Organizational Behavior Culture & Changes

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ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, SOCIALIZATION & MENTORINGCHAPTER 310/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behavior1110/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour210/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour3Definition:

the set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumption that a group holds & that determines how it perceives thinks about, & reacts to its various environment10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour4Three important characteristics of organizational culture:

Its passed on to new employeesIt influences employees behavior at workIt operates at different levels10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour5

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour6Layer of organization Culture:

Observable ArtifactsEspoused Values (espoused vs. enacted)Basic Assumption

Practical Application of Research on ValuesOrganization subscribes to a constellation of value rather that to one only10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour7OrganizationGoalsConsistency between espoused value & behavior neededOrganizationGoalsOrganizations value is consistent with employees individual values10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour8Four Function Of Organization Culture :Culture provides a Organizational IdentityFacilitate Collective CommitmentPromote social system stabilityCulture serves as a control mechanism for shaping behavior

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour9Types Of Organization Culture

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour10Organization Culture Outcome

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour11The Organization Socialization Process :The process by which the person learns the values, norms, and required behaviors which permit him to participate as a member of the organization.Organization socialization is the key mechanism used by organization to embed their organizational cultures.Turn outsiders to insiders by reinforcing the organizations core values & beliefs.10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour12Feldman Three-Phase model

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour13Process of forming and maintaining intensive and lasting developmental relationships between a variety of developers (people who provide career and psychological support) and a junior person .

Mentoring can serve to embed the organizations culture because:It creates the sense of oneness by promoting the acceptance of organizations core valuePromote sense of membership

Mentoring is a development oriented initiative.Mentoring

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour14Function of Mentoring

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour15Psychosocial Function:

Role ModellingThis provide a set of attitude, values, and behaviors for the juniors person to imitate.

Provide Acceptance and ConfirmationThis provide encouragement and support and help the apprentice gain self confidence

CounselingThis provide an opportunity to discuss personal concerns and anxieties concerning career prospect, work family, and so on.

Function of Mentoring10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour16Leader Roles for Creating an Ethical Organization CulturePrimary Embedding Mechanism :Deliberate role modeling, training programs, teaching by supervisorsExplicit rewards, status symbolsWhat leaders pay attention toLeader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crisisThe workflow & organizational structure Recruitment, selection, promotion & exit)

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour17Culture is also could be transmitted to employee through :

Stories provide explanationsRituals reinforce key valueDesign of physical space, work environment & BuildingSlogan, Language, acronyms and sayingsFormal statement of organizational philosophy

MANAGING CHANGE AND STRESSCHAPTER 1810/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behavior181810/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour1910/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour20Forces of ChangeExternal Demographic CharacteristicsTechnological AdvancementsShareholder, Customer, and Market ChangesSocial and Political Pressures

The Need for ChangeInternal

Human Resource Problem/ProspectsManagerial Behavior/Decisions10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour21Forces that Stimulate Change in OrganizationsExternal forces that stimulate change:Demographic characteristicsTechnological advancementsShareholder, Customer, and Market changesSocial and political pressures

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour22Forces that Stimulate Change in OrganizationsInternal forces that stimulate change:Human resource problemsHigh turnoverPerceptions of unfair treatmentManagerial Behavior/DecisionsExcessive interpersonal conflictInadequate direction or support

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour23Types of Organizational ChangeAdaptive ChangeInnovative ChangeRadically Innovative ChangeReintroducing a familiar practiceIntroducing a practice new to the organizationIntroducing a practice new to the industry Degree of complexity, cost, and uncertainty Potential for resistance to changeLowHigh10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour24Lewins Change ModelChangingProvides new information, new behavioral models, or new ways of looking at thingsRefreezingHelps employees integrate the changed behavior or attitude into their normal way of doing thingsUnfreezing- Creates the motivation to changeBenchmarking DataFinancial data, emerging trends10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour25A Systems Model of ChangeOrganizing ArrangementsPeopleGoalsSocial FactorsMethodsTarget Elements of ChangeInternalStrengthsWeaknessesExternalOpportunitiesThreatsInputsInternal Organizational level Department/ group level Individual levelOutputsStrategy10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour26Kotters Eight Steps for Leading Organizational ChangeCreate and implement a communication strategy that consistently communicates the new vision and strategic planCommunicate the change-visionCreate a vision and strategic plan to guide the change processDevelop a vision and strategyCreate a cross-functional, cross-level group of people with enough power to lead the changeCreate the guiding coalitionUnfreeze the organization by creating a compelling reason for why change is neededEstablish a sense of urgencyDescriptionStep10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour27Kotters Eight Steps for Leading Organizational ChangeReinforce the changes by highlighting connections between new behaviors and processes and organizational successAnchor new approaches in the cultureThe guiding coalition uses credibility from short-terms wins to create change. Additional people are brought into the change process as change cascades throughout the organizationConsolidate gains and produce more changePlan for and create short-term wins or improvementsGenerate short-term winsEliminate barriers to change, use target elements of change to transform the organizationEmpower broad-based actionDescriptionStep10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour28Organizational Development

a set of techniques or tools that are used to implement organizational change

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour29How OD Works

10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour30Test Your KnowledgeWhich of the following would be considered an effective organization development approach?A manager decides to move everyones office around for something differentAn HR department decides to restructure the performance management process affecting every employee. They decide not to bother top management during the decision process.An experienced OD consultant reorganizes an American company with great success. He plans on executing the same plan in a Chinese company.Top management and OD consultants work together to create a more participative decision-making culture.10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour31Causes of Resistance To Change

Individuals predisposition toward change;Surprise and fear of the unknownFear of failure:Loss of status and/or job securityPeer pressurePast successDecisions that disrupt cultural tradisions or group relationship;Personality conflict;Lack of tack or poor timing;Leadership style;Failing to legitimate change

Positive trusting realtionshipMake the change process an open, honest and participative affairEmployees are more willing to expend extra effort and take chances with something different.10/3/2015Group 5 - Organizational Behaviour32Six Strategies for Overcoming Resistance to ChangeApproach

Commonly Used in Situations Where:


DrawbacksEducation and CommunicationThere is a lack of information or inaccurate information & analysisOnce persuaded, people will often help with implementation of change

Can be very time consuming if lots of people are involved

Participation and Involvement

The initiators do not have all the information they need to design the change & others have considerable power to resist

People who participate will be committed to the implementation of change

Can be very time consuming if participators design an inappropriate change

Facilitation and Support

People are resisting because of adjustment problems

No other approach works as well with adjustment problemCan be very time consuming, expensive and still fail

Negotiation and Agreement

Someone or some group will clearly lose out in a change and where that group has considerable power to resist

Sometimes it is a relatively easy way to avoid major change

Can be too expensive in may cases if it alerts other to negotiate for compliance

Manipulation andCo-optation

Other tactics will not work or are too expensive

It can be relatively quick and inexpensive

Can l