     # On Regular Congruences of Partially Ordered .On Regular Congruences of Partially Ordered Semigroups

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### Text of On Regular Congruences of Partially Ordered .On Regular Congruences of Partially Ordered Semigroups

• On Regular Congruences of Partially OrderedSemigroups

Boza TasicRyerson University, Toronto

June 21, 2015

• Partially Ordered Semigroups

I A partially ordered semigroup (po-semigroup) is an orderedtriple S = S , , such that

I a) S , , is a semigroup,I b) S , is a partially ordered set (poset),I c) (x y & u v) x u y v for all x , y , u, v S .

I Condition c) is equivalent to

I c) x y (x z y z & z x z y) for all x , y , z S

• Partially Ordered Semigroups

I A partially ordered semigroup (po-semigroup) is an orderedtriple S = S , , such that

I a) S , , is a semigroup,

I b) S , is a partially ordered set (poset),I c) (x y & u v) x u y v for all x , y , u, v S .

I Condition c) is equivalent to

I c) x y (x z y z & z x z y) for all x , y , z S

• Partially Ordered Semigroups

I A partially ordered semigroup (po-semigroup) is an orderedtriple S = S , , such that

I a) S , , is a semigroup,I b) S , is a partially ordered set (poset),

I c) (x y & u v) x u y v for all x , y , u, v S .I Condition c) is equivalent to

I c) x y (x z y z & z x z y) for all x , y , z S

• Partially Ordered Semigroups

I A partially ordered semigroup (po-semigroup) is an orderedtriple S = S , , such that

I a) S , , is a semigroup,I b) S , is a partially ordered set (poset),I c) (x y & u v) x u y v for all x , y , u, v S .

I Condition c) is equivalent to

I c) x y (x z y z & z x z y) for all x , y , z S

• Partially Ordered Semigroups

I A partially ordered semigroup (po-semigroup) is an orderedtriple S = S , , such that

I a) S , , is a semigroup,I b) S , is a partially ordered set (poset),I c) (x y & u v) x u y v for all x , y , u, v S .

I Condition c) is equivalent to

I c) x y (x z y z & z x z y) for all x , y , z S

• Partially Ordered Semigroups

I A partially ordered semigroup (po-semigroup) is an orderedtriple S = S , , such that

I a) S , , is a semigroup,I b) S , is a partially ordered set (poset),I c) (x y & u v) x u y v for all x , y , u, v S .

I Condition c) is equivalent toI c) x y (x z y z & z x z y) for all x , y , z S

• Congruence Relations of Semigroups

I A congruence relation of the semigroup S = S , is anequivalence relation S2 that satisfies the followingcompatibility property:

I

(x y & u v) x u y v for all x , y , u, v S . (CP)

• Congruence Relations of Semigroups

I A congruence relation of the semigroup S = S , is anequivalence relation S2 that satisfies the followingcompatibility property:

I

(x y & u v) x u y v for all x , y , u, v S . (CP)

• Congruence Relations of Semigroups

I Given a congruence relation of the semigroup S = S , wedefine the quotient semigroup (a.k.a the homomorphic image)of S by to be the semigroup S/ = S/, where

I x/ y/ = (x y)/ for all x , y S .I The set of all congruences of a semigroup S = S , is

denoted by Con(S)

• Congruence Relations of Semigroups

I Given a congruence relation of the semigroup S = S , wedefine the quotient semigroup (a.k.a the homomorphic image)of S by to be the semigroup S/ = S/, where

I x/ y/ = (x y)/ for all x , y S .

I The set of all congruences of a semigroup S = S , isdenoted by Con(S)

• Congruence Relations of Semigroups

I Given a congruence relation of the semigroup S = S , wedefine the quotient semigroup (a.k.a the homomorphic image)of S by to be the semigroup S/ = S/, where

I x/ y/ = (x y)/ for all x , y S .I The set of all congruences of a semigroup S = S , is

denoted by Con(S)

• Congruence Relations of Semigroups

I How does one extend the concept of quotients topo-semigroups?

I For structures that have only operations, i.e., algebras,quotients are defined using congruences.

I Structures that have both operations and relations are studiedin model theory and their quotients are defined as

The algebraic quotient + Relations on the algebraic quotient.

• Congruence Relations of Semigroups

I How does one extend the concept of quotients topo-semigroups?

I For structures that have only operations, i.e., algebras,quotients are defined using congruences.

I Structures that have both operations and relations are studiedin model theory and their quotients are defined as

The algebraic quotient + Relations on the algebraic quotient.

• Congruence Relations of Semigroups

I How does one extend the concept of quotients topo-semigroups?

I For structures that have only operations, i.e., algebras,quotients are defined using congruences.

I Structures that have both operations and relations are studiedin model theory and their quotients are defined as

The algebraic quotient + Relations on the algebraic quotient.

• Quotients of Po-Semigroups

I Given a po-semigroup S = S , , and ConS , wedefine the quotient po-semigroup (a.k.a the homomorphicimage) of S by to be the structure S/ = S/,,,where

I a) S/, is a quotient semigroup,I b) The relation on S/ is defined by

x/ y/ (x1 x/)(y1 y/) x1 y1

• Quotients of Po-Semigroups

I Given a po-semigroup S = S , , and ConS , wedefine the quotient po-semigroup (a.k.a the homomorphicimage) of S by to be the structure S/ = S/,,,where

I a) S/, is a quotient semigroup,

I b) The relation on S/ is defined by

x/ y/ (x1 x/)(y1 y/) x1 y1

• Quotients of Po-Semigroups

I Given a po-semigroup S = S , , and ConS , wedefine the quotient po-semigroup (a.k.a the homomorphicimage) of S by to be the structure S/ = S/,,,where

I a) S/, is a quotient semigroup,I b) The relation on S/ is defined by

x/ y/ (x1 x/)(y1 y/) x1 y1

• Quotients of Po-Semigroups

I Quotients preserve identities satisfied by the original algebra

I Quotients may not preserve all formulas involving relationssatisfied by the original structure.

I A quotient of a semigroup is a semigroup,

I Unfortunately, a quotient of a po-semigroup is not necessarilya po-semigroup.

• Quotients of Po-Semigroups

I Quotients preserve identities satisfied by the original algebra

I Quotients may not preserve all formulas involving relationssatisfied by the original structure.

I A quotient of a semigroup is a semigroup,

I Unfortunately, a quotient of a po-semigroup is not necessarilya po-semigroup.

• Quotients of Po-Semigroups

I Quotients preserve identities satisfied by the original algebra

I Quotients may not preserve all formulas involving relationssatisfied by the original structure.

I A quotient of a semigroup is a semigroup,

I Unfortunately, a quotient of a po-semigroup is not necessarilya po-semigroup.

• Quotients of Po-Semigroups

I Quotients preserve identities satisfied by the original algebra

I Quotients may not preserve all formulas involving relationssatisfied by the original structure.

I A quotient of a semigroup is a semigroup,

I Unfortunately, a quotient of a po-semigroup is not necessarilya po-semigroup.

• Quotients of Po-Semigroups

I The quotient structure S/ = S/,, satisfies

I x (x x),I and on S/ is compatible with , i.e.,

(x/ y/ u/ v/) x/u/ y/v/ (CPQ)

I Neither anti-symmetry nor transitivity is preserved by ingeneral.

• Quotients of Po-Semigroups

I The quotient structure S/ = S/,, satisfiesI x (x x),

I and on S/ is compatible with , i.e.,

(x/ y/ u/ v/) x/u/ y/v/ (CPQ)

I Neither anti-symmetry nor transitivity is preserved by ingeneral.

• Quotients of Po-Semigroups

I The quotient structure S/ = S/,, satisfiesI x (x x),I and on S/ is compatible with , i.e.,

(x/ y/ u/ v/) x/u/ y/v/ (CPQ)

I Neither anti-symmetry nor transitivity is preserved by ingeneral.

• Quotients of Po-Semigroups

I The quotient structure S/ = S/,, satisfiesI x (x x),I and on S/ is compatible with , i.e.,

(x/ y/ u/ v/) x/u/ y/v/ (CPQ)

I Neither anti-symmetry nor transitivity is preserved by ingeneral.

• Regular Congruences

I Let S = S , , be a po-semigroup and ConS , . Thecongruence is called regular if there exists an order onS/ such that:

I a) S/ = S/, , is a po-semigroup,I b) The mapping : S 7 S/ defined by (x) = x/ is

isotone, i.e.,x y x/ y/.

I Regularity can be expressed using a special property of !

• Regular Congruences

I Let S = S , , be a po-semigroup and ConS , . Thecongruence is called regular if there exists an order onS/ such that:

I a) S/ = S/, , is a po-semigroup,

I b) The mapping : S 7 S/ defined by (x) = x/ isisotone, i.e.,

x y x/ y/.

I Regularity can be expressed using a special property of !

• Regular Congruences

I Let S = S , , be a po-semigroup and ConS , . Thecongruence is called regular if there exists an order onS/ such that:

I a) S/ = S/, , is a po-semigroup,I b) The mapping : S 7 S/ defined by (x) = x/ is

isotone, i.e.,x y x/ y/.

I Regularity can be expressed using a special property of !

• Regular Congruences

I Let S = S , , be a po-semigroup and ConS , . Thecongruence is called regular if there exists an order onS/ such that:

I a) S/ = S/, , is a po-semigroup,I b) The mapping : S 7 S/ defined by (x) = x/ is

isotone, i.e.,x

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