Nuclear Power. Locations of Nuclear Power plants in the US

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  • Slide 1
  • Nuclear Power
  • Slide 2
  • Locations of Nuclear Power plants in the US.
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  • Locations of Nuclear Power plants in the World
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  • Do Nuclear Power plants Pollute?
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  • No they dont. This is Steam being released.
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  • Nuclear Power Plant Operation
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  • Uranium ore
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  • Nuclear Reactor Fuel Uranium ore is refined then formed into pellets.
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  • Nuclear Reactor Fuel These Pellets are then put into Fuel rods which are Assembled Into packs of Fuel Rod Assemblies
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  • Nuclear Reaction
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  • This cannot Happen
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  • Parts Of an Atom Protons Neutrons electrons
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  • Protons Protons have a positive charge and are located in the nucleus of the atom.
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  • Neutrons Neutrons are located in the nucleus and have no charge
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  • Electron are found on The outside of the atom. An electrically balanced atom will have the same number of electrons and protons Electrons
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  • What is Nuclear Decay? Nuclear decay is when the nucleus goes through a splitting process called nuclear Fission resulting in a different element(s) along with other products including ionizing radiation.
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  • Ionizing Radiation Ionizing radiation is produced by unstable atoms. Unstable atoms differ from stable atoms because they have an excess of energy or mass or both. Ionizing radiation is produced by unstable atoms. Unstable atoms differ from stable atoms because they have an excess of energy or mass or both. Unstable atoms are said to be radioactive. In order to reach stability, these atoms give off, or emit, the excess energy or mass. These emissions are called radiation. Unstable atoms are said to be radioactive. In order to reach stability, these atoms give off, or emit, the excess energy or mass. These emissions are called radiation. Ionizing radiation is produced by unstable atoms. Unstable atoms differ from stable atoms because they have an excess of energy or mass or both. Ionizing radiation is produced by unstable atoms. Unstable atoms differ from stable atoms because they have an excess of energy or mass or both. Unstable atoms are said to be radioactive. In order to reach stability, these atoms give off, or emit, the excess energy or mass. These emissions are called radiation. Unstable atoms are said to be radioactive. In order to reach stability, these atoms give off, or emit, the excess energy or mass. These emissions are called radiation.
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  • 4 types of ionizing Radiation Alpha Helium Nucleus Alpha Helium Nucleus Beta Electron Beta Electron Gamma EM Radiation Gamma EM Radiation Neutrons N 0 Neutrons N 0 These are other products that can be produced along with the new element
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  • Ionizing Radiation alpha particle beta particle Radioactive Atom X-ray gamma ray Neutron
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  • Alpha radiation Nucleus of a helium atom Nucleus of a helium atom Symbolically represented: Symbolically represented: Chemically written: 4 He 2 Chemically written: 4 He 2 Least Destructive Radiation Least Destructive Radiation Can be stopped by a sheet of thick paper Can be stopped by a sheet of thick paper
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  • Alpha Particles: 2 neutrons and 2 protons They travel short distances, have large mass Only a hazard when inhaled Alpha Particles
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  • Beta radiation Electron Electron Symbolically represented: Symbolically represented: Chemically written: e - Chemically written: e - More Destructive than Alpha Radiation More Destructive than Alpha Radiation
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  • Beta Particles Beta Particles: Electrons or positrons having small mass and variable energy. Electrons form when a neutron transforms into a proton and an electron or:
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  • Gamma radiation High energy Electro-Magnetic Radiation High energy Electro-Magnetic Radiation Symbolically represented: Symbolically represented: Most Destructive Radiation Most Destructive Radiation Very difficult to stop Very difficult to stop
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  • Gamma Rays Gamma Rays (or photons): Result when the nucleus releases Energy, usually after an alpha, beta or positron transition
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  • Neutron Radiation High energy radiation High energy radiation Symbolically written as n Symbolically written as n Chemically written n 0 Chemically written n 0 Is a result of fission and/or fusion Is a result of fission and/or fusion Often produced in particle accelerators Often produced in particle accelerators New Evidence suggests that Neutrinos (neutron radiation) can travel faster than light New Evidence suggests that Neutrinos (neutron radiation) can travel faster than light
  • Slide 27
  • Nuclear Half-Life Equation N i * (1/2) nt1/2 = N f N i * (1/2) nt1/2 = N f N i Initial amount of radioactive material N i Initial amount of radioactive material nt1/2 -# of half-lives nt1/2 -# of half-lives N f Final amount of radioactive material N f Final amount of radioactive material To get nt1/2, you must divide time given in problem by the half-life.
  • Slide 28
  • Nuclear halflife examples Polonium210 Polonium210 Half Life: 138 days Half Life: 138 days Alpha decay Alpha decay Strontium90 Strontium90 Half Life: 28.5 years Half Life: 28.5 years Beta decay Beta decay Cobalt60 Cobalt60 Half Life: 5.27 years Half Life: 5.27 years Gamma decay Gamma decay
  • Slide 29
  • Alpha Decay Example Polonium210 Half Life: 138 days Alpha decay If you have 48kg of Polonium 210, How much will be left after 138 days? How much will be left after 276 days? (2 half lives) How much will be left after 414 days? (3 half lives) Ans: 24 kg Ans: 12 kg Ans: 6 kg
  • Slide 30
  • Beta Decay Example Strontium90 Half Life: 28.5 years Beta decay If you have 30kg of Strontium 90, How much will be left after 28.5 years? How much will be left after 57 years? (2 half lives) How much will be left after 85.5 years? (3 half lives) Ans: 15 kg Ans: 7.5 kg Ans: 3.75 kg
  • Slide 31
  • Gamma Decay Example Cobalt60 Half Life: 5.27 years Gamma decay If you have 1 kg of Cobolt 60, How much will be left after 5.27 years? How much will be left after 10.54 years? (2 half lives) How much will be left after 15.81 years? (3 half lives) Ans: 0.5 kg Ans: 0.25 kg Ans: 0.125 kg