is conducted to find out the personality factor which has a relationship with OCB in

NGO (Non-Government Organizations) workers who are a part of HR department

The study is conducted to find out the relationship of personality factors on HR

practices that can affect the performance of an employee The findings gathered from

research will help to enhance the performance of employees in NGOs

15 Research Objectives

1 To conclude whether personality factors (big five personality) of employees

have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior in NGO

operating in Peshawar

16 Scope of the Study

NGO offices operating in university town Peshawar are included as the scope of this

research The HR department of five NGO s located in university town Peshawar

represents the sample size which will be used for the research Data will be collected

through questionnaire which will be analyzed to come up with any conclusion The

following NGO will be selected for data collection

1) World food program

2) International rescue committee

3) ICRC

4) Relief international

5) Chef international

17 Methodology

171 Personality test

1711 Measures

First of all the researcher will find out the personality types of employees by utilizing

the personality test of 150 employees working in NGOs the personality test

questionnaire will be distributed to find out their respective personality and then a

questionnaire will be distributed regarding OCB In order to find out their personality

Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 and the questions were based on Likert scale

having an option of five using a 5-point Likert scale ie 1 for strongly disagree and 5

for strongly agree Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits

1712 Data

Primary data collection in the research was carried through

Questionnaires

The employees of the organization were main source of data collection

The respondents provide data required for the research through the questioners

which were filled by them in which structured questions were asked about their

different aspects of personality such as their attitude and perception about different

things The questionnaire was developed from

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 2: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS27Figure 4127Figure 4228Figure 4329Figure 4430Figure 4531Figure 4632Figure 4733Figure 4834Figure 4934Figure 41035Figure 41136Figure 41237Figure 41338Figure 41439Figure 41540Figure 41641Figure 41742Figure 41843Figure 41944Figure 42045Figure 42146Chapter 547Conclusion and recommendation47

51 DISCUSSION4752 CONCLUSION4853 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK48

References50Appendices54

Declaration

I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am

aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has

the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions

Studentrsquos Name ____________________

Date _____________________________

Dedication

Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON

Abstract

An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five

personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated

in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related

items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each

included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to

organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship

between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the

data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a

positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience

conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were

accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a

negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was

concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational

citizenship behavior

Chapter 1INTRODUCTION

11 Background

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a distinctive characteristic of individual

while doing work This concept was first explained in the early 1980s According to

Organs (1988) definition ldquoan individual behavior that is flexible and canrsquot be

recognized by the formal reward system and at the aggregate level adds to the

performance of an organization This special behavior has become a separate field in

the context of an organization and a lot of people has started working on it

The following research deals with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) that is a

type of Organizational behavior that goes beyond open role prospect This research is

about OCB because Organizational Behavior has a strong link to psychology which is a

very interesting field of science because it deals with something which is far away from

the vision of a person (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006)

Reviewing literature and different researches about OCB let the researcher to be able to

work on one of the (Kasper and Muhlbacher 2002) components of an organization-

meaning those people who are part of an organization and gives a link to the economic

and psychological views One of the most important questions regarding OCB ldquoWhy

employees show devotion to their work and go beyond what are the requirements of

their job descriptionsrdquo

According to Organ (1988 p4 cited in Podsakoff et al 2000 p 513) OCB is an

ldquoindividual behavior that is discretionary not directly or explicitly recognized by the

formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective

functioning of the organizationrdquo

Referring to the definition an OCB promotes the ldquowell-organized and successful

functioning of the organizationrdquo (Organ 1988) This effect can only be understood

through the observation of behavior of a lot of people Usually a single incidence of

OCB is the gesture of one person to another person such as helping a partner Such

actions are not recognized by others specially supervisors donrsquot notice these actions

(Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006)

Formal reward systems never take into consideration the actions of a co-worker which

he shows for his partner that is helping another person in his work

Thus OCB becomes part of an individual behavior and on the whole can be beneficial

to the organization OCB in organizational activities is understandable as OCB has a

positive affects on organizationrsquos efficiency and work performance

The loyalty of individual OCB results in the increased performance of an organization

which is proved by different studies (Podsakoff and Mackenzie 1997)

Gathering all the results from different researches Podsakoff and Mackenzie (1997)

found that there is strong support for fact that OCB plays a key role in the performance

of an organization As OCB has a positive effect on the performance of an organization

but still there is no reward given for it in physical terms

The following conclusion can be drawn from the above mentioned aspects of OCB if it

is assumed that managers are able to influence OCB the personality of a person will be

influenced and companies will start hiring person who is in favor of OCB thus

providing favorable conditions to workers Keeping in view the part of the definition

which reveal that OCB plays a key role in the performance of an organization it can be

concluded that an organization will perform better if people are hired who are most

likely engaged in OCB

12 Statement of Research

The association of personality types and organizational citizenship behavior

This research mainly focus will be on the factor to find the personality factor which is

related to OCB

13 Research Problem

To find out the relationship among the fig five personality factors and the

Organizational citizenship behavior

14 Significance of the Study

Human resource management is a very dynamic field Researches add new knowledge

to the present concept and thought regarding employeersquos factor which are of great

importance to not only different organizations but to the field of HRM Studying

personality types and their relationship organizational citizenship behavior will increase

and add the present knowledge of HRM As NGO s are hiring a lot of employees

while providing benefits to the community through their services may be this study

will highlight something new which can be of interest and importance for the NGO

sector while hiring and recruiting individuals for their organization This research study

is conducted to find out the personality factor which has a relationship with OCB in

NGO (Non-Government Organizations) workers who are a part of HR department

The study is conducted to find out the relationship of personality factors on HR

practices that can affect the performance of an employee The findings gathered from

research will help to enhance the performance of employees in NGOs

15 Research Objectives

1 To conclude whether personality factors (big five personality) of employees

have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior in NGO

operating in Peshawar

16 Scope of the Study

NGO offices operating in university town Peshawar are included as the scope of this

research The HR department of five NGO s located in university town Peshawar

represents the sample size which will be used for the research Data will be collected

through questionnaire which will be analyzed to come up with any conclusion The

following NGO will be selected for data collection

1) World food program

2) International rescue committee

3) ICRC

4) Relief international

5) Chef international

17 Methodology

171 Personality test

1711 Measures

First of all the researcher will find out the personality types of employees by utilizing

the personality test of 150 employees working in NGOs the personality test

questionnaire will be distributed to find out their respective personality and then a

questionnaire will be distributed regarding OCB In order to find out their personality

Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 and the questions were based on Likert scale

having an option of five using a 5-point Likert scale ie 1 for strongly disagree and 5

for strongly agree Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits

1712 Data

Primary data collection in the research was carried through

Questionnaires

The employees of the organization were main source of data collection

The respondents provide data required for the research through the questioners

which were filled by them in which structured questions were asked about their

different aspects of personality such as their attitude and perception about different

things The questionnaire was developed from

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 3: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

Declaration

I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am

aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has

the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions

Studentrsquos Name ____________________

Date _____________________________

Dedication

Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON

Abstract

An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five

personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated

in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related

items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each

included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to

organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship

between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the

data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a

positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience

conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were

accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a

negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was

concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational

citizenship behavior

Chapter 1INTRODUCTION

11 Background

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a distinctive characteristic of individual

while doing work This concept was first explained in the early 1980s According to

Organs (1988) definition ldquoan individual behavior that is flexible and canrsquot be

recognized by the formal reward system and at the aggregate level adds to the

performance of an organization This special behavior has become a separate field in

the context of an organization and a lot of people has started working on it

The following research deals with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) that is a

type of Organizational behavior that goes beyond open role prospect This research is

about OCB because Organizational Behavior has a strong link to psychology which is a

very interesting field of science because it deals with something which is far away from

the vision of a person (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006)

Reviewing literature and different researches about OCB let the researcher to be able to

work on one of the (Kasper and Muhlbacher 2002) components of an organization-

meaning those people who are part of an organization and gives a link to the economic

and psychological views One of the most important questions regarding OCB ldquoWhy

employees show devotion to their work and go beyond what are the requirements of

their job descriptionsrdquo

According to Organ (1988 p4 cited in Podsakoff et al 2000 p 513) OCB is an

ldquoindividual behavior that is discretionary not directly or explicitly recognized by the

formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective

functioning of the organizationrdquo

Referring to the definition an OCB promotes the ldquowell-organized and successful

functioning of the organizationrdquo (Organ 1988) This effect can only be understood

through the observation of behavior of a lot of people Usually a single incidence of

OCB is the gesture of one person to another person such as helping a partner Such

actions are not recognized by others specially supervisors donrsquot notice these actions

(Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006)

Formal reward systems never take into consideration the actions of a co-worker which

he shows for his partner that is helping another person in his work

Thus OCB becomes part of an individual behavior and on the whole can be beneficial

to the organization OCB in organizational activities is understandable as OCB has a

positive affects on organizationrsquos efficiency and work performance

The loyalty of individual OCB results in the increased performance of an organization

which is proved by different studies (Podsakoff and Mackenzie 1997)

Gathering all the results from different researches Podsakoff and Mackenzie (1997)

found that there is strong support for fact that OCB plays a key role in the performance

of an organization As OCB has a positive effect on the performance of an organization

but still there is no reward given for it in physical terms

The following conclusion can be drawn from the above mentioned aspects of OCB if it

is assumed that managers are able to influence OCB the personality of a person will be

influenced and companies will start hiring person who is in favor of OCB thus

providing favorable conditions to workers Keeping in view the part of the definition

which reveal that OCB plays a key role in the performance of an organization it can be

concluded that an organization will perform better if people are hired who are most

likely engaged in OCB

12 Statement of Research

The association of personality types and organizational citizenship behavior

This research mainly focus will be on the factor to find the personality factor which is

related to OCB

13 Research Problem

To find out the relationship among the fig five personality factors and the

Organizational citizenship behavior

14 Significance of the Study

Human resource management is a very dynamic field Researches add new knowledge

to the present concept and thought regarding employeersquos factor which are of great

importance to not only different organizations but to the field of HRM Studying

personality types and their relationship organizational citizenship behavior will increase

and add the present knowledge of HRM As NGO s are hiring a lot of employees

while providing benefits to the community through their services may be this study

will highlight something new which can be of interest and importance for the NGO

sector while hiring and recruiting individuals for their organization This research study

is conducted to find out the personality factor which has a relationship with OCB in

NGO (Non-Government Organizations) workers who are a part of HR department

The study is conducted to find out the relationship of personality factors on HR

practices that can affect the performance of an employee The findings gathered from

research will help to enhance the performance of employees in NGOs

15 Research Objectives

1 To conclude whether personality factors (big five personality) of employees

have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior in NGO

operating in Peshawar

16 Scope of the Study

NGO offices operating in university town Peshawar are included as the scope of this

research The HR department of five NGO s located in university town Peshawar

represents the sample size which will be used for the research Data will be collected

through questionnaire which will be analyzed to come up with any conclusion The

following NGO will be selected for data collection

1) World food program

2) International rescue committee

3) ICRC

4) Relief international

5) Chef international

17 Methodology

171 Personality test

1711 Measures

First of all the researcher will find out the personality types of employees by utilizing

the personality test of 150 employees working in NGOs the personality test

questionnaire will be distributed to find out their respective personality and then a

questionnaire will be distributed regarding OCB In order to find out their personality

Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 and the questions were based on Likert scale

having an option of five using a 5-point Likert scale ie 1 for strongly disagree and 5

for strongly agree Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits

1712 Data

Primary data collection in the research was carried through

Questionnaires

The employees of the organization were main source of data collection

The respondents provide data required for the research through the questioners

which were filled by them in which structured questions were asked about their

different aspects of personality such as their attitude and perception about different

things The questionnaire was developed from

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 4: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

Dedication

Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON

Abstract

An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five

personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated

in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related

items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each

included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to

organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship

between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the

data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a

positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience

conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were

accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a

negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was

concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational

citizenship behavior

Chapter 1INTRODUCTION

11 Background

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a distinctive characteristic of individual

while doing work This concept was first explained in the early 1980s According to

Organs (1988) definition ldquoan individual behavior that is flexible and canrsquot be

recognized by the formal reward system and at the aggregate level adds to the

performance of an organization This special behavior has become a separate field in

the context of an organization and a lot of people has started working on it

The following research deals with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) that is a

type of Organizational behavior that goes beyond open role prospect This research is

about OCB because Organizational Behavior has a strong link to psychology which is a

very interesting field of science because it deals with something which is far away from

the vision of a person (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006)

Reviewing literature and different researches about OCB let the researcher to be able to

work on one of the (Kasper and Muhlbacher 2002) components of an organization-

meaning those people who are part of an organization and gives a link to the economic

and psychological views One of the most important questions regarding OCB ldquoWhy

employees show devotion to their work and go beyond what are the requirements of

their job descriptionsrdquo

According to Organ (1988 p4 cited in Podsakoff et al 2000 p 513) OCB is an

ldquoindividual behavior that is discretionary not directly or explicitly recognized by the

formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective

functioning of the organizationrdquo

Referring to the definition an OCB promotes the ldquowell-organized and successful

functioning of the organizationrdquo (Organ 1988) This effect can only be understood

through the observation of behavior of a lot of people Usually a single incidence of

OCB is the gesture of one person to another person such as helping a partner Such

actions are not recognized by others specially supervisors donrsquot notice these actions

(Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006)

Formal reward systems never take into consideration the actions of a co-worker which

he shows for his partner that is helping another person in his work

Thus OCB becomes part of an individual behavior and on the whole can be beneficial

to the organization OCB in organizational activities is understandable as OCB has a

positive affects on organizationrsquos efficiency and work performance

The loyalty of individual OCB results in the increased performance of an organization

which is proved by different studies (Podsakoff and Mackenzie 1997)

Gathering all the results from different researches Podsakoff and Mackenzie (1997)

found that there is strong support for fact that OCB plays a key role in the performance

of an organization As OCB has a positive effect on the performance of an organization

but still there is no reward given for it in physical terms

The following conclusion can be drawn from the above mentioned aspects of OCB if it

is assumed that managers are able to influence OCB the personality of a person will be

influenced and companies will start hiring person who is in favor of OCB thus

providing favorable conditions to workers Keeping in view the part of the definition

which reveal that OCB plays a key role in the performance of an organization it can be

concluded that an organization will perform better if people are hired who are most

likely engaged in OCB

12 Statement of Research

The association of personality types and organizational citizenship behavior

This research mainly focus will be on the factor to find the personality factor which is

related to OCB

13 Research Problem

To find out the relationship among the fig five personality factors and the

Organizational citizenship behavior

14 Significance of the Study

Human resource management is a very dynamic field Researches add new knowledge

to the present concept and thought regarding employeersquos factor which are of great

importance to not only different organizations but to the field of HRM Studying

personality types and their relationship organizational citizenship behavior will increase

and add the present knowledge of HRM As NGO s are hiring a lot of employees

while providing benefits to the community through their services may be this study

will highlight something new which can be of interest and importance for the NGO

sector while hiring and recruiting individuals for their organization This research study

is conducted to find out the personality factor which has a relationship with OCB in

NGO (Non-Government Organizations) workers who are a part of HR department

The study is conducted to find out the relationship of personality factors on HR

practices that can affect the performance of an employee The findings gathered from

research will help to enhance the performance of employees in NGOs

15 Research Objectives

1 To conclude whether personality factors (big five personality) of employees

have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior in NGO

operating in Peshawar

16 Scope of the Study

NGO offices operating in university town Peshawar are included as the scope of this

research The HR department of five NGO s located in university town Peshawar

represents the sample size which will be used for the research Data will be collected

through questionnaire which will be analyzed to come up with any conclusion The

following NGO will be selected for data collection

1) World food program

2) International rescue committee

3) ICRC

4) Relief international

5) Chef international

17 Methodology

171 Personality test

1711 Measures

First of all the researcher will find out the personality types of employees by utilizing

the personality test of 150 employees working in NGOs the personality test

questionnaire will be distributed to find out their respective personality and then a

questionnaire will be distributed regarding OCB In order to find out their personality

Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 and the questions were based on Likert scale

having an option of five using a 5-point Likert scale ie 1 for strongly disagree and 5

for strongly agree Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits

1712 Data

Primary data collection in the research was carried through

Questionnaires

The employees of the organization were main source of data collection

The respondents provide data required for the research through the questioners

which were filled by them in which structured questions were asked about their

different aspects of personality such as their attitude and perception about different

things The questionnaire was developed from

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 5: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON

Abstract

An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five

personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated

in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related

items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each

included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to

organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship

between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the

data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a

positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience

conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were

accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a

negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was

concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational

citizenship behavior

Chapter 1INTRODUCTION

11 Background

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a distinctive characteristic of individual

while doing work This concept was first explained in the early 1980s According to

Organs (1988) definition ldquoan individual behavior that is flexible and canrsquot be

recognized by the formal reward system and at the aggregate level adds to the

performance of an organization This special behavior has become a separate field in

the context of an organization and a lot of people has started working on it

The following research deals with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) that is a

type of Organizational behavior that goes beyond open role prospect This research is

about OCB because Organizational Behavior has a strong link to psychology which is a

very interesting field of science because it deals with something which is far away from

the vision of a person (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006)

Reviewing literature and different researches about OCB let the researcher to be able to

work on one of the (Kasper and Muhlbacher 2002) components of an organization-

meaning those people who are part of an organization and gives a link to the economic

and psychological views One of the most important questions regarding OCB ldquoWhy

employees show devotion to their work and go beyond what are the requirements of

their job descriptionsrdquo

According to Organ (1988 p4 cited in Podsakoff et al 2000 p 513) OCB is an

ldquoindividual behavior that is discretionary not directly or explicitly recognized by the

formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective

functioning of the organizationrdquo

Referring to the definition an OCB promotes the ldquowell-organized and successful

functioning of the organizationrdquo (Organ 1988) This effect can only be understood

through the observation of behavior of a lot of people Usually a single incidence of

OCB is the gesture of one person to another person such as helping a partner Such

actions are not recognized by others specially supervisors donrsquot notice these actions

(Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006)

Formal reward systems never take into consideration the actions of a co-worker which

he shows for his partner that is helping another person in his work

Thus OCB becomes part of an individual behavior and on the whole can be beneficial

to the organization OCB in organizational activities is understandable as OCB has a

positive affects on organizationrsquos efficiency and work performance

The loyalty of individual OCB results in the increased performance of an organization

which is proved by different studies (Podsakoff and Mackenzie 1997)

Gathering all the results from different researches Podsakoff and Mackenzie (1997)

found that there is strong support for fact that OCB plays a key role in the performance

of an organization As OCB has a positive effect on the performance of an organization

but still there is no reward given for it in physical terms

The following conclusion can be drawn from the above mentioned aspects of OCB if it

is assumed that managers are able to influence OCB the personality of a person will be

influenced and companies will start hiring person who is in favor of OCB thus

providing favorable conditions to workers Keeping in view the part of the definition

which reveal that OCB plays a key role in the performance of an organization it can be

concluded that an organization will perform better if people are hired who are most

likely engaged in OCB

12 Statement of Research

The association of personality types and organizational citizenship behavior

This research mainly focus will be on the factor to find the personality factor which is

related to OCB

13 Research Problem

To find out the relationship among the fig five personality factors and the

Organizational citizenship behavior

14 Significance of the Study

Human resource management is a very dynamic field Researches add new knowledge

to the present concept and thought regarding employeersquos factor which are of great

importance to not only different organizations but to the field of HRM Studying

personality types and their relationship organizational citizenship behavior will increase

and add the present knowledge of HRM As NGO s are hiring a lot of employees

while providing benefits to the community through their services may be this study

will highlight something new which can be of interest and importance for the NGO

sector while hiring and recruiting individuals for their organization This research study

is conducted to find out the personality factor which has a relationship with OCB in

NGO (Non-Government Organizations) workers who are a part of HR department

The study is conducted to find out the relationship of personality factors on HR

practices that can affect the performance of an employee The findings gathered from

research will help to enhance the performance of employees in NGOs

15 Research Objectives

1 To conclude whether personality factors (big five personality) of employees

have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior in NGO

operating in Peshawar

16 Scope of the Study

NGO offices operating in university town Peshawar are included as the scope of this

research The HR department of five NGO s located in university town Peshawar

represents the sample size which will be used for the research Data will be collected

through questionnaire which will be analyzed to come up with any conclusion The

following NGO will be selected for data collection

1) World food program

2) International rescue committee

3) ICRC

4) Relief international

5) Chef international

17 Methodology

171 Personality test

1711 Measures

First of all the researcher will find out the personality types of employees by utilizing

the personality test of 150 employees working in NGOs the personality test

questionnaire will be distributed to find out their respective personality and then a

questionnaire will be distributed regarding OCB In order to find out their personality

Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 and the questions were based on Likert scale

having an option of five using a 5-point Likert scale ie 1 for strongly disagree and 5

for strongly agree Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits

1712 Data

Primary data collection in the research was carried through

Questionnaires

The employees of the organization were main source of data collection

The respondents provide data required for the research through the questioners

which were filled by them in which structured questions were asked about their

different aspects of personality such as their attitude and perception about different

things The questionnaire was developed from

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 6: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

Abstract

An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five

personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated

in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related

items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each

included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to

organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship

between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the

data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a

positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience

conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were

accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a

negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was

concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational

citizenship behavior

Chapter 1INTRODUCTION

11 Background

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a distinctive characteristic of individual

while doing work This concept was first explained in the early 1980s According to

Organs (1988) definition ldquoan individual behavior that is flexible and canrsquot be

recognized by the formal reward system and at the aggregate level adds to the

performance of an organization This special behavior has become a separate field in

the context of an organization and a lot of people has started working on it

The following research deals with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) that is a

type of Organizational behavior that goes beyond open role prospect This research is

about OCB because Organizational Behavior has a strong link to psychology which is a

very interesting field of science because it deals with something which is far away from

the vision of a person (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006)

Reviewing literature and different researches about OCB let the researcher to be able to

work on one of the (Kasper and Muhlbacher 2002) components of an organization-

meaning those people who are part of an organization and gives a link to the economic

and psychological views One of the most important questions regarding OCB ldquoWhy

employees show devotion to their work and go beyond what are the requirements of

their job descriptionsrdquo

According to Organ (1988 p4 cited in Podsakoff et al 2000 p 513) OCB is an

ldquoindividual behavior that is discretionary not directly or explicitly recognized by the

formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective

functioning of the organizationrdquo

Referring to the definition an OCB promotes the ldquowell-organized and successful

functioning of the organizationrdquo (Organ 1988) This effect can only be understood

through the observation of behavior of a lot of people Usually a single incidence of

OCB is the gesture of one person to another person such as helping a partner Such

actions are not recognized by others specially supervisors donrsquot notice these actions

(Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006)

Formal reward systems never take into consideration the actions of a co-worker which

he shows for his partner that is helping another person in his work

Thus OCB becomes part of an individual behavior and on the whole can be beneficial

to the organization OCB in organizational activities is understandable as OCB has a

positive affects on organizationrsquos efficiency and work performance

The loyalty of individual OCB results in the increased performance of an organization

which is proved by different studies (Podsakoff and Mackenzie 1997)

Gathering all the results from different researches Podsakoff and Mackenzie (1997)

found that there is strong support for fact that OCB plays a key role in the performance

of an organization As OCB has a positive effect on the performance of an organization

but still there is no reward given for it in physical terms

The following conclusion can be drawn from the above mentioned aspects of OCB if it

is assumed that managers are able to influence OCB the personality of a person will be

influenced and companies will start hiring person who is in favor of OCB thus

providing favorable conditions to workers Keeping in view the part of the definition

which reveal that OCB plays a key role in the performance of an organization it can be

concluded that an organization will perform better if people are hired who are most

likely engaged in OCB

12 Statement of Research

The association of personality types and organizational citizenship behavior

This research mainly focus will be on the factor to find the personality factor which is

related to OCB

13 Research Problem

To find out the relationship among the fig five personality factors and the

Organizational citizenship behavior

14 Significance of the Study

Human resource management is a very dynamic field Researches add new knowledge

to the present concept and thought regarding employeersquos factor which are of great

importance to not only different organizations but to the field of HRM Studying

personality types and their relationship organizational citizenship behavior will increase

and add the present knowledge of HRM As NGO s are hiring a lot of employees

while providing benefits to the community through their services may be this study

will highlight something new which can be of interest and importance for the NGO

sector while hiring and recruiting individuals for their organization This research study

is conducted to find out the personality factor which has a relationship with OCB in

NGO (Non-Government Organizations) workers who are a part of HR department

The study is conducted to find out the relationship of personality factors on HR

practices that can affect the performance of an employee The findings gathered from

research will help to enhance the performance of employees in NGOs

15 Research Objectives

1 To conclude whether personality factors (big five personality) of employees

have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior in NGO

operating in Peshawar

16 Scope of the Study

NGO offices operating in university town Peshawar are included as the scope of this

research The HR department of five NGO s located in university town Peshawar

represents the sample size which will be used for the research Data will be collected

through questionnaire which will be analyzed to come up with any conclusion The

following NGO will be selected for data collection

1) World food program

2) International rescue committee

3) ICRC

4) Relief international

5) Chef international

17 Methodology

171 Personality test

1711 Measures

First of all the researcher will find out the personality types of employees by utilizing

the personality test of 150 employees working in NGOs the personality test

questionnaire will be distributed to find out their respective personality and then a

questionnaire will be distributed regarding OCB In order to find out their personality

Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 and the questions were based on Likert scale

having an option of five using a 5-point Likert scale ie 1 for strongly disagree and 5

for strongly agree Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits

1712 Data

Primary data collection in the research was carried through

Questionnaires

The employees of the organization were main source of data collection

The respondents provide data required for the research through the questioners

which were filled by them in which structured questions were asked about their

different aspects of personality such as their attitude and perception about different

things The questionnaire was developed from

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 7: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

Chapter 1INTRODUCTION

11 Background

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a distinctive characteristic of individual

while doing work This concept was first explained in the early 1980s According to

Organs (1988) definition ldquoan individual behavior that is flexible and canrsquot be

recognized by the formal reward system and at the aggregate level adds to the

performance of an organization This special behavior has become a separate field in

the context of an organization and a lot of people has started working on it

The following research deals with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) that is a

type of Organizational behavior that goes beyond open role prospect This research is

about OCB because Organizational Behavior has a strong link to psychology which is a

very interesting field of science because it deals with something which is far away from

the vision of a person (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006)

Reviewing literature and different researches about OCB let the researcher to be able to

work on one of the (Kasper and Muhlbacher 2002) components of an organization-

meaning those people who are part of an organization and gives a link to the economic

and psychological views One of the most important questions regarding OCB ldquoWhy

employees show devotion to their work and go beyond what are the requirements of

their job descriptionsrdquo

According to Organ (1988 p4 cited in Podsakoff et al 2000 p 513) OCB is an

ldquoindividual behavior that is discretionary not directly or explicitly recognized by the

formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective

functioning of the organizationrdquo

Referring to the definition an OCB promotes the ldquowell-organized and successful

functioning of the organizationrdquo (Organ 1988) This effect can only be understood

through the observation of behavior of a lot of people Usually a single incidence of

OCB is the gesture of one person to another person such as helping a partner Such

actions are not recognized by others specially supervisors donrsquot notice these actions

(Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006)

Formal reward systems never take into consideration the actions of a co-worker which

he shows for his partner that is helping another person in his work

Thus OCB becomes part of an individual behavior and on the whole can be beneficial

to the organization OCB in organizational activities is understandable as OCB has a

positive affects on organizationrsquos efficiency and work performance

The loyalty of individual OCB results in the increased performance of an organization

which is proved by different studies (Podsakoff and Mackenzie 1997)

Gathering all the results from different researches Podsakoff and Mackenzie (1997)

found that there is strong support for fact that OCB plays a key role in the performance

of an organization As OCB has a positive effect on the performance of an organization

but still there is no reward given for it in physical terms

The following conclusion can be drawn from the above mentioned aspects of OCB if it

is assumed that managers are able to influence OCB the personality of a person will be

influenced and companies will start hiring person who is in favor of OCB thus

providing favorable conditions to workers Keeping in view the part of the definition

which reveal that OCB plays a key role in the performance of an organization it can be

concluded that an organization will perform better if people are hired who are most

likely engaged in OCB

12 Statement of Research

The association of personality types and organizational citizenship behavior

This research mainly focus will be on the factor to find the personality factor which is

related to OCB

13 Research Problem

To find out the relationship among the fig five personality factors and the

Organizational citizenship behavior

14 Significance of the Study

Human resource management is a very dynamic field Researches add new knowledge

to the present concept and thought regarding employeersquos factor which are of great

importance to not only different organizations but to the field of HRM Studying

personality types and their relationship organizational citizenship behavior will increase

and add the present knowledge of HRM As NGO s are hiring a lot of employees

while providing benefits to the community through their services may be this study

will highlight something new which can be of interest and importance for the NGO

sector while hiring and recruiting individuals for their organization This research study

is conducted to find out the personality factor which has a relationship with OCB in

NGO (Non-Government Organizations) workers who are a part of HR department

The study is conducted to find out the relationship of personality factors on HR

practices that can affect the performance of an employee The findings gathered from

research will help to enhance the performance of employees in NGOs

15 Research Objectives

1 To conclude whether personality factors (big five personality) of employees

have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior in NGO

operating in Peshawar

16 Scope of the Study

NGO offices operating in university town Peshawar are included as the scope of this

research The HR department of five NGO s located in university town Peshawar

represents the sample size which will be used for the research Data will be collected

through questionnaire which will be analyzed to come up with any conclusion The

following NGO will be selected for data collection

1) World food program

2) International rescue committee

3) ICRC

4) Relief international

5) Chef international

17 Methodology

171 Personality test

1711 Measures

First of all the researcher will find out the personality types of employees by utilizing

the personality test of 150 employees working in NGOs the personality test

questionnaire will be distributed to find out their respective personality and then a

questionnaire will be distributed regarding OCB In order to find out their personality

Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 and the questions were based on Likert scale

having an option of five using a 5-point Likert scale ie 1 for strongly disagree and 5

for strongly agree Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits

1712 Data

Primary data collection in the research was carried through

Questionnaires

The employees of the organization were main source of data collection

The respondents provide data required for the research through the questioners

which were filled by them in which structured questions were asked about their

different aspects of personality such as their attitude and perception about different

things The questionnaire was developed from

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 8: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

According to Organ (1988 p4 cited in Podsakoff et al 2000 p 513) OCB is an

ldquoindividual behavior that is discretionary not directly or explicitly recognized by the

formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective

functioning of the organizationrdquo

Referring to the definition an OCB promotes the ldquowell-organized and successful

functioning of the organizationrdquo (Organ 1988) This effect can only be understood

through the observation of behavior of a lot of people Usually a single incidence of

OCB is the gesture of one person to another person such as helping a partner Such

actions are not recognized by others specially supervisors donrsquot notice these actions

(Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006)

Formal reward systems never take into consideration the actions of a co-worker which

he shows for his partner that is helping another person in his work

Thus OCB becomes part of an individual behavior and on the whole can be beneficial

to the organization OCB in organizational activities is understandable as OCB has a

positive affects on organizationrsquos efficiency and work performance

The loyalty of individual OCB results in the increased performance of an organization

which is proved by different studies (Podsakoff and Mackenzie 1997)

Gathering all the results from different researches Podsakoff and Mackenzie (1997)

found that there is strong support for fact that OCB plays a key role in the performance

of an organization As OCB has a positive effect on the performance of an organization

but still there is no reward given for it in physical terms

The following conclusion can be drawn from the above mentioned aspects of OCB if it

is assumed that managers are able to influence OCB the personality of a person will be

influenced and companies will start hiring person who is in favor of OCB thus

providing favorable conditions to workers Keeping in view the part of the definition

which reveal that OCB plays a key role in the performance of an organization it can be

concluded that an organization will perform better if people are hired who are most

likely engaged in OCB

12 Statement of Research

The association of personality types and organizational citizenship behavior

This research mainly focus will be on the factor to find the personality factor which is

related to OCB

13 Research Problem

To find out the relationship among the fig five personality factors and the

Organizational citizenship behavior

14 Significance of the Study

Human resource management is a very dynamic field Researches add new knowledge

to the present concept and thought regarding employeersquos factor which are of great

importance to not only different organizations but to the field of HRM Studying

personality types and their relationship organizational citizenship behavior will increase

and add the present knowledge of HRM As NGO s are hiring a lot of employees

while providing benefits to the community through their services may be this study

will highlight something new which can be of interest and importance for the NGO

sector while hiring and recruiting individuals for their organization This research study

is conducted to find out the personality factor which has a relationship with OCB in

NGO (Non-Government Organizations) workers who are a part of HR department

The study is conducted to find out the relationship of personality factors on HR

practices that can affect the performance of an employee The findings gathered from

research will help to enhance the performance of employees in NGOs

15 Research Objectives

1 To conclude whether personality factors (big five personality) of employees

have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior in NGO

operating in Peshawar

16 Scope of the Study

NGO offices operating in university town Peshawar are included as the scope of this

research The HR department of five NGO s located in university town Peshawar

represents the sample size which will be used for the research Data will be collected

through questionnaire which will be analyzed to come up with any conclusion The

following NGO will be selected for data collection

1) World food program

2) International rescue committee

3) ICRC

4) Relief international

5) Chef international

17 Methodology

171 Personality test

1711 Measures

First of all the researcher will find out the personality types of employees by utilizing

the personality test of 150 employees working in NGOs the personality test

questionnaire will be distributed to find out their respective personality and then a

questionnaire will be distributed regarding OCB In order to find out their personality

Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 and the questions were based on Likert scale

having an option of five using a 5-point Likert scale ie 1 for strongly disagree and 5

for strongly agree Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits

1712 Data

Primary data collection in the research was carried through

Questionnaires

The employees of the organization were main source of data collection

The respondents provide data required for the research through the questioners

which were filled by them in which structured questions were asked about their

different aspects of personality such as their attitude and perception about different

things The questionnaire was developed from

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 9: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

of an organization As OCB has a positive effect on the performance of an organization

but still there is no reward given for it in physical terms

The following conclusion can be drawn from the above mentioned aspects of OCB if it

is assumed that managers are able to influence OCB the personality of a person will be

influenced and companies will start hiring person who is in favor of OCB thus

providing favorable conditions to workers Keeping in view the part of the definition

which reveal that OCB plays a key role in the performance of an organization it can be

concluded that an organization will perform better if people are hired who are most

likely engaged in OCB

12 Statement of Research

The association of personality types and organizational citizenship behavior

This research mainly focus will be on the factor to find the personality factor which is

related to OCB

13 Research Problem

To find out the relationship among the fig five personality factors and the

Organizational citizenship behavior

14 Significance of the Study

Human resource management is a very dynamic field Researches add new knowledge

to the present concept and thought regarding employeersquos factor which are of great

importance to not only different organizations but to the field of HRM Studying

personality types and their relationship organizational citizenship behavior will increase

and add the present knowledge of HRM As NGO s are hiring a lot of employees

while providing benefits to the community through their services may be this study

will highlight something new which can be of interest and importance for the NGO

sector while hiring and recruiting individuals for their organization This research study

is conducted to find out the personality factor which has a relationship with OCB in

NGO (Non-Government Organizations) workers who are a part of HR department

The study is conducted to find out the relationship of personality factors on HR

practices that can affect the performance of an employee The findings gathered from

research will help to enhance the performance of employees in NGOs

15 Research Objectives

1 To conclude whether personality factors (big five personality) of employees

have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior in NGO

operating in Peshawar

16 Scope of the Study

NGO offices operating in university town Peshawar are included as the scope of this

research The HR department of five NGO s located in university town Peshawar

represents the sample size which will be used for the research Data will be collected

through questionnaire which will be analyzed to come up with any conclusion The

following NGO will be selected for data collection

1) World food program

2) International rescue committee

3) ICRC

4) Relief international

5) Chef international

17 Methodology

171 Personality test

1711 Measures

First of all the researcher will find out the personality types of employees by utilizing

the personality test of 150 employees working in NGOs the personality test

questionnaire will be distributed to find out their respective personality and then a

questionnaire will be distributed regarding OCB In order to find out their personality

Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 and the questions were based on Likert scale

having an option of five using a 5-point Likert scale ie 1 for strongly disagree and 5

for strongly agree Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits

1712 Data

Primary data collection in the research was carried through

Questionnaires

The employees of the organization were main source of data collection

The respondents provide data required for the research through the questioners

which were filled by them in which structured questions were asked about their

different aspects of personality such as their attitude and perception about different

things The questionnaire was developed from

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 10: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

importance to not only different organizations but to the field of HRM Studying

personality types and their relationship organizational citizenship behavior will increase

and add the present knowledge of HRM As NGO s are hiring a lot of employees

while providing benefits to the community through their services may be this study

will highlight something new which can be of interest and importance for the NGO

sector while hiring and recruiting individuals for their organization This research study

is conducted to find out the personality factor which has a relationship with OCB in

NGO (Non-Government Organizations) workers who are a part of HR department

The study is conducted to find out the relationship of personality factors on HR

practices that can affect the performance of an employee The findings gathered from

research will help to enhance the performance of employees in NGOs

15 Research Objectives

1 To conclude whether personality factors (big five personality) of employees

have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior in NGO

operating in Peshawar

16 Scope of the Study

NGO offices operating in university town Peshawar are included as the scope of this

research The HR department of five NGO s located in university town Peshawar

represents the sample size which will be used for the research Data will be collected

through questionnaire which will be analyzed to come up with any conclusion The

following NGO will be selected for data collection

1) World food program

2) International rescue committee

3) ICRC

4) Relief international

5) Chef international

17 Methodology

171 Personality test

1711 Measures

First of all the researcher will find out the personality types of employees by utilizing

the personality test of 150 employees working in NGOs the personality test

questionnaire will be distributed to find out their respective personality and then a

questionnaire will be distributed regarding OCB In order to find out their personality

Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 and the questions were based on Likert scale

having an option of five using a 5-point Likert scale ie 1 for strongly disagree and 5

for strongly agree Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits

1712 Data

Primary data collection in the research was carried through

Questionnaires

The employees of the organization were main source of data collection

The respondents provide data required for the research through the questioners

which were filled by them in which structured questions were asked about their

different aspects of personality such as their attitude and perception about different

things The questionnaire was developed from

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 11: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

1) World food program

2) International rescue committee

3) ICRC

4) Relief international

5) Chef international

17 Methodology

171 Personality test

1711 Measures

First of all the researcher will find out the personality types of employees by utilizing

the personality test of 150 employees working in NGOs the personality test

questionnaire will be distributed to find out their respective personality and then a

questionnaire will be distributed regarding OCB In order to find out their personality

Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 and the questions were based on Likert scale

having an option of five using a 5-point Likert scale ie 1 for strongly disagree and 5

for strongly agree Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits

1712 Data

Primary data collection in the research was carried through

Questionnaires

The employees of the organization were main source of data collection

The respondents provide data required for the research through the questioners

which were filled by them in which structured questions were asked about their

different aspects of personality such as their attitude and perception about different

things The questionnaire was developed from

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 12: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

1) A Noor (2009) Examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome

of organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan

Army Public College of Management Sciences (APCOMS) Ordnance Road

Rawalpindi

The secondary data was collected from different sources such as reading articles

surfing through net and also from the workers of the organization

1713 Data collection time

The data for the present study involves collecting data from the employees for only one

time The questionnaire will be distributed personally and the data will be gathered in

one go

1714 Sample size

The sample size for the resent study comprise of 150

1715 Data analysis

The gathered data will be analyzed through spss by using Correlation for finding out

the relationship among the dependent and independent variable

1716 Variable Used

1 Factors of personality

2 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 13: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

1715 Theoretical framework

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this

regard a model will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research

objectives Dependent and independent variables are shown in the following theoretical

model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

18 Limitations

1 Data will be gathered from employees only during working hours

2 Employees were observed to be reluctant in answering the questions as they

were of the view that their answers and the result will be shared with the

management but the researcher made them clear that it is a basic research and

not an applied one Therefore this convincing took a major portion of time of

the researcher

19 Scheme of the report

CHAPTER NO 1 ldquoINTRODUCTIONrdquo that is the background of the study and its

purpose objectives of research scope significance and limitations which can affect the

research

Personality factors OCB

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 14: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

CHAPTER NO 2 ldquoLITERATURE REVIEWrdquo includes different articles from

researchers published on the contribution of an employess to reduce stress

CHAPTER NO 3 ldquoRESEARCH DESIGN amp METHODOLGYrdquo includes the

methodology that was followed to collect data data sample and variables which were

used in conducting the research study

CHAPTER NO 4 ldquoDATA ANALYSISrdquo includes the results concluded from the

research as well the interpretation of the results

CHAPTER NO 5 ldquoCONCLUSIONrdquo includes the conclusion drawn from the study

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 15: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

Chapter 2

Literature Review

21 Personality

The term personality is a very dynamic concept Some call it a tool of finding the difference

between individuals as every individual has its own unique personality which makes whim

different from others in the society

(Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology American psychological association)

According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are

Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals

Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in

development of personality

Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building

onersquos personality

Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means

of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways

211 Theory of the Five-Factors

According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor

or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or

characteristics of each type of personality which are

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 16: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

1 Agreeableness

2 Extraversion

3 Neuroticism

4 Conscientiousness

5 Openness to experience

The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types

The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality

traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that

they belong to

Personality Traits Components

Extraversion Affability

Companionability

boldness

Commotion Level

Enthusiasm-Seeking

Jollity

Agreeableness Confidence

Integrity

Self-sacrifice

Support

Reticence

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 17: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

Commiseration

Conscientiousness Self-Efficacy

Neatness

Sense of duty

Determined

Self-control

Carefulness

Neuroticism Unease

Rage

Melancholy

Reserve

Lack of control

Taking risk

Openness to experience Thoughts

Creative Interests

Sensitivity

Exploratory

Brain power

Freethinking

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they help in a general way throughout the organization For

example showing punctuality in arriving at work place or meetings and showing very low

absentees

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p19) this concept was labeled ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo in the

initial stage however it was renamed ldquocompliancerdquo later (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006

p19)

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 524) described an employee who is engaged in ldquocompliancerdquo as ldquohellip

an employee who follows and obey all the rules and regulations all the time even if no one is

noticing heshe still follow the ruleshelliprdquo

In this paper I will gather all the types of I will carry on with the use of the terms ldquocompliancerdquo

as well as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo

2415 Civic Virtue

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 525) defined civic virtue as ldquohellipa personrsquos acknowledgment of being

part of an organization and accept the responsibilities the same way the citizen of a country act

and being responsible towards their actions Items that can measure civic virtue (Konovsky and

Organ 1996 p 253-266 are Cited in Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 stays well aware about developments and changes that occur in the company

2 Attends and participates in all the activities of the company that is meetings and seminars

3 Always give suggestions to improve the quality of work in the organization

2416 Organizational Loyalty

Podsakoff et al (2000 p 521) the dimension of OCBhellip always try to give a good image

towards the people outside the organization and depend the organization in every situation

2417 Self-Development

Self-development can be defined as ldquohellip voluntary actions of an employee who is always busy to

increase hisher knowledge abilities as well as skills (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 525)

25 Contextual Performance

A group of psychologists (eg Bormann and Motowidlo 1993) did research to find evidence

about the personality of a person that is the personality of a person can affect hisher work

performance They also showed a difference between task performance and contextual

performance They also found that ldquothe ldquotask performancerdquo of an individual can be best

predicted through his knowledge skills as well as abilities (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie

2006 p 31)

26 Role of personality types and OCB

According to McCrae amp John (1992) the individuals who have high score on the personality type

ie openness to experiences showed a positive relationship with the concept of OCB Such

individuals tend to have interest in experimenting new things ideas and many more these people

showed high OCB in the research conducted by the researcher

On the other hand Kumar et al (2009) found a positive relationship among the OCB and the

conscientiousness one of a type of personality types They were of the view that people with

such personalities are tend to be very disciplined and want to achieve every hurdle that they face

and they were found to be involved in helping their colleagues without any reasons

On the other hand in one research the relationship was found negative and the reason was that

the employees were interested mainly in things which were related to them They did not care for

others (Barrick amp Mount 1991)

According to Barrick amp Mount (1991) found a positive relationship of agreeableness and the

OCB Such employees who agreed with others and respected their feelings seem to be

demonstrating OCB with their colleagues But in one study the relationship was found to be

negative (Witt et al 2002)

The relationship of extraversion with employees demonstrating OCB was also found to be

positive in a study conducted by Kumar et al (2009)

On the other hand the same study of (Kumar et al 2009) also proved that there is a negative

relationship of neuroticism and employees demonstrating OCB in the organization

The study of Heller and Mount (2002) showed that people with OCB showed great performance

as compared to those who were not demonstrating OCB The employees were also found to

motivated and satisfied with their job

The present study will also try to find out the relationship among the organizational citizenship

behavior and big five personality types The literature provides two main variables for the

present study which are OCB and big five personality types

27 Theoretical framework

271 Variables

3 Big five factors of personality

4 OCB (Organizational citizenship behavior)

On the basis of the literature present in this research and work done so far in this regard a model

will be developed which will give a basic concept of the research objectives Dependent and

independent variables are shown in the following theoretical model

INDEPENDENT VARAIBLE DEPENDANT VARIABLE

Personality factors OCB

Hypothesis

H1 There is a positive relationship of OCB and extraversion

H2 There is a positive relationship of OCB and agreeableness

H3 There is a positive relationship of OCB and openness to experience

H4 There is a positive relationship of OCB and conscientiousness

H5 There is a negative relationship of OCB and neuroticism

H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees

CHAPTER 3

Methodology31 Intention of the study

HR department is always engaged in approaching towards new tools and techniques which are

used for the motivation of employees and thus results in improving performance of the

employees This research is mainly focusing on the personality factor which has impact on the

organizational citizenship behavior

32 Research understanding

The nature of the research is quantitative that is the topic and its objectives However the data

required for the research will consist of probability A questionnaire was design for gathering

data this mostly had closed end questions

33 Data The study includes only primary data and no secondary data is required for the study Primary as

Secondary source was utilized for collecting and reviewing different researches and articles to

identify and label the variables of the present study The data will be collected with the help of

data collection tool having closed ended question with Likert scale having 5 options The

questionnaire will be self-administered 180 questionnaires were distributed and only 150 were

filled Thus the response rate was 70 percent

34 Data tool

1) Data collection as well as the source for data collection was very important in this

research so thatrsquos why the source for research questioner was Smith CA Organ

DW Near JP (1983) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Its nature and

antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68 p653-663 Cited in Organ Podsakoff

Mackenzie 2006 p17-18

2) A Noor (2009) examining organizational citizenship behavior as the outcome of

organizational commitment a study of universities teachers of Pakistan army public

college of management sciences (apcoms) ordnance road Rawalpindi

35 Population

The population for the present study includes the NGO sector in Peshawar

36 Sample size

Conclusion was derived from the 150 questionnaires which were distributed among the

employees 5 different NGO

37 Sampling Technique

Random sampling technique method will be used by the researcher to gather data because it is

easy for the researcher to gather data and also come up with good results

38 Process of data

The gathered data will be analyzed through SPSS method to gain useful information from the

data The analysis will be helpful to derive conclusion from the data collection Correlation will

be run on the data collected from the sample size

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Following table shows the personality of the 200 employees working different non-government organizations

Personality Types

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid AGREEABLENESS 49 245 245 245

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE 47 235 235 480

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS 34 170 170 650

EXTRAVERSION 26 130 130 780

NEUROTICISM 44 220 220 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 41The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 49 or 246 are of agreeableness type 47 or 235 are of openness to experience type 34 or 17 are of conscientiousness type 26 or 13 are of openness to experience type 44 or 22 are of neuroticism type of personality type

On distribution of a questionnaire related to OCB following responses were obtained from the 200 respondents They were asked whether they think OCB should be followed in the organization

OCB

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid disagree 1 5 5 5

uncertain 59 295 295 300

agree 53 265 265 565

strongly agree 87 435 435 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 42The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 1 or 05 disagreed 59 or 295 were uncertain 53 or 265 agreed and 87 or 435 strongly agreed

Figure 43The above table shows the comparison table of personality types and OCB questions which were asked by each individual in the form of Likert scale options Their answers are compared with their personality types

OCB Personality Types Cross tabulationCount

Personality Types

TotalAGREEABLENE

SSOPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EXTRAVERSION NEUROTICISM

OCB disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1uncertain 14 9 10 10 16 59agree 13 15 1 11 13 53strongly agree 22 22 23 5 15 87

Total 49 47 34 26 44 200

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Figure 44Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among extraversion and OCB Therefore hypothesis1 is accepted

Correlations

Correlations

Extraversion OCB

Extraversion Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 26 26

Correlations

Agreeableness OCB

Agreeableness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 500

N 49 49

Figure 45Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among agreeableness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 2 is accepted

Correlations

Openness to experience OCB

Openness to experience Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 480

N 47 47

Figure 46Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among Openness to experience and OCB Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted

Correlations

Conscientiousness OCB

conscientiousness Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 420

N 34 34

Figure 47

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among conscientiousness and OCB Therefore hypothesis 4 is accepted

Figure 48

Interpretation The relationship is found positive and significant among neuroticism and OCB Therefore hypothesis 5 is rejected

Correlations

neuroticism OCB

neuroticism Pearson Correlation 1 000Sig (1-tailed) 476N 44 44

OCB Pearson Correlation 000 1

Sig (1-tailed) 476

N 44 44

Correlations

Personality Types OCB

Personality Types Pearson Correlation 1 976Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200OCB Pearson Correlation 976 1

Sig (1-tailed) 002

N 200 200

Figure 49There is a strong positive relationship among the OCB and personality types because of the value of person correlation which is 976therefore hypothesis 6 is acceptedMoreover the relationship is a significant correlation among OCB and personality types because of the value of Sig (1-tailed) which is 002

For the purpose of running correlation test on the data which was gathered the following results were obtained which included Pearson correlation and their significance test drawn from the data obtained through these forty questionnaires And hence the hypothesis 1 2 3 4 and 6 are accepted and hypothesis 4 is rejected

I help colleagues who have been absent from work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 410The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 17 85 85 110

Uncertain 19 95 95 205

agree 90 450 450 655

strongly agree 69 345 345 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 411The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I help colleagues who have heavy workloads

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 21 105 105 130

Uncertain 3 15 15 145

Agree 94 470 470 615

strongly agree 77 385 385 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 412The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 21 or 105 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 94 or 47 agreed and 77 or 385 strongly agreed

I go out of way to help new employees

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 24 120 120 145

uncertain 3 15 15 160

agree 89 445 445 605

strongly agree 79 395 395 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 413The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 3 or 15 were uncertain 89 or 445 agreed and 79 or 395 strongly agreed

I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 24 120 120 150

Uncertain 2 10 10 160

Agree 88 440 440 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 414The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 2 or 1 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

My attendance at work is above the norm

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 7 35 35 35

Disagree 24 120 120 155

Uncertain 4 20 20 175

agree 82 410 410 585

strongly agree 83 415 415 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 415The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 7 or 35 strongly disagreed 24 or 12 disagreed 4 or 2 were uncertain 82 or 41 agreed and 83or 415 strongly agreed

I take undeserved brakes at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 6 30 30 30

Disagree 22 110 110 140

Uncertain 17 85 85 225

Agree 88 440 440 665

strongly agree 67 335 335 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 416The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 6 or 3 strongly disagreed 22 or 11 disagreed 17 or 185 were uncertain 88 or 44 agreed and 67 or 335 strongly agreed

I often complain about insignificant things at work

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 4 20 20 20

disagree 20 100 100 120

uncertain 21 105 105 225

agree 84 420 420 645

strongly agree 71 355 355 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 417The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 4 or 2 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 21 or 10 were uncertain 84or 42 agreed and 71 or 355 strongly agreed

I tend to make ldquomountains out of mole holesrdquo

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 25 125 125 125

disagree 29 145 145 270

uncertain 70 350 350 620

agree 65 325 325 945

strongly agree 11 55 55 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 418The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 419The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 25 or 125 strongly disagreed 29 or 145 disagreed 70 or 35 were uncertain 65or 325 agreed and 11 or 55 strongly agreed

I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

Disagree 20 100 100 125

Uncertain 5 25 25 150

Agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 420The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5 or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

Percent

Valid strongly disagree 5 25 25 25

disagree 20 100 100 125

uncertain 5 25 25 150

agree 90 450 450 600

strongly agree 80 400 400 1000

Total 200 1000 1000

Figure 421The tablesrsquo shows that out of total 200 respondents 5 or 25 strongly disagreed 20 or 10 disagreed 5or 25 were uncertain 90 or 45 agreed and 80 or 40 strongly agreed

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendation

51 DISCUSSION

Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are

ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the

expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important

aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has

become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different

organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality

as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept

of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers

regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization

The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in

organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached

to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while

hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of

personality types with OCB

52 CONCLUSION

After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the

questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed

by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant

means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also

a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It

is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness

to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship

to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively

related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps

in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s

which were taken as the sample for the following research

53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The

organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the

company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by

investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned

appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner

and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among

attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have

more well-formed population

Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions

forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand

the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the

employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated

with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on

development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the

negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work

References

Organ Dennis W (1988) Organizational Citizenship Behavior The good soldier syndrome Lexington Massachusetts Lexington Books

Organ Dennis W Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (2006) Organizational Citizenship Behavior Itrsquos nature antecedents and consequences Thousand Oaks California Sage

Kasper Helmut Muhlbacher Jorgen (2002) Organizations culture learned in Organizations In Kasper Helmut Mayerhofer Wolfgang (Ed) Personal management Fuhrung Organization Wien Linde Verlag p 95-156

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B (1997) Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance A review and suggestions for future research In Human Performance 10 (2) 133-151

Allport G W (1937) Personality A psychological interpretation New York Holt

McDougall W (1932) Of the words character and personality In Character Personality 1 3-16

Costa Paul T Jr McCrae Robert R (1985) Updating Normanrsquos ldquoadequate taxonomyrdquo Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and questionnaires In Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 49 710-721

Podsakoff Philip M Mackenzie Scott B Paine Julie B Bacharach Daniel G (2000) Organizational Citizenship Behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research In Journal of Management 26 (3) 513-563

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection andAssessment 9 52ndash69

McCrae R R amp John O P (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications Journal of Personality 2 175ndash215

King E B George JM and Hebl M R (2005) Linking personality to helping behaviors at work An international perspective Journal of Personality 73 585 -607

Barrick Murray R Mount Michael K (1991) The big five personality dimensions and jobperformance A meta-analysis In Personnel Psychology 44 (1) 1-26

Witt L A Burke L A Barrick M R Mount M K (2002) The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance In Journal of Applied Psychology 87 161-169

Hurtz G M amp Donovan J J (2000) Personality and job performance The Big Five revisited Journal of Applied Psychology 85 869ndash879

Organ Dennis W Lingl Andreas (1995) Personality satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior In The Journal of Social psychology (135) 339

Michele W (1977) The interaction of person and situation Pp 166-207 in D Magnusson amp N S Endler (Eds) Personality at the crossroads Current issues in international psychology Hillsdale N J Erlbaum

Epstein S (1980) The stability of behavior II Implications for psychological research American psychologist 35 790-806

Digman J M (1990) Personality structure Emergence of the five-factor model Annual Review of Psychology 21 417ndash440

Morgeson F P Reider M H amp Campion M A (2005) Selecting individuals in team settings The importance of social skills personality characteristics and teamwork knowledge Personnel Psychology 58 (3) 583-611

Barrick M R Stewart G L amp Pietrowski M (2002) Personality and job performance Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives Journal of Applied Psychology 87 43ndash51

Bibliography

Bolino M C Turnley W H Gilstrap J B amp Suazo M M (2010) Citizenship under pressure Whatrsquos a lsquolsquogood soldierrsquorsquo to do Journal of Organizational Behavior 31 835-855

Borman W C Penner L A Allen T D amp Motowidlo S J (2001) Personality predictors of citizenship performance International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(12) 52-69

Chahal H amp Mehta C (2010) Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) A conceptual framework in reference to heath care sector Journal of Services Research Retrieved from httpfindarticlescomparticlesmi_7629is_201010ai_n56229563

Ehrhart M G (2004) Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit level organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 57 61-94

Heilman M E amp Chen J J (2005) Same behavior different consequences Reactions to menrsquos and womenrsquos altruistic citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 90(3) 431-441 doi 1010370021-9010903431

Marcus B amp Schuler H (2004) Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at workA general perspective Journal of Applied Psychology 89(4) 647-660 doi 1010370021-9010894647

Organ D W (1988) Organizational citizenship behavior The good soldier syndrome USA DC Heath and Company

Organ D W (1997) Organizational citizenship behavior Its construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2) 85-97

Organ D W Podsakoff P M amp Mackenzie S B (2006) Organizational citizenship behavior Its nature antecedents and consequences USA Sage Publications IncPSYCH761White Paper (OCB)

Organ D W amp Ryan K (1995) A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior Personnel Psychology 48 775-802 Podsakoff N P Whiting S W Podsakoff P M amp Blume B D (2009) Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 94(1) 122-141 doi 101037a0013079

Podsakoff P M MacKenzie S B Paine J B amp Bachrach D G (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3) 513-563

Van Scotter J R Motowidlo S J amp Cross T C (2000) Effects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewards Journal of Applied Psychology 85(4) 526-535

Williams L J amp Anderson S E (1991) Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors Journal of Management 17 601-617

Werner J M (1994) Dimensions that make a difference Examining the impact of in-role and extra role behaviors on supervisory ratings Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1) 98-107

Appendices

Questionnaire

Age ___ Gender ____________________

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

1=Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Uncertain 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree

Note Place a tick mark in front of the option you consider most suitable for the question

Q1 I help colleagues who have been absent from work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q2 1 helps colleagues who have heavy work loads

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q3 I am mindful of how my behavior affects other peoples job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q4 I go out of way to help new employees

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q5 I take a personal interest in my colleagues job

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q6 My attendance at work is above the norm

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q7 I take undeserved brakes at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q8 I often complain about insignificant things at work

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q9 I tend to make mountains out of molehillsrdquo

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q10 I hold on to informal rules devised to maintain order

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q11 I attend meetings that are not mandatory but considered important

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q12 I perform duties that are not required but which improve corporate image

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

Q13 In organization the concept of OCB should be followed

11048576 21048576 31048576 41048576 51048576

  • Declaration
  • I hereby declare that the research submitted to RampDD by me is my own original work I am aware of the fact that if in case my work is found to be plagiarized or not genuine RampDD has the full authority to cancel my research work and I am liable to penal actions
  • Studentrsquos Name ____________________
  • Date _____________________________
  • Dedication
  • Dedicated to my parents family members and my friends
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • OCB = ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR
  • NGO = NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATON
  • Abstract
  • An effort has been made in this research to investigate and evaluate the relationship of big five personality traits with organizational citizenship behavior at NGOs 150 employees participated in this study Hexaco 60items scale was reduced to 40 items after excluding honesty related items and was distributed among the participants Participants answered to 40 questions Each included 8 items that evaluate big five personality traits and another questionnaire related to organizational behavior was also distributed among the same employees to find the relationship between their personality and their OCB After gathering the data correlation was run over the data to find the relationship between personality types and OCB It found that there was a positive and significant relationship between Extraversion openness to experience conscientiousness Neuroticism and agreeableness with OCB and hence four hypotheses were accepted stating a positive relationship and one hypothesis regarding neuroticism stating it has a negative relationship was rejected because it had a positive relationship too Over all it was concluded that these five personality types have a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior
  • Chapter 1
  • INTRODUCTION
    • 11 Background
    • 12 Statement of Research
    • 13 Research Problem
    • 14 Significance of the Study
    • 15 Research Objectives
    • 16 Scope of the Study
    • 17 Methodology
    • 18 Limitations
    • 19 Scheme of the report
      • Chapter 2
      • Literature Review
        • 21 Personality
          • According to Kelly in (2004) gave characteristics of an individualrsquos personality which are
          • Uniformity ndash uniform actions are exhibited by number of individuals
          • Mental and physiological ndash inherited genes and surrounding play a major role in development of personality
          • Day to day activities- activities which are conducted by an individualrsquos helps in building onersquos personality
          • Numerous expressions ndash one individual can express personality through different means of actions which include verbal physical and mental ways
          • According to Costa and McRae in (2009) an individual personality may comprise of any factor or type which can be termed as the following Each individual may comprise of one factor or characteristics of each type of personality which are
          • 1 Agreeableness
          • 2 Extraversion
          • 3 Neuroticism
          • 4 Conscientiousness
          • 5 Openness to experience
          • The above types of personality can be further broken or divided in to the following sub types The table shows the various subtypes of each personality in detail Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to
          • Personality Traits
          • Components
          • Extraversion
          • Affability Companionability boldness Commotion Level Enthusiasm-Seeking
          • Jollity
          • Agreeableness
          • Confidence Integrity Self-sacrifice Support Reticence Commiseration
          • Conscientiousness
          • Self-Efficacy Neatness Sense of duty
          • Determined Self-control Carefulness
          • Neuroticism
          • Unease Rage Melancholy Reserve Lack of control Taking risk
          • Openness to experience
          • Thoughts Creative Interests Sensitivity Exploratory Brain power Freethinking
            • 25 Contextual Performance
            • 26 Role of personality types and OCB
              • 27 Theoretical framework
                • 271 Variables
                  • H6 The Big Five superior-factors will extensively forecast OCB among the employees
                  • CHAPTER 3
                  • Methodology
                    • 31 Intention of the study
                    • 32 Research understanding
                    • 33 Data
                    • 34 Data tool
                    • 35 Population
                    • 36 Sample size
                    • 37 Sampling Technique
                    • 38 Process of data
                      • CHAPTER 4
                      • FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
                      • Figure 41
                      • Figure 42
                      • Figure 43
                      • Figure 44
                      • Figure 45
                      • Figure 46
                      • Figure 47
                      • Figure 48
                      • Figure 49
                      • Figure 410
                      • Figure 411
                      • Figure 412
                      • Figure 413
                      • Figure 414
                      • Figure 415
                      • Figure 416
                      • Figure 417
                      • Figure 418
                      • Figure 419
                      • Figure 420
                      • Figure 421
                      • Chapter 5
                      • Conclusion and recommendation
                        • 51 DISCUSSION
                          • Organizations tend to hire the best cream of the market The aim is to have employees who are ready to offer a long term commitment and loyalty towards the organization and respect the expectations of the management and the company over all Personality test has been an important aspect and field related to psychology It has not only contributed in its own filed but it has become an important part of the recruitment and selection of individuals in many different organizations It has been approved that every individual has a different and unique personality as compared with other individuals On the other hand employers want to promote the concept of organizational citizenship behavior which also promotes the interest of the employers regarding having cooperative helpful dedicated and committed employees in the organization
                          • The study includes the question of how the personality types are related to the concept of OCB in organization of non-governmental organizations The study will reveal the importance attached to their relationship with one another Thus the study can help a lot to such organizations while hiring personnel for their projects and office the study will test the overall relationship of personality types with OCB
                            • 52 CONCLUSION
                              • After finding out the personality types of the employees working five NGO s then the questionnaire related OCB was distributed among the same employees The data was analyzed by running correlation on the data The analysis proved that the relationship was significant means there is a relationship of OCB with personality types Moreover the relationship was also a strong positive one The result shows that the agreeableness is significantly related to OCB It is also found that OCB is significantly related to conscientiousness agreeableness and openness to experience But on the other hand it was found that neuroticism has a significant relationship to OCB but the relationship was a positive one which means neuroticism is not negatively related to OCB And the last part of the conclusion includes that yes the personality types helps in forecasting the organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the five NGO s which were taken as the sample for the following research
                                • 53 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
                                  • The present study can be extended by adding more variables to the existing ones The organization must include personality test as part of hiring and recruitment policy of the company Future research should be done in this sphere to lengthen the stated research by investigating the relation amongst individuals of different demographics Non self-mentioned appraisals of crucial construct should be included for instance somebody sharing room partner and raring of persona A lot of research needs to be done in the area of association among attributes of persona and OCB More countries and more universities should be involved to have more well-formed population
                                  • Finally further work should be done to know that how well these personality dimensions forecast OCB in contrast with other measures for instance standardized test On the other hand the organizations must give a brief training on the concept of OCB The aim is to make the employees understand the concept of this terminology and also mention the benefits associated with this word for both the employees and employers People should be given training on development of their personality characteristics to channels their strength and reduce the negative aspect of their personality which is becoming a hurdle in their work
                                  • References
                                  • Appendices
Page 18: Organizational Citizenship Behavior.docx

23 Organizational Citizenship behavior

Podsakoff et al (2000) studied that there OCB is a very distinctive part of an organization and on

the other hand individuals have different personalities and there should be a link between

personality types and OCB In order to have new concepts some of the dimensions were given

new names and others were integrated into single dimension Furthermore they added a two-

dimension concept of organ The dimension they listed is as follows

ldquoHelping behaviorrdquo includes Organrsquos ldquoself-sacrificerdquo ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo that is

all the qualities of a person who always help another individual or group of individuals

(Podsakoff et al 2000 p517)

According to Podsakoff et al (2000) the nature of ldquoconscientiousnessrdquo should be added to the

dimension they referred to as ldquoindividual initiativerdquo because it includes all the task-related to the

behavior of a person that goes beyond the levels required

The two dimensions that are added by Podsakoff et al are ldquoloyalty with organizationrdquo and ldquoself-

developmentrdquo ldquoLoyalty with organizationrdquo means promoting the organization to those who are

not a part of the organization and protecting the organization from external threats and also to be

a part of the organization and prove loyal even at very bad situation (Podsakoff et al 2000 p

517)

According to each of the author there are five types of personality (Organ and Podsakoff et al)

however there are only five which are in common use to find empirical findings

ldquoAltruism which is term as helping others ldquocompliance respectively known as

conscientiousnessrdquo ldquosportsmanshiprdquo as well as ldquocourtesyrdquo and ldquocivic virtuerdquo is five OCB which

are commonly used

231 The definition of the OCB dimensions

To avoid confusion the work done in this regard can be sum up as follows

2311 Helping

This dimension was labeled as ldquoaltruismrdquo in the initial stages Later on it was given a new name

because the old name was criticized as it gives a sense of selflessness as a motive behind and the

dimensions were (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p 18)

The new conceptualization can be defined as ldquovoluntarily helping others and also coping with

problems that occur during work (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 516)

(Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p18) Podsakoff et al (2000 p 517) argued about the

Organrsquos two dimensions that are ldquopeacemakingrdquo and ldquocheerleadingrdquo (definition in chapter 23)

These two were also included in ldquohelpingrdquo

2412 Courtesy

This dimension is according to the latest conceptualization that is included in the dimension of

ldquohelpingrdquo (Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p 297) Therefore this concept will be

treated separately in the new research work

Organ (1988) said that ldquocourtesyrdquo is a specific form of OCB whereas Podsakoff et al argued that

it is also included in the dimension of ldquohelpingrdquo

The basic idea is that to avoid people from a hard work and when they are asked for an extra load

of work they are always ready to go for it (Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 p24)

Items that can be used to measure courtesy are (Konovsky Organ 1996 p 253-266 Cited in

Organrsquos Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22-23)

1 Tries to avoid situations which can make problems for others

2 Considers the fact that how far his her actions can affect others

3 Consults with those people who can be affected by hisher actions or decisions while course of

work

4 They should be informed before taking any important action

2413 Sportsmanship

Employees who are engaged in the behavior of sportsmanship can be described as ldquohellip those

people who always maintain an environment of positive attitude even if situation is not in their

favor and never complain (Podsakoff et al 2000 p 517)

Konovsky Organ (1996 p 253-266 said in Organ Podsakoff and Mackenzie 2006 p22- 23)

listed the following measure which can find sportsmanship

1 Complains a lot about those matters which are of no importance

2 Always finds fault in the actions of organization

3 Always show sentiments about the changes which are brought by management

4 Show selfishness that is thinks about only hisher problems

5 Tries to make the situation in hisher favor even when there are problems

6 Is able to cope with occasional inconveniences whenever they are raised

7 Never put forward any complain about work assignments

2414 Compliance

According to initial definition of this dimension ldquohellipitems that always try to help others through

impersonalized way that are they