Organisational Culture and change

  • View
    21

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Session 18. Organisational Culture and change. Guest Speaker. Discussed the culture and its implications for employees and working practices. Discussed the working practices and culture at Lastminute.com Student presentation on Culture. Set the pattern and then change it. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Organisational Culture and change

  • ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE AND CHANGESession 18

  • Guest Speaker Discussed the culture and its implications for employees and working practices.

    Discussed the working practices and culture at Lastminute.com Student presentation on Culture.

  • Set the pattern and then change itInstitutional theory is about embedding practice in the organisation setting rules and parameters how we do things here. This is based on the entrepreneurs vision. Organisational learning means that it must continue to match its resources and structure to the changing needs of market. Organisations must respond to changing contingencies if they are to sustainable.

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

  • The learning organisationOpportunityEntrepreneurOrganisationResourcesConfigurationFocusFitWickham, 2006: 227

    Wickham, 2006: 227

  • Planning ChangeOrganisation development is a mechanism for bring about planned change. Planned change aims to increase organisational effectiveness and capacity to respond to change itself. Three approaches:Lewins Change ModelAction Research ModelPositive Model

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

  • Models of Planned ChangeUnfreezeMovementRefreezeProblem IdentificationConsultation with Behaviour ExpertsInitiate the EnquiryActionJoint Action PlanJoint Diagnosis of the ProblemFeedback to Key GroupGather Data and Preliminary Diagnosis

    Data Gather after Action

    Investigate Best PracticeDiscover ThemesEnvision a Preferred FutureDesign and Deliver ways to Create the FutureCummings and Worley (2009: 25)

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 25)

  • Kurt Lewins Change ModelEarly model of planned change modification of those forces keeping a systems behaviours stable.

    Quasi-stationary equilibriumCummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

  • Kurt Lewins Change ModelTo create pressure for change you need to create more pressure for change. This may be achieved by changing expected norms of behaviour or raising expectations.

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

  • LewinUnfreeze initiate steps that reduce those forces that maintain the status quo. Maybe need psychological disconfirmation demonstrate the differences between current behaviour and desired behaviour. Moving Shift behaviour to the new expected level. Aim to develop new attitudes, values and behaviours, supported by changes in the organisation structure and processes. Refreeze This stabilises the organisation in the new state of equilibrium. These are reinforced with new rewards, culture and structure.

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

  • Action Based ModelConsiders change as a cyclical process. Places emphasis on data gathering and diagnosis prior to action planning and implementation as well as careful evaluation after action is taken. Can help to solve specific organisational problems and also to gather data that can be applied to other settings.

    Often associated with organisational development. Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

  • Action Based ResearchCan be scaled up from smaller units to whole organisational approaches. Can involve a range of stakeholders and therefore it is more inclusive approach (rather than having it undertaken by consultants). Consultant can work with internal stakeholders and co-design solutions to problems. Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

  • The Positive ModelWhile the previous problems focus on the organisations problems (they are deficit based), this approach focuses on what the organisation is doing right. The approach focuses on positive organisational dynamics what is the organisation doing right. Positive expectations are exploited to create an approach that anticipates a good outcome. This energises people in advance of the event. Helps to create a shared vision which conceives a positive potential outcome. Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

  • ComparisonsAll three define the stages in which planned change can occur. Each has a preliminary and closing phase. All involved a behavioural science element people, values, processes change. Lewin and Action Based Research use consultants as part of the process. More advanced ABR and Positive Models treat the employees and consultants as co-learners. Lewin and ABR are concerned with fixing problems, while Positive approach is based on leveraging the organisations strengths.Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

    Cummings and Worley (2009: 23-31)

  • ReferenceCummings, T and Worley, C. G. (2009) Organisational Development and Change South-Western CENGAGE Learning, Chapter 2. Wickham, P. (2006)Strategic Entrepreneurship FT Prentice Hall.

    *Much of the discussion in this section revolved around identity. The notion of culture in the context of micro businesses centred on the identity of the individual entrepreneur and those socio-cultural factors that impacted on them. As the business grows, working practices become embedded, and the the how we do things here notion starts to emerge within the nascent culture of the organisation. This led us into a discussion on institutional theory, embedding practice and then onto change.

    We discussed students perception of their approach to culture (how they might do things as their businesses grow) and what factors they felt impacted on their attitude. **