NYS Touchstones/KIDS COUNTdata products are produced by ... 1997). As the New York State Touchstones/KIDS

  • View
    0

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of NYS Touchstones/KIDS COUNTdata products are produced by ... 1997). As the New York State...

  • The FOREIGN-BORN IN NEW YORK STATE essay was published in the New York State Council on Children and Families’

    sixth edition of the NYS Touchstones/KIDS COUNT Data Book, released September 2006.

    NYS Touchstones/KIDS COUNT data products are produced by the

    NYS Council on Children and Families 52 Washington Street, 256 West Building, Rensselaer, New York 12144

    Telephone: 518-473-3652; e-mail: KWIC@ccf.state.ny.us Website: http://www.ccf.state.ny.us

    NYS Touchstones/KIDS COUNT products are available on the Council’s website http://www.ccf.state.ny.us/resources/touchstonesresource.htm.

    http://www.ccf.state.ny.us/resources/touchstonesresource.htm#KCDatabooks http://www.ccf.state.ny.us/resources/touchstonesresource.htm#2006DB

  • From 1892 to 1954, over 12 million immigrants entered the United States through the portal of Ellis Island. A small island in New York Harbor, Ellis Island is located in the upper bay just off the New Jersey coast, near the Statue of Liberty. With the New York Harbor being the most popular destination of steamship companies, most immigrants entered the United States through this gateway to the new world during this time. Other ports of entry included Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, San Francisco, Savannah, Miami and New Orleans.

    Today, Ellis Island is part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument and the museum receives nearly two million visitors annually. While Ellis Island is no longer an entry point, New York City remains a leading port of entry among the 317 off icial ports of entry into the United States— including, seaports, airports and land border locations. Sources: National Park Service, 2006 (Ellis Island); U.S. Customs, 2006 (current ports of entry)

    PART 1: FO R E I G N -B O R N I N NE W YO R K STAT E

    Ellis Island, New York

  • This brief covers:

    I. Foreign-born Defined a. Current scale of immigration

    II. Waves of Immigration a. Four waves and origins of people

    b. Foreign-born by race and Hispanic origin

    III. Foreign-born Characteristics a. Leading countries of birth

    b. Current undocumented population in United States

    c. Average earnings, poverty levels and English language skills

    d. Educational attainment

    e. Age structure

    IV. Future Considerations a. Fertility by nativity

    b. Children of immigrants are the fastest growing segment of the child population in the United States

    c. Well-being by nativity

    V. Foreign-born in New York State a. Foreign-born increased between 1990

    and 2000 in New York State

    b. Place of birth among New York State foreign-born

    VI. Conclusion

    VII. Next Steps

    The onset of the twenty-first century, similar to the beginning of the twentieth century, is ushering an era ofincreasing immigration to the United States. New York City continues to be a leading port of entry andNew York State continues to be a leading destination state for immigrants. Today, more than half of all people living in America are descended from immigrants who entered this country through New York (NYC100, 1997). As the New York State Touchstones/KIDS COUNT project aims to monitor and promote the health and well- being of children and families and as the proportion of immigrants continues to grow, it is increasingly important to consider nativity.

    The diversity of the foreign-born population in New York State is observable by the residents’ self-reported ancestry. In 2000, 85.1 percent of New Yorkers reported a first ancestry. There were over 40 countries or regions represented with at least 10,000 New Yorkers. The “Other groups” category, largely driven by residents reporting Hispanic origins, accounted for 32.9 percent of the reported first ancestries. Italian (14.7%), Irish (10.2%), and German (8.0%) followed with large percentages of first ancestries reported.

    First Ancestry Reported: New York State, 2000 Percent

    Total: 18,976,457 Reporting First ancestry reported: 16,156,407 100.0% Albanian 30,623 0.2% Arab 104,169 0.6% Armenian 20,443 0.1% Austrian 55,855 0.3% Brazilian 17,086 0.1% British 42,519 0.3% Canadian 30,743 0.2% Croatian 19,045 0.1% Czech 23,955 0.1% Czechoslovakian 21,457 0.1% Danish 22,764 0.1% Dutch 135,648 0.8% Eastern European 58,067 0.4% English 692,897 4.3% European 83,697 0.5% Finnish 10,799 0.1% French (except Basque) 269,914 1.7% French Canadian 111,582 0.7% German 1,292,557 8.0% Greek 137,051 0.8% Guyanese 101,799 0.6% Hungarian 89,572 0.6% Iranian 21,604 0.1% Irish 1,641,802 10.2% Israeli 27,556 0.2% Italian 2,371,292 14.7% Lithuanian 30,882 0.2% Norwegian 60,346 0.4% Polish 704,516 4.4% Portuguese 34,282 0.2% Romanian 37,233 0.2% Russian 365,673 2.3% Scotch-Irish 100,382 0.6% Scottish 127,815 0.8% Slovak 24,377 0.2% Subsaharan African 158,175 1.0% Swedish 78,901 0.5% Swiss 22,755 0.1% Turkish 20,436 0.1% Ukrainian 117,123 0.7% United States or American 717,234 4.4% Welsh 40,713 0.3% West Indian (not Hispanic) 650,910 4.0% Yugoslavian 25,674 0.2% Other groups 5,317,010 32.9%

    Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Decennial Census (SF3)

  • Fo r e i g n - b o r n D e f i n e d

    Page 15

    During a typical day, New Yorkers could have quiche for breakfast, wonton soup for lunch, tortillas for dinner, and espresso and black forest cake for dessert. The familiarity with these foods from assorted countries of origin is but one example of how immigrants contribute to New York State’s richness and diversity. New York State, like the United States, reflects the countless influences of immigrants—from food, to attire, to the arts and sciences, to religion and architecture. The history, composition and future of New York State are all directly related to immigration as New York City continues to be a leading port of entry and New York State continues to be a leading destination state for immigrants. Further, the onset of the twenty-first century, similar to the beginning of the twentieth century, is ushering an era of increasing immigration to the United States.

    As the New York State Touchstones/KIDS COUNT project aims to monitor and promote the health and well-being of children and families and as the proportion of immigrants continues to grow, it is imperative to consider nativity. While the indicators used in New York State Touchstones/KIDS COUNT are not generally available by nativity, this piece intends to bring attention to the importance of immigration for the future growth and well-being of New York State. To understand the current status of the foreign-born in New York State, this summary examines the waves of immigration into the United States and compares the characteristics of the current wave to past waves. Using Census data, New York State data are presented in relation to the overall national status of the foreign- born population.

    As defined by United States immigration law, immigrants are persons lawfully admitted into the United States for permanent residence, called legal permanent residents1 (LPRs). America’s foreign-born population is largely composed of immigrants (72%) but also includes undocumented aliens (more than 20%), and nonimmigrants— those temporarily admitted for specific purposes such as tourists, business travelers and students (approximately 4%) (Martin & Midgley, 1999). In 2004, there were 34.3 million foreign-born in the United States, representing 12.0 per- cent of the population (U.S. Census, 2004). In New York State, the 3.9 million foreign-born represented 21.0 percent of the population in 2004 (U.S. Census, 2004).

    The numbers and percentages reflect the progressively large-scale immigration that has occurred since the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1965 in 1968. Of the foreign- born in 2004, the majority entered the United States since 1990, with 18.3 percent entering the United States since 2000, 32.9 percent entering during the 1990s, 22.9 percent entering in the 1980s, and 25.9 percent entering before 1980 (U.S. Census, 2004). In comparison, a larger percentage of the foreign-born in New York State entered the country before 1990 and a smaller percentage entered since 2000 (see Figure 1).

    In New York State, like the U.S. as a whole, the largest percentage of foreign-born in 2004, entered the U.S. between 1990 and 1999 (33.0% and 32.9%, respectively).

    Figure 1. Percentage of Foreign-born Population by Entry Date: United States and New York State, 2004 Source: U.S. Census, 2004 American Community Survey

    0%

    20%

    40%

    60%

    80%

    100%

    U.S. NYS

    2000 or later 1990 to 1999 1980 to 1989

    before 1980

    New York State Touchstones /KIDS COUNT 2006 Data Book

    1 Permanent resident status confers certain rights and responsibilities. For example, LPRs may live and work permanently anywhere in the United States. They may own property in the United States. They may attend public schools, colleges, and universities. They may join certain branches of the Armed Forces. They may also apply to become U.S. citizens if they meet certain eligibility requirements.

  • Wave s o f I m m i g r a t i o n

    Page 16

    New York State Touchstones /KIDS COUNT 2006 Data Book

    As a percentage of the total population, the foreign-born population has steadily increased during this cur-rent wave of immigration: from 4.7 percent in 1970 to 6.2 percent in 1980 to 7.9 percent in 1990 (Gibson &Lennon, 1999), to 12.0 percent in 2004. Yet, 100 years earlier, the foreign-born population made up higher percentages of the total population: 14.4 percent in 1870, 14.8 percent in 1890 and 14.7 percent in 1910 (Gibson & Lennon, 19