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Oakland Unified School District History/Social Studies. Preparing for the Fall Semester, 2011 8 th Grade U.S. History Writing Assessment Indian Removal: The Cherokee and Andrew Jackson. First Encounters: The Cherokee first had contact with the English in 1654. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Oakland Unified School District History/Social Studies

  • Oakland Unified School District History/Social StudiesPreparing for the Fall Semester, 2011 8th Grade U.S. History Writing Assessment

    Indian Removal: The Cherokee and Andrew Jackson

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • First Encounters: The Cherokee first had contact with the English in 1654A typical scene at one of the settlements along the lower Little Tennessee River, where Euro-American trade goods are being transported and exchanged. - Based on archaeological and ethno historical research by University of Tennessee, Knoxville, anthropologists and historians.

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • A British artist depicts three Cherokee men in London in 1762

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • After the American Revolution the Cherokee Land was inside the new United States of AmericaCherokee land

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • An effort to protect the Cherokee land from white settlers

    The White people who settled on the frontier had openly violated the boundary by intruding on the Indian lands.

    In September 1788, the U.S. Congress issued a proclamation that forbade white settlers from settling on Cherokee hunting grounds and forced them (with their families) to leave or suffer the consequences.

    United States, August 11, 1790

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • Thirty-five years laterThe Cherokees must be told, in plain language, that the lands they occupy belong to Georgia- Georgia Governor Troup, April, 1825

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • Shrinking Cherokee LandThe boundaries of the Cherokee Country prior to European arrival.http://www.cherokeehistory.com/map1.html From the Rare Map Collection at the University of Georgia. This collection includes maps showing the location of the Cherokee Country 1732-1838.

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • Shrinking Cherokee Land - continuedThe boundaries of the Cherokee Country at the end of the Revolutionary War.http://www.cherokeehistory.com/map1.html From the Rare Map Collection at the University of Georgia. This collection includes maps showing the location of the Cherokee Country 1732-1838.

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • Shrinking Cherokee Land - continuedThe boundaries of the Cherokee Country in the East prior to the removal demand. http://www.cherokeehistory.com/map1.html From the Rare Map Collection at the University of Georgia. This collection includes maps showing the location of the Cherokee Country 1732-1838.

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • Shrinking Cherokee Population

    European epidemics (especially smallpox) that were introduced in the U.S. in 1540, killed at least 75% of the original native [all tribes] population. How much the Cherokee suffered of this is not known. But the statistics below tell part of the story of what happened to the Cherokee. 1674 Estimated Cherokee population = 50,000

    1830s Estimated Cherokee population=25,000http://tolatsga.org/Cherokee1.html

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • The Cherokees try to adapt by adopting the ways of the white settlers. Changes in- Dress- Language- Economic Activity

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • Adopting European dress

    Traditional Cherokee DressChief John Ross of the Cherokee in the 1830.Cherokee Woman

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • The Cherokee alphabet was introduced in 1821 by Sequoyah, the son of a Cherokee mother and white trader.The Cherokee Phoenix the newspaper of the Cherokee NationDeveloping a Written Language

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • Developing Large Scale FarmingWestern Carolina University - http://www.wcu.edu/6332.asp

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • But the Cherokee Strategy of Trying to Adapt to White Society Didnt Work

    They are continually pressured to give up their land

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • The Cherokees land is even more desired by whites after the discovery of goldGold was discovered in Georgia in 1829 and many miners entered the Cherokee Nation."

    But there was little the Cherokee could do; it seemed the louder they protested, the more eagerly the miners came. - The New Georgia Encyclopedia http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-785

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • In 1830 the President Jackson pushed through Congress the Indian Removal ActThe law stated

    Indians must give up their lands in the east for lands west of the Mississippi;

    Those who wished to remain would become citizens of their home state;

    Although voluntary, those who resisted would be forced to move.

    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • Why Indian Removal? Jacksons Vision of ProgressWhat good man would prefer a country covered with forests and ranged by a few thousand savages, to our extensive Republic studded with cities, towns, and prosperous farms?

    -- from President Andrew Jackson, State of the Union Address, 1830

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • The Indian Removal Act is Passed by Congress and then signed by President Jackson on May 26, 1830The Senate passed the Indian Removal Act by a 2819 vote.

    The House of Representatives passed the Indian Removal Act by a 102-97 vote.

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • Not every white American supported Indian Removal in 1830 It was part of a national debatedespite of the undoubted national right which the Indians have to the land of their forefathers, and in the face of solemn treaties, pledging the faith of the nation for their secure possession of those lands, it is intended, we are told, to force them from their native soil, to compel them to seek new homes in a distant and dreary wilderness. - Petition by Ladies in Steubenville, Ohio, Against Indian Removal, 1830"The evil [of removal], Sir, is enormous; the inevitable suffering incalculable. Do not stain the fair fame of the country. . . ." -Senator Edward Everett, Massachusetts

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • The Cherokees argued for their right to remain on the land"The land on which we stand we have received as an inheritance from our fathers...Permit us to ask, what better right can the people have to a country than the right of inheritance?...

    -The Cherokee, in a letter to the United

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • The Cherokee argued for their right to remain on the land"We wish to remain on the land of our fathers. We have a perfect right to remain without interruption...If we are compelled to leave our country, we see nothing but ruin before us.

    -Cherokee leaders, July, 1830

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • The U.S. Supreme Court decides that the state of Georgia was illegally taking Cherokee land. But The Cherokee Nation is a distinct community. In this territory, the laws of Georgia do not apply.John Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, in the case of Worchester v. Georgia, 1832.

    John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.- President Andrew Jacksons response to the Supreme Court ruling, 1832

    President Jacksons Response

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • A Group of Cherokee, led by Major Ridge, sign a treaty with the United States Government, 1835From The Treaty of New Echota

    "The Cherokee Nation [gives] to the United States all the land claimed by said Nation east of the Mississippi River...

    [in return] 7,000,000 acres of land [is] guaranteed to the Cherokees west of the Mississippi...

    "The United States agree that the land guaranteed to the Cherokees shall never, without their consent, be included within...any State or Territory [of the United States].

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • Other Cherokees Oppose the Treaty of New Echota

    The opposition to the treaty is unanimousThe whole nation of 18,000 people is with [Major Ross].

    The few [who signed the treaty], about three hundred, have left

    - letter from agent John Mason, sent by War Department to make observations on the Cherokee situation, 1837

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

  • Question to Consider: By 1838, which would have been better for the Cherokee Indians: to finally accept or to continue to resist the U.S. governments demand they move to new tribal lands west of the Mississippi River?"

    OUSD 8th grade fall history assessment - 2011-2012

    What do you infer why the land is shrinking?Dump picture be more explicit about assimilationClarify vote with packet Clarify vote with packet Clarify vote with packet / Highlight Shorten quotesParaphrase Cherokee give up all their historical homeland east of Mississippi (stick in map from textbook) short bullet pointsPicture of Ridge signed and ross is opposed

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