Nutrition Form5

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    -INTRODUCTION-

    All living organism need food to survive

    Food contains various type of nutrients, such as proteins,carbohydrates, fats , vitamins and minerals

    The intake ofnutrients by living organisms is known as

    nutrition Food is needed by living organisms

    (a) to maintain health

    (b) as a source of energy

    (c) to carry out life processes such as breathing, growing,

    excreting and reproducing

    The energy content of a food is known as its calorific value

    The calorific value of a food can be determined by using abomb calorimeter

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    -INTRODUCTION-

    The diagram show the

    instrument bombcalorimeter that is used to

    determine the calorific value

    of a food

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    What isNutrition?

    - Nutrition is the intake of nutrients by living organisms

    - The unit used to measure the energy contained in food iscalorie (kJ)

    - The calorific value of food is the total energyreleased from

    food when it is oxidized completely in body

    The table shows that the food have different calorific

    value

    Class of food Calorific value (kJ)

    Carbohydrates 17.2

    Proteins 22.2

    Fats 38.5

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    VARIOUSOFFOODWITH

    DIFFERENT CALORFIC VALUE

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    CLASSESOFFOOD

    CLASSES OF FOOD

    CARBOHYDRATE

    FATS

    VITAMINS/MINERALS

    PROTEIN

    WATER

    ROUGHAGE

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    FATS

    - Fats acts as a heat insulator and protects internal organs

    - Food that rich in fats:-

    (a) Chocalate

    (b)Pizza

    (c)Cheese

    These food cannot

    take excessively !!!

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    VITAMINS/MINERALS

    - Vitamins helps a person to maintain our health

    - Food rich in vitamins

    (a)Vitamin A Carrots

    (b)VitaminB-Tablets,

    tempe

    (c)VitaminC-mostly vegetables and fruits

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    PROTEIN

    - Proteinbuilds new cells for growth and replace damage cells

    - Examples food rich on protein

    (a) Fish

    (b) Grain

    (c) Assorted beans

    Protein makes a

    person to grow in

    height.

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    -WATER-

    - Water is a medium that is needed in thebody for chemicalreactions in our body.

    We should take 8 glassesof water a day

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    -ROUGHAGE-

    - Roughage helps the movement of food through digestivetract (to avoid constipation)

    -Food that rich on roughage:-

    (a)Fruits

    (b)Vegetables(c)Nuts

    (e)Barly

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    FACTORSTHATINFLUENCEON

    INDIVIDUALSCALORIES

    REQUIREMENT

    FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ON INDIVIDUALS

    CALORIES REQUIREMENT:-

    - Infants, children and teenagers need more calories than theold people

    - This is because theyare still growing and needs more energyto undergo the process

    - Old people need less energy; because they are less active

    -Less-

    (old

    people)-More-

    (teenegers)

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    FACTORSTHATINFLUENCEON

    INDIVIDUALSCALORIES

    REQUIREMENT

    Generally, males need more calories than femalebecause:-

    (a) Male are more active than females(b) Males have large body size than females

    -An individual withbig body size need more caloriesthan smaller sized individual because:-(a) There are no weight to support(b) There are more cell to feed

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    FACTORSTHATINFLUENCEON

    INDIVIDUALSCALORIES

    REQUIREMENT

    -A physically active worker such as farmer or a laborer

    requires more calories than an office worker.

    -This is because a lot of energy is used up for muscularcontraction

    -A healthy person generally requires more calories thanone who is sick.-This is because is sick person is generally less active orbe bedridden

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    FACTORSTHATINFLUENCEON

    INDIVIDUALSCALORIES

    REQUIREMENT

    - A person who is in a cold surroundings needs more calories

    than ones who is in a warm place

    -This is because in a cold surroundings, more energy is lost fromour body to the surroundings; therefore more calories will be

    needed to maintain a constant body temperature

    Need more(cold

    surroundings)

    Need less

    (warm

    surroundings)

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    HEALTHPROBLEMS

    RELATEDTONUTRITION

    - The diet of a person should contain sufficient nutrients incorrect quantity

    - Dietition are people who are trained to give people adviceabout what they eat or drink to be healthy

    - Improper nutrition can lead to health problems such as:-

    MALNUTRITION OBESITY

    ANOREXIA

    NERVOSA

    CLICK ANYOFTHETOPIC TOVIEW

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    MALNUTRITION

    -A person is suffering from malnutrition if his diet containsinsufficient or an excess amount of certain nutrients

    - Malnutrition can lead to many types of health problems, listof problem will be shown on the next slide.

    High blood

    pressure Diabetes

    Scurvy

    Kwashiorkor

    GoutRickets

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    MALNUTRITION

    Disease/health

    disorder

    Cause Symptoms Can be prevent

    with:-

    High blood pressure -excessive intake of

    salt, fat , cholesterol

    -mostly without

    symptoms

    -exercise

    -eat less food

    contain fat

    Diabetes -excessive intake of

    sugar

    -presence of sugar

    on urine

    -eat less sweet food

    Scurvy -lack of vitamin c -bleeding gums -eat more fruits and

    vegetables

    Kwashiorkor -lack of protein -diarrhoea

    -accumulation fluid

    Consume more

    seafood's

    Rickets -lack of vitamin d -soft bones

    - Bow leggedness

    -Drink more milk

    -Expose to sunlight

    Gout -excessive protein -pain in joints

    -disposition uric acid

    -Reduce taking

    protein foods

    Night blindness -lack of vitamin A -poor vision in dim

    light

    -eat liver,egg,carrots

    more often

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    OBESITY

    - A person is said to be overeatingwhen he takes in morethan what his body needs

    - The extra calorieswill be stored in the form of fats under theskin and around organs

    - This can lead to obesity. THIS

    S

    HOUL

    DBE

    PREVENTED

    BY REGULAR

    EXERCISE

    THREE TYPES OF DIESEASES

    ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY

    -HEARTATTACK

    -DIABETES

    -HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

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    -ANOREXIA-

    - Anorexia is a psychological illness

    - Anorexia is an illness due to intense fear of gaining weightand starving oneselfto become thin and underweight.

    - It occurs more often in adolescent females than males

    - It can develops slimmingwhich makes a person dislikeeating or refusing to eat

    - As a result, theysuffer malnutrition and lose a lot of weight

    -Death can occur due toextreme starvation.

    - It usually needs

    counseling to treat it.

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    DISEASESRESULTINGFROM

    UNHEALTHYEATING

    HABITS

    - Un healthy eating habits can also leads to diseases

    - The table shows some comparisons unhealthy eating habitsand their consequences

    Unhealthy eating habit Consequences

    -Eating too much meat food which

    are rich in saturated fats and

    cholesterol

    -narrowing of arteries due to deposit

    of cholesterol

    Overeating, especially over

    consumption of carbohydrates and

    fats

    - Diabetes

    -Eating too much snacks and junk

    food, especially which high in salt-High blood pressure

    - Diabetes

    - Irregular meal times or skipping

    meal to often

    - Gastric ulcers

    -Eating too fat and swallowing food

    without proper chewing

    - Indigestion

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    GOODNUTRITIONAND

    GOODEATINGHABITS

    - Many health problems and diseases are related to impropernutrition and bad eating habits

    - We should take good nutrition and practice good eatinghabits

    - We should take balanced diet- A balanced diet contains all the classes of food in the right

    amount, in accordance with the needs of our body

    - It should contain plenty of grains, fruits and vegetables,moderate amount of protein-rich food, and as little fats and

    sugar as possible.

    - Using a food pyramidwill help abalanced diet in daily life

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    -FOODPYRAMID-

    THE FOOD

    PYRAMID

    ONCE YOUTAKING

    NUTRITION

    BASED ON

    FOOD

    PYRAMID,YOUR

    DAILY INTAKENUTRIENT IS

    BALNCEDAND

    HEALTHY