Organic Glossary Terms

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organicglossaryterms

Text of Organic Glossary Terms

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN PHYSICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY(IUPAC Recommendations 1994)IndexQuick move to A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z.abstractionacceptor number (AN)acidacidityacidity functionactivated complexactivation energy See energy of activation.addend See addition reaction.additionaddition reactionadditivity principleadductA-factor See energy of activation.agosticalcoholysis See solvolysis.allylic substitution reactionalternantambidentamphiphilicamphiprotic (solvent)amphotericanchimeric assistance See neighbouring group participation.anionotropic rearrangement (or anionotropy)anion radical See radical ion.annelationannulationannuleneantarafacial, suprafacialantiantiaromatic See aromatic.anti-Hammond effect See More O'Ferrall-Jencks diagram.anti-Markownikoff addition See Markownikoff rule.aprotic (solvent)aquationaromatic, aromaticityArrhenius equation See energy of activation.aryneassociationasymmetric inductionatomic orbitalattachmentautocatalytic reactionautomerizationautoprotolysisautoprotolysis constant"A" value+ azacarbene See nitrene.+ azene See nitrene.+ azylene See nitrene.-addition (alpha-addition)-effect-eliminationBaldwin's rulesbasebasicitybasicity function See acidity function.bathochromic shift (effect)Bell-Evans-Polanyi principlebenzynebifunctional catalysisbimolecular See molecularity.binding sitebiradicalBodenstein approximation See steady state.bondbond dissociationbond-dissociation energybond energy (mean bond energy)bond migrationSee migration.bond numberbond orderborderline mechanismBredt's rulebridged carbocationbridging ligandBrnsted acid (Brnsted acid)Brnsted base (Brnsted base)Brnsted relation (Brnsted relation)Bunnett-Olsen equationscagecage compoundcanonical form See contributing structure.captodative effectcarbanioncarbenecarbenium centrecarbenium ioncarbenoidcarbocationcarbonium ioncarbynecatalysiscatalysis law See Brnsted relation.catalystcatalytic coefficientcationotropic rearrangement (cationotropy)cation radical See radical ion.chain reactionchain transfercharge density See electron density.charge populationcharge-transfer complexchelationcheletropic reactionchelotropic reactionchemical fluxchemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) See CIDNP.chemical reactionchemical relaxationchemical shift (NMR)chemical specieschemoselective, chemoselectivity+ chemospecificity See chemoselectivity.chromophoreCIDNP (Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization)cine-substitutionclass (a) metal ionclass (b) metal ionclathrate See host, inclusion compound.colligationcommon-ion effect (on rates)compensation effectcomplementary binding sites See binding site.complexcomposite reactioncomproportionationconcerted processcondensation reactionconfiguration (electronic)configuration (molecular)conformationconjugate acid-base pairconjugated system, conjugationconjugative mechanism See electronic effect.connectivityconstitutionconrotatory See electrocyclic reaction.contact ion pair See ion pair.contributing structurecoordinate covalence (coordinate link) See coordination.coordinationcoordination numbercoordinatively saturatedcoordinatively unsaturatedcoronate See crown.correlation analysiscosphere See cybotactic region.coupling constant (spin-spin coupling constant)covalent bondCox-Yates equationcritical micelle concentration (cmc)cross-conjugationcrowncryptandCurtin-Hammett principlecybotactic regioncyclizationcycloadditioncycloelimination+ cycloreversion See cycloelimination.+ dative bond See coordination.decomposition, chemical+ de-electronation See oxidation.degenerate chemical reaction See identity reaction.degenerate rearrangementdelocalizationdeshielding See shielding.detachmentdetailed balancing, principle ofdiamagneticdiastereoisomerismdielectric constantdienophilediffusion-controlled ratedimerizationDimroth-Reichardt ET parameterdipolar aprotic solventdipolar bonddipolar cycloaddition See cycloaddition.dipole-dipole interactiondipole-induced dipole forces See van der Waals forces.diradical See biradical.direct effect See field effect.dismutation See disproportionation.dispersion forces See London forces.disproportionationdisrotatory See electrocyclic reaction.dissociationdistonic radical cationdonor number (DN)downfield See chemical shift.driving force (also called the affinity) of a reactiondual substituent-parameter equationdyotropic rearrangementET-value See Dimroth-Reichardt ET parameter, Z-value.+ educteffective chargeeffective molarity (or effective concentration)eighteen-electron ruleelectrocyclic reactionelectrofugeelectromeric effectelectron acceptorelectron affinityelectronation See electron attachment, reduction.electron attachmentelectron configuration See configuration (electronic).electron-deficient bondelectron densityelectron detachmentelectron donor+ electron-donor-acceptor complexelectronegativityelectroneutrality principleelectronic effect of substituents: symbols and signselectron-pair acceptorelectron-pair donorelectron transferelectron-transfer catalysiselectrophile, electrophilicelectrophilicityelement effectelementary reactioneliminationenantiomerenantioselectivity See stereoselectivity.encounter complexencounter-controlled rateene reactionenergy of activation (Arrhenius energy of activation; activation energy)energy profile See Gibbs energy diagram, potential-energy profile.enforced concerted mechanismenophile See ene reaction.entering groupenthalpy of activation (standard entalpy of activation)entropy of activation, (standard entropy of activation)epimerepimerizationequilibrium, chemicalequilibrium control See thermodynamic control.equilibrium isotope effect See isotope effect.ET-value See Dimroth-Reichardt ET parameter, Z-value.excess acidity See Bunnett-Olsen equations, Cox-Yates equation.excimerexciplexexcited stateextended Hammett equationexternal return See ion-pair return.extrusion transformation-symbol ("eta")fast-atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectroscopyfield effectflash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP)fluxionalforce-field calculations See molecular mechanics calculation.fractionation factor, isotopicfragmentationfree radical See radical.frontier orbitalsfunctional groupgas-phase aciditygas-phase basicitygeminate pairgeminate recombinationgeneral acid catalysisgeneral base catalysisGibbs energy diagramGibbs energy of activation (standard free energy of activation)ground stategroupGrunwald-Winstein equationguesthalf-lifehalochromismHammett acidity function See acidity function.Hammett equation (or Hammett relation)Hammond principle (or Hammond postulate)Hansch constanthaptohard acidhard baseheat capacity of activation+ hemileptic See homoleptic.Henderson-Hasselbach equationheterobimetallic complexheteroconjugationheterolepticheterolysis, heterolyticheterolytic bond-dissociation energyheterovalent hyperconjugation See hyperconjugation.hidden return See ion-pair return.Hildebrand parameterHofmann rulehomohomoaromatichomoconjugationhomoleptichomolysis, homolytichostHckel (4n + 2) rulehybridizationhydrationhydrogen bondhydrolysishydronhydrophilichydrophobic interactionhyperconjugationhypsochromic shiftidentity reactionimbalance+ imene See nitrene.+ imidogen See nitrene.+ imidonium ion See nitrene.+ imin See nitrene.+ imine radical See nitrene.inclusion compound (or inclusion complex)induction periodinductive effectinductomeric effectinertinhibitioninitiationinner-sphere (electron transfer)insertionintermediateintermolecularinternal return See ion-pair return.intimate ion pair See ion pair.intramolecularintramolecular catalysisintrinsic barrierinverse kinetic isotope effect See isotope effect.inverted micelleionic strengthionizationionization energyionizing powerion pairion pair returnipso-attackisodesmic reactionisoelectronicisoentropicisoequilibrium relationshipisokinetic relationshipisolobalisomerisomerizationisosbestic pointisoselective relationshipisotope effectisotope effect, equilibrium see isotope effect, thermodynamic.isotope effect, heavy atomisotope effect, intramolecularisotope effect, inverseisotope effect, kineticisotope effect, primaryisotope effect, secondaryisotope effect, solventisotope effect, stericisotope effect, thermodynamicisotope exchangeisotopic perturbation, method ofisotopic scramblingisotopologueisotopomerisovalent hyperconjugation See hyperconjugation.Kamlet-Taft solvent parametersKekul structure (for aromatic compounds)kinetic ambiguitykinetic control (of product composition)kinetic electrolyte effect (kinetic ionic-strength effect)kinetic equivalencekinetic isotope effect See isotope effect.Koppel-Palm solvent parametersKosower Z-value See Z-value.labileleast nuclear motion, principle ofleaving groupLeffler's assumption See Hammond principle.left-to-right conventionlevelling effectLewis acidLewis acidityLewis adductLewis baseLewis basicityLewis formula (electron dot or Lewis structure)lifetime (mean lifetime)ligandlinear free-energy relationlinear Gibbs energy relation See linear free-energy relation.linear solvation energy relationshipsline formulaline-shape analysisLineweaver-Burk plot See Michaelis-Menten kinetics.lipophilicLondon forceslone (electron) pairloose ion pair See ion pair.LUMO See frontier orbitals.lyate ionlyonium ionmacroscopic diffusion control See mixing control.magic acid See superacid.magnetic equivalencemagnetization transferMarcus equationMarkownikoff rulemass-law effectmatrix isolationmean lifetime See lifetime.mechanismmechanism-based inhibitionmediumMeisenheimer adductmelting point (corrected/uncorrected)mesolytic cleavagemesomeric effectmesomerismmesophasemetastable (chemical species) See transient (chemical species).metathesis+ methylene See carbene.+ methylidyne See carbyne.micellar catalysismicelleMichaelis-Menten kineticsmicroscopic chemical event See chemical reaction, molecularity.microscopic diffusion control (encounter control)microscopic reversibility, principle ofmigrationmigratory aptitudemigratory insertionminimum structural change, principle of S