NQA History 1954 2005

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The Committee on Nuclear QA developed this history under the leadership of the late Merritt "Gene" Langston, Charter member of NQA.

Text of NQA History 1954 2005

  • *Continuing Evolution of U.S. Nuclear Quality Assurance Principles, Practices and Requirements1954 - 2005PART II - A TutorialAugust 2005

    This document is for information only and is not a part of the ASME NQA-I-2004 Standard.

  • *NQA Historical and Tutorial PurposesPART I describes how nuclear quality assurance (NQA) has evolved in the U.S. over 50 years from 1954 as reactions and responses to: public concernsgovernment regulationsprogram needsexperiencesquality failuresexternal events

    PART II (this part) is intended to acquaint the next generation of management, technical and quality professionals with NQA): terms and definitionsparadigm shifts from ineffectual conceptsprinciples underlying NQA-1 requirementsprogram lessons

  • *PART II - NQA Tutorial Outline

    AcronymsNQA Evolutionary PathsTerms and DefinitionsNQA Paradigm Shifts from ineffectual conceptsUnderlying NQA-1 PrinciplesNQA Program LessonsNQA ChronologySpecificity

  • *AcronymsAEC Atomic Energy CommissionANSI American National Standards InstituteASLB Atomic Safety and Licensing BoardASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers10 CFR Title 10 Code of Federal RegulationsDOE U.S. Department of EnergyNRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory CommissionNQA Nuclear Quality AssuranceNUREGNuclear RegulationsQA Quality AssuranceQAP Quality Assurance ProgramQC Quality Control

  • *NQA Evolutionary Paths

    AEC>DOE Standards and Directives

    AEC>NRC Regulations, Regulatory Guides, Standard Review Plans

    ANSI>ASME N45.2> NQA-1/2/3 Standards

    Other related NQA Standard (ANS, IEEE, etc)

  • *Terms and DefinitionsQuality:The condition achieved (or existing) when an item, service or process meets or exceeds the users requirements or expectations (Source:DOE)

    Quality assurance:All those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a structure, system, or component will perform satisfactorily in service. (Source: 10 CFR 50 Appendix B)

    All those actions that provide confidence that quality is achieved (or exists) (Source:ASME NQA-1)

  • *Terms and DefinitionsQAP - An overall plan, program or management system established to:Define quality policies, purpose, objectives, requirements, standards, practices and proceduresScope applicable items and activitiesAssign organizational responsibilities and authorities for management, achievement and assurance of qualityDesignate need for training and qualification of personnelProvide for performance, assessment and continual improvement of work processes(Source: ASME NQA-1, DOE)

  • *NQA Paradigm ShiftIneffective Concept

    Quality is inspected into an item.Present NQA-1 Culture

    Quality is achieved by people possessing the competence, skills, knowledge, experience, training, resources and work ethic and motivation to do the job right.

  • *NQA Paradigm ShiftIneffective Concepts

    NQA-1 was written by and for QA professionals

    NQA applied only to safety structures, systems and components

    NQA program required strict compliance with inflexible requirements and procedures

    Present NQA-1 CultureNQA-1 is written by and for managers, performers and verifiers.NQA-1 requires a quality management system that applies to safe and reliable operation across the nuclear facility.

    NQA-1 program applies a sensible graded approach that is both compliance and performance oriented.

  • *NQA Paradigm ShiftIneffective Concept

    Quality professionals are primarily responsible for planning, documenting and implementing the organizations quality assurance program (quality management system)

    Present NQA-1 Culture

    Persons who manage, perform and verify work all contribute to planning, documenting and implementing an integrated, cost effective and efficient quality management system to produce a quality product

  • *NQA Paradigm ShiftIneffective Concept

    A QAP generates excessive amounts of paper.Present NQA-1 Culture

    QAP documentation is readily available to provide sufficient objective evidence and a defensible record that NQA requirements and commitments have been met.

  • *NQA Program LessonNo quality assurance program is self-executing. Thus, irrespective of how comprehensive it may appear on paper, the program will be essentially without value unless it is timely, improved and properly implemented.

    (Source: ASLB at Consumer Power Midland Station public licensing hearings, March 1973)

  • *NQA Program Lesson Top-down management commitment to quality is a primary project objective.

    Top management must understand the magnitude, complexity and difficulties in designing and constructing nuclear power plants compared to conventional steam plants, and the importance of applying exacting engineering and quality standards.

    Prior nuclear facility design and construction experience of key project personnel is essential.

    (Source NRC NUREG-1055)

    Improving Quality and the Assurance of Quality in the Design and Construction of Nuclear Power Plants

  • *NQA Program LessonThere is a level of change actions technical, regulatory and procedural beyond which any project management structure can no longer effectively implement its quality assurance program.

    (Source: NRC NUREG-1055)

  • *NQA Program LessonThe QAP is implemented as an integral part of a comprehensive management system.

    The QAP supports prompt detection, communication and correction of quality problems in design, effective management system oversight of the design process, and the ability to control plant configuration and manage change.(Source: NRC NUREG-1055, as modified)

  • *Underlying NQA-1 Principles

    NQA-1Basic RequirementBR 1OrganizationSenior management:Defines policies and objectivesEstablishes and communicates expectations for quality and continual improvementIdentifies and allocates resources to achieve expectationSpecifies roles, responsibilities and authoritiesEnsures NQA principles are understood, accepted and followedQuality of work is:Achieved and maintained by performersVerified by those not directly responsible for performing the work

  • *Underlying NQA-1 Principles

    NQA-1BR 2QA ProgramManagement:Ensures proper development and implementation of the organizations QAPEnsures people are competent to perform their assigned quality-affecting workProvides training to achieve and maintain worker proficiency and qualificationsAssesses QAP and management systems to ensure compliancy, adequacy effectiveness and efficiencySeeks and uses relevant experience

  • *Underlying NQA-1 Principles

    NQA-1BR 3Design Control

    BR 4 & 7Procurement

    BR 5Instructions, procedures and drawingsItems are designed and changes controlled using sound engineering practices, analyses and configuration managementDesigns are analyzed and verified

    Items and services are purchased, accepted and controlled to specified requirements

    Work processes are planned and controlledActivities are performed in accordance with prescribed documentationManagement ensures the right people have the right information at the right time

  • *Underlying NQA-1 Principles

    NQA-1BR 6 & 17Documents and records

    BR 8 & 13Item identification and control

    BR 9Process controlQuality documents and records are developed, identified and controlled in accordance with specified requirements

    Items are identified and controlled during shipping, handling, installation or use to assure their quality and prevent damage, loss or deterioration

    Special processes for achieving quality are performed under controlled conditions to specified requirementsUse of correct materials, tools and processes and control changes is assured

  • *Underlying NQA-1 Principles

    NQA-1BR 10 & 11Inspection and test control

    BR 12Measuring and test equipment control

    BR 14Inspection, test and operating statusItems are inspected and tested to verify conformance to specified requirements

    M&TE used for activities affecting quality are controlled to specified accuracy requirements

    Item inspection, test and operating status are identified to ensure required activities have been performed successfully

  • *Underlying NQA-1 Principles

    NQA-1BR 15Control of nonconforming items

    BR 16Corrective action

    BR 18AuditsItems that do not meet specified requirements are identified and controlled

    Conditions adverse to quality are identified, controlled and corrected to prevent recurrence, and reviewed for lessons learned

    The QAP is assessed using compliance and performance-based methods

  • *NQA Chronology


    AEC SFO QC-1MIL-Q-1958



  • *NQA Chronology

    1970s10 CFR50 Appendix A10 CFR50 Appendix BANSI N45-2-1971AEC Safety Guide 28ANSI N18.7(ANS 3.2)ANSI/ASME N45.2-1977ASME N45.2.9 2.23NRC Rainbow seriesANSI N46.2-1978ASME NQA-1-1979(N45.2.6, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.23)1980sDOE O 5700.6, 6A, 6BASME NQA-1-1983(N45.2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.5, 2.8, 2.15, 2.20)REG Guide 1.28, Rev 3ASME NQA-2-1983ASME NQA-1-1986ASME NQA-1-1989ASME NQA-3-1989

  • *NQA Chronology


    NRC Standard Review Plan(NQA-1 & NQA-2)DOE O 5700.6CDOE 10CFR Part 830 (sub-part 830-122)ASME NQA-1-1994ASME NQA-1-1997DOE O 414.1A 2000s

    DOE O 414.1BDOE O 414.1CDOE 10CFR Part 830 (sub-part 830-122)ASME NQA-1-2000ASME NQA-1-2004