Operant Principles

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Operant Principles. Dr. Ayers HPER 448 Western Michigan University. Sustaining Program Effect. Ultimate goal of a physical education program What will students need to develop? Physical Skills Knowledge Personal Social Skills What type of skill is associated with management? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Operant Principles

  • Operant PrinciplesDr. Ayers HPER 448Western Michigan University

  • Sustaining Program EffectUltimate goal of a physical education programWhat will students need to develop?Physical SkillsKnowledgePersonal Social SkillsWhat type of skill is associated with management?What is the ultimate goal of the teacher regarding student management?

  • Lesson OutcomesIdentify components of behavioral analysis applicable in physical activity contextBehavioral contingencyReinforcement ProceduresPunishmentReinforcement HierarchyReinforcement Schedule

  • Behavioral Contingency*

    ResponseSD--------------------->R--------------->CDiscriminating Stimulus Consequence

  • Discriminating Stimulus *Instructional SettingEnvironment in which the response occursSet of controllable circumstancesCreated by the instructorPhysical setting, person, activity

  • Response *Action that immediately follows the presentation of the discriminating stimulus


  • Consequence *Event that follow the responseReinforcerPunishment

    Law of Probability: Given the same circumstances, the same response will occur if followed by an event perceived to be desirable (pleasing) by the performer

  • ReinforcementAn event that immediately follows a behavior or response

    INCREASES the probability that the behavior or response will occur again under the same circumstances

  • Types of ReinforcementPositive: Presentation of something that increases the behavior or responseNegative*: Withdraw or removal of something that increases the behavior or response

    Escape/Aversion from an event perceived as unpleasant

  • Schedules of ReinforcementContinuous: Every time (Beginner)

    Variable: Every X times; no pattern

    Fixed: Every X times; fixed number

    Intermittent: Random

  • Hierarchy of ReinforcersEdible- Consumable that meets a physiological need (water, candy, etc.)Tangible- Valued as a possessionToken- May be exchangedSocial- Verbal, visualActivity- Game, past-timeStimulus Control- Initiated by the student

  • Premack Principle *Give me what I want and you will get what you wantPairing low frequency behavior with high frequency behaviorLow frequency (not perceived as a favorable)High frequency (perceived as desirable/favorable)Shift the ratio: Higher levels of low required to gain access to high frequencies

  • Reinforcement Principles *Reinforce small, but successive, approximations toward desired behaviorReward frequentlyReinforce immediately after, not beforeReinforce clearlyAttemptCorrect responseGeneral v. Specific

  • Reinforcement Principles* (contd)Reinforce consistently across behavior/ personReinforce sequentiallyPositive followed by correction5:1 ratio (positive v. negative or punishment)

  • Punishment *Event that immediately follows a behavior that DECREASES the probability that the behavior will occur given the same circumstances

    Predominant form of control in educational settings

    Frequently misused

  • Appropriate Uses of Punishment in EducationDangerousSelfOthersDisruptivePlaces others or self in jeopardyDefiant Directly to teacherViolates posted rulesDestructiveProperty

  • Punishment GuidelinesImmediateRemove the student from the settingMaintain composureConsistencyFirm Time OutNo peer interactionNo attention-seeking behaviorsMake sure this is not the goal of the student

  • Developing and Maintaining a Learning Environment

  • ManagementArranging the environment for learning and maintaining/developing student-appropriate behavior and engagement with the contentContentWhat is to be learnedGOOD MANAGEMENT IS NECESSARY BUT NOT SUFFICIENT FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING * TEACHING IS AN INTERDEPENDENT PROCESS Goal of good management systemHigh level of engagement in appropriate tasks Teaching Functions

  • -Customary way of handling tasks (usually daily tasks)

    -Establish expectations to mold S behaviorLocker room, pre-class, lesson, end-of-lesson

    -Introduce and practice until routine

    -Must be reinforced consistently *Routines

  • Common RoutinesLocker roomBefore ClassAttendanceLesson-RelatedGroupingEnd of LessonLate ArrivalsWater/Bathroom BreaksInjured Students

  • Locker Room RoutinesWhen to enterWhere to put belongingsPermissible social behaviorAmount of time allocated for dressingWhere to go upon leaving locker roomCircumstances when to enter the locker room during classWhat to do if locker combination does not workShower requirement

  • Before Class RoutinesElementaryWhere to go: Circle, squadsStart warm up on own?

    SecondaryWhere to goPermissible activities: Start warm-up, use specified equipment, activitiesDoes teacher have to be in the room to do activities?

  • AttendanceElementary- Ask classroom teacher how many students are in class or ask students who is absentSecondary- Use time-saving techniquesAssigned spots- Numbers on floorTeacher scansRecordsAssigned spots- Squads Use squad leadersRotate leadersUse a prepared index card

  • Lesson-Related RoutinesDistributing EquipmentOut-of-Bounds Areas in GymSignals (stop and go)Grouping of StudentsEnd-of-LessonClosureDismissalLate Arrivals (wait for teacher direction)Water and Bathroom Breaks Injured Students (emergency plan)

  • -General expectations for behavior

    -Teach as concepts (across a variety of +/- situations)

    -Guidelines*:Developed cooperatively w/ T and SsStated positivelyMake explicit (post in facility)Reinforce consistently and fairlyFew in number (3-5)Consistent with school rulesEnforceableRules

  • Personal Social SkillsResponsibilityRespect for OthersRespect for AuthorityCooperation (Teamwork)LeadershipBest EffortReliability

  • When others are talking, we will respect them by listeningWe will support the efforts of others by encouraging them as they performWe will use our equipment and space responsiblyWe make our best effort at all tasksWe will cooperate with others by sharing equipmentExamples of Rules

  • Developmental ConsiderationsTake students personal social development into consideration

    Develop a progression for personal social development

    Rules for K-2/3-5/7-8/9-10--Should be arranged hierarchically

  • Gaining/Maintaining S CooperationPlan progressive experiences toward learning environment (Box 7.2, p. 142)K-2/3: Compliant, want to please teacher2/3-5/6: Compliant, need less management time5/6-9/10: Peers most important, motivation becomes an issueHS: Maturation results in less mgmt time

  • Share clear expectationsConsequencesReinforcement (Tangible, Token, Social, Activity?)Identify your ultimate goal for student behavior (Personal-Social Skills)Communicate your expectations in advance Positive is more effective than negativeInappropriate student behavior is not a personal attackDiscuss appropriate/inappropriate behaviorBE FAIR AND CONSISTENTTeaching Routines/Rules

  • Positive more effective than negativeTeach expectations, reasons for rules, address problems constructively/cooperativelyInappropriate behavior is not a personal threatBe caring, concerned, firmRely on instruction/persuasion, not power/assertionKnow your own expectationsWatch your cooperating T this semester; what is ok? What does (s)he let go? ClarityconsistencyKnow the ultimate goal for S behaviorThink long-term; what do you want next year? 2 yrs?

  • Share your behavioral expectations in advanceDo not wait on misbehavior to teach good behaviorHelp Ss internalize appropriate behaviorExplain WHY these rules existEncourage S participation in rule/behavior expectationsTeach rules for learning tasks too-How do you actually practice a skill?-How do you work with others?-What do you do if you infringe on others space?-How do you get T attention for help?Management is ongoingContinually work to help Ss achieve self-control

  • Developing Self-Control & Personal ResponsibilityNational standards highlight this aspect5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings6. Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expressions and/or social interaction Nature of our setting fosters personal/social skills-Moving from external to internal control decision making skills-Guiding Ss to higher level functioning is part of physical educators professional responsibility

  • Hellisons Developmental Levels

    0: Irresponsibility1: Self-control2: Involvement3: Self responsibility4: Caring0: Irresponsibility

    Unmotivated, undisciplined, denies personal responsibility, verbally or physically abusive of others, interrupts, off task on a continuous basis, requires constant supervision

    Not highly engaged in the lesson but not disruptive, does not need constant supervision, goes through the motions of complianceDemonstrates self-control and an enthusiasm for the subject-matter; willing to try new things and has a person definition of successCapacity to work without direct supervision; can identify own needs and interests and is independent in his/her pursuit for themCooperative, supportive and caring about others; willing to help othersTransfers responsible behavior to life settings outside the gym; personal responsibility for actions

  • Strategies emphasized in Hellisons model*-Create awareness of appropriate behavior & goals-Provide opportunities for Ss to reflect on their behavior relative to behavior goals-Provide opportunities to set personal behavior goals-Establish consequences for both +/- behavior-Include Ss in group processes to share T power-Help Ts interact with Ss in growth-producing ways