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Organisational culture questionnaire - Profile of employee Fill and Tick the appropriate column 1.Name (Optionl): 2. Designation General Manager Manager Deputy Manager Assistant Manager Junior Manager/ Supervisor 3. Age 4. Marital Status Below 25 26-30 31-35 Married Un married 36-40 41-50 Above 50 Separated Widower School level Diploma UG PG Professional 5. Educational Qualification Less than 3 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 Above 10 6. Family Size Below 1.2 Lakhs 1.2-2.0 Lakhs 2.0-2.8 Lakhs 2.8-3.6 Lakhs Above 3.6 Lakhs 7. Personal Income Below 1.5 Lakhs 1.5-2.5 Lakhs 2.51-3.0 Lakhs 3.51- 4.0 Lakhs Above 4 Lakhs 8. Family Income Years Below 5 5-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 Above 25 9. Experience Annexure - 1

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  • Organisational culture questionnaire - Profile of employee Fill and Tick the appropriate column 1.Name (Optionl):

    2. Designation General

    Manager

    Manager Deputy

    Manager

    Assistant

    Manager

    Junior Manager/

    Supervisor

    3. Age 4. Marital Status

    Below 25 26-30 31-35 Married Un married

    36-40 41-50 Above 50 Separated Widower

    School level Diploma UG PG Professional 5. Educational

    Qualification

    Less than 3 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 Above 10 6. Family

    Size

    Below 1.2

    Lakhs

    1.2-2.0

    Lakhs

    2.0-2.8

    Lakhs

    2.8-3.6

    Lakhs

    Above 3.6

    Lakhs

    7. Personal

    Income

    Below 1.5

    Lakhs

    1.5-2.5

    Lakhs

    2.51-3.0

    Lakhs

    3.51- 4.0

    Lakhs

    Above 4

    Lakhs

    8. Family

    Income

    Years

    Below 5 5-10 11-15

    16-20 21-25 Above 25

    9. Experience

    Annexure - 1

  • Organisational Culture Questionnaire

    Please tick ( ) the appropriate columns

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    No.

    Particulars seeking for the dimensions of

    Organisational Culture

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    1. The Policies and the organisation structure in our organisation have been clearly defined.

    2. In our organisation our management resents your checking everything with them; i.e. if you think youve got the right approach you just go ahead.

    3. In our organisation people are rewarded in proportion to the excellence of their job performance.

    4. Our business has been built-up by taking calculated risks at the right time.

    5. A friendly atmosphere prevails among the people in our organisation. 6. In our organisation when you are on a difficult assignment you can

    usually count on getting assistance from your boss and colleagues.

    7. Around here there is a feeling of pressure to continually improve our personal and group performance.

    8. In our organisation the attitude of our management is that conflict between competing units and individuals can be very healthy.

    9. In our organisation people are proud of belonging to this organisation.

    10. People in our organisation are giving more ideas, information, feed back on customers, products, service etc.

    11. In our organisation the outcome of confrontation will be better role

    clarity, improved problem solving, willingness to deal with

    problems and also with typical employees and customers.

    12. In our organisation trusting and friendly relations are highly valued.

    13. In our organisation people voluntarily ownup their mistakes

    14. In our organisation people take the initiatives and also preventive

    action on most matters.

    15. In our organisation people are given freedom to plan and act in

    ones own sphere.

    16. In our organisation people are always working together to solve

    problems with team spirit.

    17. In our organisation people are encouraged for innovative

    approaches in solving problems.

    18. In our organisation people believe that the scope or conveying their ideas to the superior is possible.

    Annexure - 2

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    Organisational Culture

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    19. In our organisation communication is used as an effective way of getting relevant feedback and critical information for corrective action.

    20. In our organisation leaders plan the tasks, distribute assignments and supervise the work on the organisation.

    21. In our organisation High Performance is celebrated with everybody joining it.

    22. In our organisation senior people based on their age and service are

    recognized by the organisation by offering cash awards, certificates

    etc.

    23. In our organisation all the people are provided with large working

    tables and furniture.

    24. In our organisation irrespective of the rank, and designation all are

    provided with company uniform.

    25. In our organisation people are provided with Quality food.

    26. In our organisation informal groups and networks are used to share

    the organisational information among themselves.

    27. In our organisation time and punctuality is highly valued. 28. In our organisation as people know their boundary they respect the

    decisions once taken jointly by a senior and junior colleague on delegation.

    29. In our organisation the main concern of people is to help one another to develop greater skills and thereby advance in the organisation.

    30. In our organisation the atmosphere is very friendly and people spend enough time in informal relations.

    31. In our organisation supervisors are more concerned with maintaining good relationship with their subordinates.

    32. In our organisation when working on solutions to problems people here keep in mind the needs of the organisational members as well as society at large.

    33. In our organisation a mistake by a subordinate is treated as an experience (by the boss) from which lessons are learnt to prevent failure and improve performance in the future.

    34. In our organisation decisions are made by keeping in mind the good of the employees and society.

    35. In our organisation innovation or change is mainly initiated and implemented through highly result oriented individuals.

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    36. Our organisation cares for the financial stability of its employees

    37. In our organisation supervisors use their expertise and competence in dealing with issues

    38. There is a cordial relationship between the union and management in our organisation

    39. In our organisation provision for welfare amenities is available

    40. In our organisation superior always lend their help for the

    subordinates.

    41. In our organisation provisions are made to extend short-term and long term facilities to its employees and their families

    42. In our organisation always a higher human orientation prevails among the supervisors

    43. Top management safeguards its employees at risky situations

    44. In our organisation there is a provision for Bonus and other allowances.

    45. In our organisation superiors mould the juniors for future career developments.

    46. Our organisation provides, retirement benefits to its employees.

  • Organisational performance questionnaire

    Sl.

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    Annexure to Particulars seeking for the dimensions of

    Organisational Culture

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    1. In this organisation products are developed constantly.

    2. This organisation always offers quality products

    compared with its competitors

    3. In this organisation employees believe that they have a

    feeling of satisfaction.

    4. This organisation views improved market share as an

    important source of competitive advantage.

    5. In this organisation increase in sales is taken as a sign for

    acceptance of its products in the market.

    6. In this organisation profitability is taken as a sign for its

    improved performance.

    7. This organisation views all round performance as a sign

    of for its future growth.

    8. In this organisation employees have a feeling that they

    are motivated.

    THANK YOU FOR TAKING THE TIME TO RESPOND

    All responses will be kept confidential. Neither you nor your organisation will be revealed by

    name in the subsequent analysis / interpretation. If you have any comments or would like to amplify on

    any of your answers, please feel free to attach additional sheets.

    THANK YOU ONCE AGAIN

    Kindly return the completed questionnaire to,

    M. Arumugam, M.Tech., M.B.A.,

    25/13, State Bank Officers colony,

    Maharajanagar, Tirunelveli-11.

    Pin : 627 011. Mobile : 94432-79628.

    Data collected through this questionnaire will be kept confidential and will not be revealed to any body.

  • A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS OF EMPLOYEES

    IN TEXTILE MANUFACTURING ORGANISATIONS IN COIMBATORE AND MADURAI

    f| u|xw

    Madurai Kamaraj University

    y {x ttw y {x Wxzxx y

    Doctor of Philosophy in Business Administration

    By

    M.Arumugam, M.Tech., M.B.A., MIE., C.Eng.

    Under the Supervision of

    Dr.P.C. Sekar, M.B.A., M.Com., Ph.D.,

    Professor

    Department of Management Studies

    Madurai Kamaraj University

    Madurai 625 021.

    MADURAI KAMARAJ UNIVERSITY

    Palkalai Nagar

    Madurai 625 021

    India.

    August 2007

  • 1

    A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE AND ITS INFLUENCE

    ON THE BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS OF EMPLOYEES IN TEXTILE

    MANUFACTURING ORGANISATIONS IN COIMBATORE AND MADURAI

    Synopsis of the Ph.D., Thesis in Business Management Submitted to Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai.

    By

    M.Arumugam. Introduction

    Organisation culture refers to various attributes of an organisation developed over a

    period of time. The creation of culture may be by its founder and then shaped by his

    successors as the organisation has grown. There is no single organisational culture suitable

    for all types of organisations. Each organisation requires a specific culture for its growth, and

    survival.

    Organisational culture affects not only the behaviour but also how organisations

    themselves interact with one another. Pace and Stren (1958) theorized that the concept of

    culture might impose understanding individual attitudes and behaviour and it would

    operationalise the environment (E) as given by Lewes formula.

    B = P E

    where, B - behaviour

    P - Personality

    and E - environment for organisational

    psychology

    They postulate that behaviour is a function of the interaction of the organisation and

    environment is relevant to the problem in selecting training programme for job satisfaction

    and mental health in general. Organisational culture can have its influence on motivation for

    job satisfaction and productivity. The type of culture an organisation has depends on the

    nature of employees it has, the type of technology, educational level of the employees and

    other related variables. It is argued that Organisational culture exists in the perceptions of the

    employees of that Organisation.

  • 2

    Further, the findings of the research will also suggest the organisations to modify/

    build a suitable culture to improve the overall performance of the firm. In view of the above

    the behavioural patterns of the employees involved could be improved further. This will lead

    to improve the quality of work life, of employees, employed in the textile manufacturing

    organisations in Tamilnadu and also to the overall development of textile Industries in

    Tamilnadu.

    Statement of the Problem

    After globalisation and liberalization India has openedup her manufacturing sector

    economy to the people of other countries at large. This has paved the way for many Indian

    organisations to become Multi National Companies (MNCs) and many Multi National

    Companies to start their manufacturing base in India.

    The researchers curiosity was naturally aroused regarding the Organisational culture

    of the employees of the textile manufacturing units in Tamil Nadu. Against such threats

    hovering around them and destroying their peacefulness, this study attempts to take a broad

    but steep study into the organisational culture and its effects on the behavioural patterns of

    the employees of the Textile manufacturing organisations.

    Need for the Study

    At present the textile manufacturing industry is facing a crisis within India due to

    severe problems such as government policies, scarcity of raw material, increase in the power

    cost and lack of modernization of the old machineries etc. A tough competition from our

    neighbouring countries such as China and Pakistan is also on the wheels due to low raw

    material cost and competitive low price of yarn/cloth offered by them in the international

    market. Being a labour intensive industry, and a vital source of revenue generator to both the

    central and state governments exchequer any crisis to this industry will affect the entire

    national economy. The need of the hour is to save the same by taking some kind of corrective

    measures. With this in mind, the present study has been contemplated to make a critical

    appraisal of the organisational culture variables prevailing in the textile manufacturing

    organisations and thus reveal the current situation.

  • 3

    Scope of the study

    Organisational culture, Organisational performance vis-a-vis employee behaviour

    being a vital issue, the scope of the study is vast. As textile manufacturing industries offer

    employment opportunities for more than 2 million people, the study may provide necessary

    guidelines for studying the various factors building the Organisational culture in the textile

    manufacturing industries. Moreover the study is significant as it aims to correlate the

    employee behaviour also in relation to Organisational culture and Organisational

    performance. In the same manner the employees working in other manufacturing industries

    can also be studied.

    Objectives of the Study

    The objectives of the present study are:

    1. To study the prevailing organisational culture dimensions in the study units

    2. To compare the organisational culture dimensions between Madurai and

    Coimbatore

    3. To reveal the socioeconomic profile of the employees working in the study units

    4. To identify the discriminant dimensions of organisational culture and their relative

    contribution among the employees in Madurai and Coimbatore

    5. To analyse the impact of organisational culture dimensions on organisational

    performance variables.

    6. To examine the impact of organisational culture dimensions on the behavioural

    variables such as, job satisfaction and motivation.

    7. To identify the important discriminant behavioural variables among the

    employees in Coimbatore and Madurai..

    Hypotheses of the study

    In order to study the above objectives the following hypothesis have been proposed.

    i. There is no significant relation between the mean scores of organisational

    dimensions between Madurai and Coimbatore.

    ii. There is no significant relation between the organisational culture dimensions

    of the employees between Madurai and Coimbatore

    iii. Organisational performance has no significant impact on

    Product development, Quality of the product,

  • 4

    Market share Sales Growth and Profitability.

    iv. There is no Significant relationship in job satisfaction between Madurai and

    Coimbatore.

    v. There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction index and profile

    of the employees.

    vi. Organisational culture dimensions have no significant impact on job

    satisfaction.

    vii. There is no significant relationship in motivation between Madurai and

    Coimbatore.

    viii. There is no significant relationship between motivation index and profile of

    the employees.

    ix. Organisational culture dimensions have no significant impact on motivation.

    x. There is no significant difference between the mean and discriminate power of

    the behavioural indices between Coimbatore and Madurai.

    Conceptual frame work

    Organisational culture questionnaire

    From seventy statements of organisational variables the items were minimized to

    forty six after conducting a pilot study. To each of these items the employee indicates

    whether he strongly agrees, agrees, neither agrees nor disagrees (no opinion), disagrees and

    strongly disagrees using Likerts five point scaling technique.

    Organisational performance questionnaire

    The Questionnaire items measuring organisational performance were drawn from the

    Dension Organisational culture survey (Dension & Neale, 1996; Dension and young 1999)

    Following Denison and Mishra (1995), firms effectiveness was measured with eight

    performance variables using five-point Likert scale. The variables measured the following

    dimensions. Product development, quality of product, job satisfaction, market share, sales

    growth, overall performance, profitability and motivation.

    Period of the study

    The study was conducted during the month of June 2006 to December 2006. The

    secondary data suitable for a period of ten years between 1995-2006 are effectively used.

  • 5

    Methodology for collection of data

    Research Design

    Research Design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to

    obtain answers to research questions and to control variations.

    Type of Research Design

    The research design in this study is descriptive in nature and style. The basic

    dimensions of organisation culture like structure, responsibility, rewards, autonomy,

    leadership, supervision, communication, decision making, change etc. are studied.

    Type of universe :

    The number of textile spinning mills working in Coimbatore and Madurai are known

    and hence the universe is finite in nature.

    Sampling unit :

    Textile spinning mills working in Coimbatore district and Madurai are taken up for

    the research. Only private sector mills are included for the study. Spinning mills with more

    than six thousand spindles and member of South India Mills Association (SIMA) with their

    location are identified and segregated into 4 strata. On this basis mills from each strata is

    finalized as the sampling unit.

    Sampling Frame :

    The details are given in the table below.

    Area / Location Sample Total Mills

    Coimbatore 70 102

    Madurai 56 80

    Total 126 182

    Source : SIMA Annual Report 2005

    Analytical Framework

    For analyzing the data collected during the investigation, the following statistical

    tools were used based on the nature of data and the objectives of the research. In the

    present study statistical tools used are t test, one way analysis of variance, factor analysis,

    multiple regression and two group discriminant analysis.

  • 6

    1. t Test

    The t test is applied to test the significant difference between two means drawn

    from two group of samples.

    2. One way analysis of variance :

    The one way analysis of variance is applied to find out the significant difference

    among more than two groups

    3. Factor analysis:

    In order to identify the determinants of the Organisational culture in Textile

    Manufacturing Industries in Tamil Nadu, the Factor Analysis has been used.

    4. Multiple Regression analysis:

    The impact of independent variables on the dependent variables are analysed with the

    help of multiple regression analysis.

    5. Discriminant analysis (Two group model)

    The discriminant analysis is used to identify the important, discriminant variables

    among two or more groups.

    Limitations of the study

    The study is limited to textile manufacturing industries situated in Tamilnadu

    especially in Coimbatore and Madurai.

    The data collected for the study is limited to 70 Organisations in Coimbatore and 56

    Organisations in Madurai with 630 respondents chosen as samples.

    The study is limited by the limitations of the analytical tools used for the analysis of

    the data in the study.

    Scheme of reporting

    The study entitled A Comparative Study on Organisational Culture and its

    Influence on the Behavioural Patterns of Employees in textile Manufacturing

    Organisations in Coimbatore and Madurai is presented in seven chapters.

  • 7

    The first chapter Introduction and Research design of the study introduces the title

    and presents the statement of the problem, scope of the study, objectives of the study,

    Hypothesis of the study, conceptual framework, operational definitions, profile of the textile

    Manufacturing industries, Period of the study, Methodology for collection of data, tools for

    analysis, Limitations of the study and Scheme of reporting.

    The second chapter is entitled Review of Literature which examines the relevant

    past literature available with respect to organisational culture.

    The Third Chapter titled Textile Industries in India An overview, which depicts the

    background, growth, contribution and structure of textile Industry in India, Tamilnadu,

    Coimbatore and Madurai.

    The Fourth Chapter discusses Textile Industry on its Global Scenario.

    The Fifth chapter is devoted to analysis of the results and discussion.

    The Sixth Chapter presents the findings of the Analysis.

    The Seventh Chapter presents the summary of Findings and suggestions. This chapter

    also gives the conclusion and scope for future research of this study.

    Analysis of the Results and Findings

    Organisational culture and its consequences

    In the past two/three decades organisational culture has been studied by academicians

    and practitioners in a wide variety of work settings in the hope that it improves job

    performance and organisational effectiveness or atleast reduces tardiness, absenteeism and

    employee turnover. A number of research studies have demonstrated significant relationships

    between organisational culture and several behavioural out comes and organisational

    performance

    Organisation culture is comprised of a mixture of norms, values, expectations,

    policies and procedures that influence work motivation, commitment and ultimately

    individual work unit performance. Positive climate encourages while negative climate

    inhibits discretionary effect. Organisational culture refers to the quality of working

    environment. If people feel that their values are respected within the organisation, they are

    more likely to contribute positively to the achievement of business outcomes. Creating a

    healthy organisational culture requires attention to the factors which influence employees

  • 8

    perceptions, including the quality of leadership, the way in which decisions are made and

    whether the efforts of employees are recognized.

    A total of forty-six variables determining organizational culture in the textile

    industries have been identified and analysed. For the purpose of convenience of analysis, the

    variables of organisational culture have been grouped using Factor analysis, and the analysis

    results in ten dimensions. The ten dimenstions and the associate variables are listed as below

    Organisational culture Dimensions - Factor Analysis

    Factor I Team work and Participative Management

    Six variables namely decision making, rituals in meeting, support, openness, identity

    and problem management are closely correlated and formed as the first factor which would

    deserve to be called as Team work and participative management.

    S.No. Variables

    1 Decision Making

    2 Rituals in Meeting

    3 Support

    4 Openness

    5 Identity

    6 Problem Management

    Factor II Conflict Resolution Adequacy

    The next factor consists of five variables namely conflict, interpersonal relation,

    management of mistakes, confrontation and informal groups. All these five variables relate to

    conflict resolution adequacy(CRA) and so the factor is named as CRA.

    S.No. Variables

    1 Conflict

    2 Interpersonal Relation

    3 Management of Mistakes

    4 Confrontation

    5 Informal Groups

  • 9

    Factor III Employee Empowerment

    The six variables namely autonomy, proactive, warmth, authenticity, celebrations and

    innovation / change are clustered together to form the third factor / dimension, namely

    employee empowerment

    S.No. Variables

    1 Autonomy

    2 Proactive

    3 Warmth

    4 Authenticity

    5 Celebrations

    6 Innovation / Change

    Factor IV Transactional and Transformational Leadership

    The Factor IV is constituted by the variables namely voluntary help, human

    orientation, moulding of subordinates, using of expertise and competence and leadership.

    S.No. Variables

    1 Voluntary Help

    2 Human Orientation

    3 Moulding of Subordinates

    4 Using of expertise and competence

    5 Leadership

  • 10

    Factor V- Structural and Process interventions

    The variables namely structure, communication, time and punctuality, norms /

    standards and boundary are forming the fifth factor.

    S.No. Variables

    1 Structure

    2 Communication

    3 Time and Punctuality

    4 Norms / Standards

    5 Boundary

    Factor VI Extrinsic Rewards

    The variables namely reward, welfare schemes, economic development of employee

    and bonus are narrated into one factor by the factor analysis and is named as Extrinsic

    rewards.

    S.No. Variables

    1 Reward

    2 Welfare Schemes

    3 Economic Development of Employees

    4 Bonus

    Factor VII Support and Security

    The variables namely the retirement benefits, rooms and furniture, dress code and top

    management support are narrated by the factor analysis into one dimension of organisational

    culture namely Support and Security.

    S. No. Variables

    1 Retirement Benefits

    2 Rooms and furniture

    3 Dress code

    4 Top Management Support

  • 11

    Factor VIII Parental Leadership

    The Variables namely risk tolerance, responsibility and trust are clustered together to

    form the eighth factor namely Parental leadership.

    S.No. Variables

    1 Risk Tolerance

    2 Responsibility

    3 Trust

    Factor IX Concern for Welfare

    The factor analysis narrate the four variables namely food, short term and long term

    facility to employees and families, welfare amenities and union management relationship into

    one dimension namely Concern for welfare since its factor loadings are higher in the

    dimension of concern for welfare compared to other dimensions.

    S.No. Variables

    1 Food

    2 Short and long term Facilities To employees and families

    3 Welfare amenities

    4 Union management relationship

    Factor X Team Building

    The last dimension narrated by the factor analysis by four variables namely beliefs

    and values, orientation, experimentation and collaboration is named as Team Building.

    S.No. Variables

    1 Beliefs and values

    2 Orientation

    3 Experimentation

    4 Collaboration

  • 12

    Comparison of Organisational culture dimensions in Madurai and Coimbatore

    The scores on the above said ten dimensions are drawn from the mean scores of the

    variables in each dimension. The mean of factor scores has been analyzed to exhibit the

    organisational culture in the study area.

    The findings are, the highly viewed organisational culture dimension in Madurai are

    Parental Leadership, Conflict Resolution Adequacy and Support and Security since its mean

    scores are 3.2768, 3.2311and 3.1143 respectively. In the case of Coimbatore these

    dimensions are Team work and Participative management, Employee Empowerment and

    Conflict resolution adequacy with their mean scores of 4.6441, 4.3142 and 4.0443

    respectively. The poorly viewed organisational culture dimensions in Madurai are Structural

    and Process Interventions, Transactional and Transformational Leadership and Team

    Building with their mean scores of 2.4408, 2.5641 and 2.6911 respectively. In Coimbatore

    The poorly viewed organizational culture dimensions are Team Building and Concern for

    welfare since its mean scores are 2.7183 and 3.2146 respectively.

    In order to find out the significant difference among the two areas namely Madurai

    and Coimbatore regarding the existence of organisational culture, the t test has been used

    and the respective t statistics are shown below.

    S.No. Dimension in organisational culture T- Statistics

    1 Team work and Participative Management -2.9186*

    2 Conflict Resolution Adequacy -2.0642*

    3 Employee Empowerment -2.3108*

    4 Transactional and Transformational Leadership -217646*

    5 Structural and Process Interventions -2.9193*

    6 Extrinsic Rewards -1.9808*

    7 Support and Security -0.8644

    8 Parental Leadership -0.3917

    9 Concern for Welfare -0.5086

    10 Team Building -0.2183

    * Significant at 5% level.

  • 13

    Regarding the existence of organisational culture the significant difference among

    Madurai and Coimbatore is identified in the dimensions namely Team work and participative

    management, Conflict resolution adequacy, Employee Empowerment, Transactional and

    Transformational Leadership, Structural and Process Interventions and Extrinsic Rewards

    since the respective t statistics are significant at five percent level. In general the overall

    organisational culture is better in Coimbatore when compared to Madurai.

    Socio-economic Profile of employees

    Since there exists a significant difference in the cultural dimensions among Madurai

    and Coimbatore employees, the researcher tried to find out the attributes which causes this

    difference. For this purpose the researcher selected profile of the respondents and found the

    association between respondents profile and cultural dimenstions. The summary of the

    findings are

    1. 34.8 percentage of the total employees working in the textile organizations in

    Coimbatore and Madurai belonging to the category of Junior Managers /

    Supervisors.

    2. The important age group among the employees above 45 years and 41-45 years

    are with 28.40 and 24.60 percentage to the total.

    3. The majority age group in Madurai and Coimbatore are more than 45 years.

    4. The percentage of the married employees are 82.60

    5. The important level of education among the employees are Diploma holders and

    Undergraduates with 52.20 percentage and 17.20 percentage respectively to the

    total.

    6. The noticeable family size is 3-4 and 5-6 members.

    7. The major personal income is in the range of Rs. 1.2 2.0 lakhs (33.60%) and

    below Rs. 1.2 lakhs (24.2%).

    8. The important family income is in the range of Rs. 1.5-2.5 Lakhs (29.20%) and

    below Rs. 1.5 lakhs (22.80%).

    9. The major experience level falls between 21-25 years and above 25 years with

    24.40 and 23.6 percentage respectively to the total.

  • 14

    Discriminant dimensions of organisational culture among the employees in Madurai

    and Coimbatore

    Since there exists a difference in the organizational culture dimensions to improve

    upon it the decision makers should be helped with the importance of the dimensions. The

    specific variables where the difference exists in the organizational culture dimensions and

    their importance was analysed by means of a discriminant analysis and the findings are

    established discriminant function as, z = 0. 2804 Team Work and Participative Management +

    0.2343 Conflict Resolution Adequacy + 0.1817 Employee Empowerment + 0.1445

    Transactional and Transformational Leadership + 0.1091 Structural and Process Interventions

    + 0.0144 Extrinsic Rewards.

    A higher discriminant power of the organisational culture dimensions are identified in

    the case of Conflict Resolution Adequacy, Transactional and Transformational Leadership

    and concern for welfare since the respective Wilks Lambda coefficients are 0.1241, 0.1396

    and 0.2463 respectively.

    The relative contribution of a discriminant dimension of the organisational culture

    have been computed with the help of the product among the discriminant coefficient and the

    mean difference of the dimensions and the results are given below.

    The highly influencing discriminant dimensions on the discriminant function

    are, Team work and participative management, Conflict Resolution Adequacy and Employee

    Empowerment, since the respective discriminant coefficients are 0.2804, 0.2343 and 0.1817.

    The relative contribution of the dimensions of organisational culture in the total discriminant

    score identified as high, in the case of Team work and participative management, Employee

    Empowerment and Conflict Resolution Adequacy as 35.05, 19.74 and 15.39 percent

    respectively. The established discriminant function correctly classify the cases to the extent

    of 72.09 percent. The evaluation of two group discriminant analysis infers that the important

    discriminant dimensions of organisational culture among the employees in Coimbatore and

    Madurai are, team work and participative management and Employee Empowerment,

    respectively.

  • 15

    Impact of Organisational Culture on Organisational performance variables

    The organisational performance is the ultimate aim of all activities relating to an

    organisation. In this research organizational performance was studied with the help of

    tangible factors such as product development, quality, market share, sales growth overall

    performance, and profitability and intangible variables or behavioural variables such as Job

    satisfaction and motivation. The employees are asked to rate the above said eight variables on

    a five point scale.

    Organizational performance interms of tangible variables were analysed and

    compared by measuring the level of perception of employees between Madurai and

    Coimbatore textile mills. The mean scores of performance shows significant variations

    among the variables namely, product development, sales growth, overall performance and

    profitability which is revealed by the T statistics calculated. As a further step a discriminant

    analysis was also performed on these variables to know the contribution of each of these

    variables. The outcome of the result shows organisational performance contributes to the

    extent of 45.02 percent, product development contributes to the extent of 31.77 percent of

    variation, profitability contributes 13.25 percent, sales growth contributes to 9.96 percent in

    explaining the variation in the organisational performance among Madurai and Coimbatore.

    These results revealed that there exists a distinct difference between the performance of

    Madurai and Coimbatore in the perception of the Textile mill employees. Taking into

    account these variations, the organizational performance index was developed. The

    organizational performance index is a composite measure and is directly having bearing on

    the organizational culture, hence the variables determining organizational culture was

    considered as independent variables and to analyse their effect on organizational performance

    a multiple regression analysis was carried out and the results were shown below.

  • 16

    Regression coefficient S.

    No.

    Dimension in organisational

    culture Madurai Coimbatore

    Pooled

    data

    1 Team work and Participative

    Management 0.1014 0.1968* 0.1406*

    2 Conflict Resolution Adequacy 0.2302* .2143* 0.2081*

    3 Employee Empowerment 0.1724* 0.1402* 0.1511*

    4 Transactional and

    Transformational Leadership 0.1339* 0.1617* 0.1273*

    5 Structural and Process

    Interventions 0.1442* 0.1348* 0.1314*

    6 Extrinsic Rewards 0.1387* 0.1717* 0.1421*

    7 Support and Security 0.1011 0.1082 0.0961

    8 Parental Leadership 0.1563* 0.0911 0.1014

    9 Concern for Welfare 0.1146 0.1246* 0.1117

    10 Team Building 0.0896 0.1408* 0.1296*

    Constant 1.0249 1.8149 1.7039

    R2 0.7441 0.7938 0.8347

    F Statistics 11.3344* 14.6983* 16.3697*

    * Significant at 5% level.

    The multiple regression equation is capable of explaining the total variations to the

    extent of 74.41 percent in Madurai and 79.38 percent in Coimbatore. Both the regression

    equations are reliable, since their F statistics values stood at 11.33 and 14.69.

    Among the employees in Coimbatore Textile mills Team work and Participative

    Management, Conflict Resolution Adequacy, Employee Empowerment, Transactional and

    Transformational Leadership, Structural and Process Interventions, Extrinsic Rewards,

    Concern for Welfare and Team Building are significantly influencing the Performance

    whereas in Madurai Conflict Resolution Adequacy, Employee Empowerment, Transactional

    and Transformational Leadership, Structural and Process Interventions and Extrinsic Rewards

    are affecting the performance significantly. It clearly indicates that in the perception of

    Madurai employees, Team work is lacking among them and also they are not given adequate

    participation in the decision making process. This can be considered as a potential area of

  • 17

    improvement and it may be suggested that in Madurai if the employees are given more

    freedom and if the management educate them about team work and inculcate the team work

    culture the performance of Madurai Textile mills can also be improved further.

    The Impact of Organisational culture dimensions on job satisfaction

    In the second phase the impact of organization culture on Job satisfaction was

    measured. The job satisfaction level was compared between the employees of Madurai and

    Coimbatore. There is a significant difference in the mean score was found from the results of

    t test. To understand the reason for the variation in job satisfaction level, the impact of

    organizational culture on job satisfaction is measured by means of an index called job

    satisfaction Index and the calculated Index shows 5 levels. The results are shown in the

    following table.

    Job Satisfaction Index among the employees

    No of Employees S. No.

    Job Satisfaction Index in

    percent Madurai Coimbatore Total

    1 Less than 21 39 27 66

    2 21-40 25 69 94

    3 41-60 76 89 165

    4 61-80 38 51 89

    5 Above 80 37 49 86

    Total 215 285 500

    Multiple regression analysis was the tool used to measure the impact of organizational

    culture factors on job satisfaction. The coefficient of determination for the regression

    equations for Madurai and Coimbatore are found to be 79.19 percent and 73.83 percent

    respectively. This shows the organisational culture dimensions are capable of explaining the

    job satisfaction to a better extent in Madurai than Coimbatore. The regression equations are

    significant since the F values are 12.49 and 10.86 for Madurai and Coimbatore respectively.

  • 18

    The significant influencers among organizational culture factors for Madurai are

    Team work and participative management, Conflict Resolution Adequacy, Employee

    Empowerment, Transactional and Transformational Leadership, Extrinsic Rewards, Support

    and Security and Concern for welfare. A unit increase in the perception on the above said

    dimensions of organisational culture results in an increase in job satisfaction index by 0.2664,

    0.3142, 2673, 0.1714, 0.3143, 0.2662 and 0.1473 units respectively.

    The significantly influencing dimensions of organizational culture among the

    employees in Coimbatore are Participative management, Conflict Resolution Adequacy,

    Employee Empowerment, Transactional and Transformational Leadership, Concern for

    welfare and Team Building. Since the respective regression coefficients are significant at five

    percent level. The analysis of pooled data reveals that a unit increase in the perception on

    Team work and participative management, Conflict Resolution Adequacy, Employee

    Empowerment, Transactional and Transformational Leadership, Support and Security,

    concern for welfare and Team Building, results in an increase in job satisfaction index by

    0.2707, 0.3242, 0.2863, 0.1908, 0.2164, 0.1893, 0.1593 \and o. 1227 units respectively.

    The Impact of Organisational Culture Dimensions on Motivation

    The motivation towards the work is the other behavioral consequence of

    organisational culture. It is measured by the employees attitudes on motivation. The mean

    score on motivation among the employees of Coimbatore has a higher mean score of 3.7183

    when compared to a lower mean score of Madurai with 3.1145. It is also evident from the

    above there is a significant difference between the level of motivation among the employees

    in Coimbatore and Madurai at five percent level .

    In order to analyse the impact of cultural dimensions on motivation, Regression

    analysis is carried out keeping motivation as a dependent variable and organisational Culture

    factors as independent variables.

  • 19

    Impact on Perception of employees on various dimensions of organisational culture and

    Job Satisfaction

    Regression coefficient S.No.

    Dimension in organisational

    culture Madurai Coimbatore Pooled data

    1 Team work and participative

    Management 0.2664* 0.3496* 0.2707*

    2 Conflict Resolution Adequacy 0.3142* 0.3649* 0.3242*

    3 Employee Empowerment 0.2673* 0.3108* 0.2863*

    4 Transactional and

    Transformational Leadership 0.1714* 0.2206* 0.1908*

    5 Structural and Process

    Interventions 0.1942 0.1144 0.0811

    6 Extrinsic Rewards 0.3143* 0.2069 0.2164*

    7 Support and Security 0.2662* 0.1083 0.1893*

    8 Parental Leadership 0.0844 0.1129 0.0706

    9 Concern for Welfare 0.1473* 0.2063* 0.1593*

    10 Team Building 0.1141 0.1449* 0.1227*

    Constant 1.2143 2.2449 1.6786

    R2 0.7919 0.7386 0.8183

    F Statistics 12.4942* 10.8617* 14.0817*

    * Significant at 5% level

    The significantly influencing dimensions of organisational culture on the motivation

    index among the employees in Madurai are, Team work and participative management,

    Conflict Resolution Adequacy, Support and Security, concern for Welfare and Team

    Building. A unit increase in the perception on the above said dimensions results in an

    increase in the motivation index among the employees by 0.2148, 0.2409, 0.1723, 0.2304 and

    0.1881 units respectively . The significantly influencing dimensions of organisational culture

    among the employees of Coimbatore are Team work and Participative Management, Conflict

    Resolution Adequacy, Employee Empowerment, Transactional and Transformational

    Leadership, Extrinsic Rewards, Concern for welfare, as the respective regression coefficients

    are significant at five percent level. The analysis on pooled data reveals that a unit increase in

  • 20

    the perception on Team work and participative management, Conflict Resolution Adequacy,

    Employee Empowerment and concern for welfare results in an increase in the motivation

    index by 0.1811, 0.3224, 0.1907 and 0.1893 units respectively. The changes in perception on

    various dimensions of organisational culture results changing motivation index among the

    employees to the extent of 82.47 percent. The significant F Statistics show the validity of

    the fitted regression model.

    Suggestions

    1. The management may introduce open offices without cabins and partitions for its

    employees.

    2. The management may initiate daily shop floor meetings to solve day to day issues.

    3. The management may provide subsidized Quality food and uniform to all its

    employees.

    4. The management may introduce small group activities such as Quality circles

    which may improve the quality of the products.

    5. Management may encourage those who are offering the company valuable

    suggestions for improving the functioning of the organization.

    Contribution to theory and Practice

    Organisational culture though established in detail through various research models

    and apt findings (as seen in the literature review) there was a lag found in the literature when

    it comes to Indian context. Particularly the Indian studies focused on organizational climate

    and the impact on behavioural intensions of the employees and their performances. (Singhal,

    S and Sood, R., 1981; Abrol, S., 1981; Padake R. and Gandhi, P., 1981, Banral, P. 1982), to a

    limited extent only.

    The focus on organizational culture studies in textile industries of Southern India is a

    virgin area, where more studies are warranted. This study fills the void through its major

    contribution in the form of identified culture dimensions prevailing in the textile industry of

    India. The role of Team work and participative management dimensions in determining the

    organisational performance of textile mills is a significant addition to the organizational

    literature which is established through this study.

  • 21

    Another significant addition to the literature is that the existence of varying cultural

    dimensions in the same industry. In the Coimbatore city, the textile industry cultural

    dimensions such as Team work and participative management, scope for advancement and

    interpersonal relationship proved significant, whereas the significant textile industry cultural

    dimensions in Madurai city are conflict Resolution adequacy and safety and security. This

    adds a new perspective to take initiative in conducting cultural studies where different

    cultural dimensions are visible within the same industry.

    Beyond the contribution to the theory part, this study provides practical support to the

    textile industry in India, particularly with reference to Coimbatore and Madurai areas. It is

    evident from the study that the organisational cultural dimensions in Madurai are weaker than

    Coimbatore, this imperative to focus on them and this will be of immensely helpful to the

    textile entrepreneurs in the Madurai area.

    Moreover, this study will also help to improve the interpersonal relationship

    dimensions and transparency in decision making. The suggestions like having an open office

    without cabins and partitions and conductance of shopfloor regular meetings from this study

    may prove to be useful. Further the industry practioners may think of organizing quality

    circles to ensure the important cultural dimensions and improve both productivity and

    quality.

    Thus, this research adds humbly a valid contribution to the theory and practice of

    organizational culture among the textile industry.

    Scope for future research

    Culture studies in itself requires more qualitative approach to cross validate the

    findings of quantitative studies like this research. So, future research warrants a quantitative

    approach also for cultural studies in textile industries in India. Further a meta-analytic study

    on various Indian cultures is the need of the hour. A combined reference point in the form of

    a summary of all the organizational culture studies is seriously lagging. This may be

    overcome by conducting a thorough meta-analytic study of the Indian organization culture

    models.

  • 22

    This study also can be extended to study indepth on the role of organizational culture

    on the performance of the organizations based on economic factors like profitability of the

    organizations and it may prove vital for the economic functioning of textile organizations in

    India. A more detailed cause and effect study using structural equation modeling may be the

    next step for the cultural studies in the textile industries of India.

    Beyond these studies, to enhance the cultural changes, a strategic cultural change

    model is also is the need of the hour, which could help the entrepreneurs of this vital industry

    of India to immediately apply in their units and to bring an organizational change.

    CONCLUSION

    Textiles constitute an integral part of Indian economy. Textile manufacturing units

    are concentrated at these places where cotton and labour are available in plenty. Coimbatore

    and Madurai are traditional centers of textile manufacturing in Tamil Nadu. Textile industry

    has been opened to fierce competition since 1991, with the initiation of economic

    liberalization policies of the government of India. Currently the industry is facing a crisis due

    to governmental and non-governmental reasons resulting in poor performance and inability to

    copeup with competitions. From the current research it could be concluded that both

    organizationsal performance and the behavioural patterns of employees working in the

    textile manufacturing organizations in Madurai and Coimbatore are affected by the various

    dimensions of organizational culture.

    About Culture

    Obviously there are many more functions of organizational culture. Fact is that

    organizational culture needs to be reckoned with the management. It must be managed,

    aligned with the goals and strategies of the organizational functioning. In addition to the

    traditional financial compensation the employees are looking for an element that could well

    turn out to be the most pivotal of all, in their jobs. The deciding factor in which, whether an

    employee stays back or moves on in an organization is based on the organizational culture,

    especially the way it treats, values and trusts its employees. In reality organizational culture

    is more complex, dynamic and consequential.