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  1. 1. 5-1 Lecturer: Nyambeki Matoke Chapter 5 Personality,Personality, Intelligence,Intelligence, Attitudes, andAttitudes, and EmotionsEmotions
  2. 2. 5-2 Lecture ObjectivesLecture Objectives 1. Define personality 2. Explain the basic nature of personality traits. 3. Describe the Big Five personality traits, 4. Discuss specific cognitive and motivational concepts of personality, 5. Discuss Locus of control and achievement motivation. 6. Evalaute the role of intelligence in the workplace. 7. Describe how attitudes are formed and how they can be changed. 8. Expound Emotions and Organizational behavior.
  3. 3. 5-3 Exploring Behavior in Action?Exploring Behavior in Action? 1. The Story behind behaviour? TT FF
  4. 4. 5-4 What is the role ofWhat is the role of personaltiy traits in onespersonaltiy traits in ones work performance?work performance?
  5. 5. 5-5 Fundamentals of PersonalityFundamentals of Personality Behavioral tendencies across a variety of situations- Behaviur may change situation to situation.. .
  6. 6. 5-6 Determinants of PersonalityDeterminants of Personality DevelopmentDevelopment Heredity Identical twins Newborns Genetic effects Environment Social exposures Physiological forces Socioeconomic factors
  7. 7. 5-7 Big Five Personality TraitsBig Five Personality Traits Extraversion Conscientiousness Agreeableness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience Personality
  8. 8. 5-8 Big Five and High-Big Five and High- Involvement ManagementInvolvement Management Adapted from Dr. Christa Wilkins The Big Five and High Involvement Management Manager Competencies E C A ES O Delegating to others + + - + + Developing others + (+) ++ + (+) Motivating others ++ + (+) + Associate Competencies E C A ES O Decision-Making Skills + ++ - + + Self-Development + ++ + + (-) Self-Management + + (-) Teamwork + + ++ + +
  9. 9. 5-9 Centrality of the Big Five as aCentrality of the Big Five as a Selection ToolSelection Tool Can be a useful part of a portfolio of tools Provide useful predictions of future job performance Also need to do an in-depth job analysis Analysis of which traits support specific job performance
  10. 10. 5-10 Cognitive and MotivationalCognitive and Motivational Properties of PersonalityProperties of Personality Cognitive Properties Perceptual and thought processes Affect how one typically processes information Motivational Properties Stable differences Energize and maintain overt behaviors
  11. 11. 5-11 Cognitive and MotivationalCognitive and Motivational Properties of PersonalityProperties of Personality Cognitive and Motivational Concepts Locus of Control Achievement Motivation Approval Motivation Authoritarianism Self-Monitoring
  12. 12. 5-12 Cognitive ConceptsCognitive Concepts Locus of ControlLocus of Control AuthoritarianismAuthoritarianism Self-MonitoringSelf-Monitoring
  13. 13. 5-13 Motivational ConceptsMotivational Concepts AchievementAchievement MotivationMotivation ApprovalApproval MotivationMotivation
  14. 14. 5-14 IntelligenceIntelligence General mental ability to develop and understand concepts, particularly those that are more abstract and complex.
  15. 15. 5-15 Areas ofAreas of IntelligenceIntelligence NumberNumber AptitudeAptitude NumberNumber AptitudeAptitude VerbalVerbal ComprehensionComprehension VerbalVerbal ComprehensionComprehension PerceptualPerceptual SpeedSpeed PerceptualPerceptual SpeedSpeed SpatialSpatial VisualizationVisualization SpatialSpatial VisualizationVisualization DeductiveDeductive ReasoningReasoning DeductiveDeductive ReasoningReasoning InductiveInductive ReasoningReasoning InductiveInductive ReasoningReasoning MemoryMemoryMemoryMemory
  16. 16. 5-16 IntelligenceIntelligence and Successand Success Military Jobs Civilian Jobs
  17. 17. 5-17 Experiencing Strategic OB Intelligence andIntelligence and Intelligence Testing in theIntelligence Testing in the NFLNFL 1. What are your thoughts about the NFL conducting intelligence tests as well as strengths and agility tests? 2. The article asks, Can a player be too smart? Do you agree or disagree? Why? 3. Were you surprised by the scores for each position? 4. Were you surprised by some of the scores for other types of jobs?
  18. 18. 5-18 AttitudesAttitudes A persistent tendency to feel and behave in a favorable or unfavorable way toward a specific person, object, or idea.
  19. 19. 5-19 Influence of Attitudes onInfluence of Attitudes on BehaviorBehavior Behavior Toward Object, Person, or Idea Object, Person, or Idea Other Influences Attitude Toward Object, Person, or Idea
  20. 20. 5-20 Essential Elements of AttitudesEssential Elements of Attitudes CognitiveCognitive AffectiveAffective BehavioralBehavioral
  21. 21. 5-21 Formation of AttitudesFormation of Attitudes LearningLearning Self-PerceptionsSelf-Perceptions Need forNeed for ConsistencyConsistency
  22. 22. 5-22 Formation of ConsistentFormation of Consistent AttitudesAttitudes Accounting Dan Dans new colleague + - - Formation of a consistent work attitude Exhibit 5-6: Formation of Consistent Attitudes +
  23. 23. 5-23 Important Workplace AttitudesImportant Workplace Attitudes OrganizationalOrganizational CommitmentCommitment JobJob SatisfactionSatisfaction
  24. 24. 5-24 Job Satisfaction OutcomesJob Satisfaction Outcomes Highly positive effect on intentions to stay in the job Modest effect on actually staying in the job Modestly positive effect on regular attendance at work Positive effect on performance (may also be positively affected by performance) Moderately strong relationship with motivation JobJob SatisfactionSatisfaction
  25. 25. 5-25 Organizational CommitmentOrganizational Commitment OutcomesOutcomes Positive effects on intentions to stay in the job Modest effects on actually staying in the job and attending work regularly Significantly related to motivation Positive effects on job performance OrganizationalOrganizational CommitmentCommitment
  26. 26. 5-26 CausesCauses Role ambiguity Supervision/leadership Pay and benefits Nature of the job Organization climate Stress Perceptions of fair treatment OrganizationalOrganizational CommitmentCommitment JobJob SatisfactionSatisfaction
  27. 27. 5-27 Reasons for CommitmentReasons for Commitment Affective Commitment Normative Commitment Continuance Commitment
  28. 28. 5-28 Persuasive CommunicationPersuasive Communication CommunicatorCommunicator MessageMessage SituationSituation TargetTarget
  29. 29. 5-29 Qualities For Attitude ChangeQualities For Attitude Change Communicators overall credibility Trust of the intentions of the communicator Similar interests or goals Attractiveness of the communicator Sometimes it is the message
  30. 30. 5-30 Fear and BeyondFear and Beyond Fear arousal often produces more attitude change Other factors also play a role: The probability that negative consequences will occur if no change in behavior is made The perceived effect of changing behavior The perceived ability to change behavior
  31. 31. 5-31 Cognitive DissonanceCognitive Dissonance An uneasy feeling produced when a person behaves in a manner inconsistent with an existing attitude Three key conditions for change: The behavior must be substantially inconsistent with the attitude The inconsistent behavior must cause harm or have a negative consequence for others The inconsistent behavior must be voluntary and not forced
  32. 32. 5-32 EmotionsEmotions Complex subjective reactions that have both a physical and mental component. Examples include: AngerAnger HappinessHappiness AnxietyAnxiety PridePride ContentmentContentment GuiltGuilt
  33. 33. 5-33 Counter EffectsCounter Effects Positive Emotions Influence Social activity Altruism and helping behavior Effective conflict resolution Job satisfaction Motivation Organizational citizenship behavior Negative Emotions Influence Aggression against co-workers Aggression towards the organization Workplace deviance Job dissatisfaction Decision-making Negotiation outcomes Emotional Contagion emotions experienced by one or a few members of a group spread to other members.
  34. 34. 5-34 Emotional Labor?Emotional Labor? The process whereby subordinates MUST' display emotions that are contrary to what they are feeling. Can result in stress, emotional exhaustion, and burnout. The manner in which supervisors enforce display rules can influence the harmful nature of emotional labor Strong self-identity associate is less likely to experience negative effects Supportive networks help to mitigate the negative effects of emotional labor
  35. 35. 5-35 Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence The ability to accurately appraise and effectively regulate ones own and others emotions and use emotion to motivate, plan, and achieve. Linked to: Career success Leadership effectiveness Managerial performance Performance in sales jobs
  36. 36. 5-36 CriticismsCriticisms Not really intelligence but a set of social skills and personality traits Sometimes it is so broadly defined that it is meaningless
  37. 37. 5-37 Managerial Advice Characteristics of High EICharacteristics of High EI Self-awareness Self-regulation Motivation or drive Empathy Social skill Do you think these skills can be trained? Do you believe developing a strong EI is a lifelong process? What are you doing to develop your own EI?
  38. 38. 5-38 The Strategic LensThe Strategic Lens 1. Specifically, how can you use knowledge of personality, attitudes, intelligence, and emotions to make better hiring decisions? 2. If top executives wanted to implement a strategy that emphasized innovation and new products (or services), how could they use knowledge of personality, attitudes, and emo


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