Novel eco-friendly aliphatic copolyesters: structure-property relationship and biodegradation behaviour

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Special Abstracts / Journal of Biotechnology 150S (2010) S1S576 S205oriented view. A goal is a link to the database on seed content ofplants SOFA (Aitzetmller et al., 2003). Our database is dynami-cally linkedwith other databases of biological information as KEGG(http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway.html).The database is organized in records starting with the organismidenticationat the species and infraspecic level of plants, eukary-otic algae, fungi, and Cyanobacteria. The data can be extracted informat usuful for analysis with statistical tools.Future development will aim to integrate BIOLIP with othermore general purpose biological information database (Genbank,PDB and so on) to favourish a better understanding of the connec-tion between the presence of a specic fatty acid with the geneticknowledge of an organism.New data sent to the BIOLIP database by researchers shouldbe sent in Excel or tab delimited text format, containing all thenecessary information: organism with appropriate identication,provenance, published article and/or analytical method and thetotal amount of lipids and the relative amount of each fatty acid.AcknowledgementsWe thank the Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Pistoia e Pesciafor the nancial support.ReferencesAitzetmller, K., Matthus, B., Friedrich, H., 2003. A new database for seed oil fattyacids the database SOFA. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 105, 92103.Schenk, P.M., Thomas-Hall, S.R., Stephens, E., Marx, U.C., Mussgnug, J.H., Posten,C., Kruse, O., Hankamer, B., 2008. Second Generation Biofuels: High-EfciencyMicroalgae for Biodiesel Production. Bioenerg. Res. 1, 2043.doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2010.09.012[P-C.47]Determination of the rheologic behavior of fermentation brothin biogas plantsJ. Renpenning1, P. Mhnert2, V. Pelenc3, R. Lopez-Ulibarri 4, P.Neubauer1, S. Junne1,, R.G. Berger21 Technische Universitt Berlin, Germany2 KTG Biogas AG, Germany3 DSM Biopract GmbH, Germany4 DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., SwitzerlandKeywords: Biogas; Rheology; Viscosity; Shear rateThe knowledge of the rheologic behavior of the fermentationbroth for the production of biogas fromagricultural streams as sub-strates is important for process and plant optimization. It directlyinuences the power input required for efcient mixing and thedegree of inhomogeneity within the reactor. The exact determina-tion of this parameter is crucial, since the culture broth in samplesis still active and changes its rheologic behavior during the trans-port for analysis. Due to the inhomogeneity in the sample, whichcontains solid particles of an uneven size, the utilization of con-ventional viscometers is not suitable. A portable device that canbe transported to the biogas plant and where the viscosity can bemeasured immediately after sampling is presented in this study.The theoretical background of the determination of the viscosityrelies on the torque measurement under strongly laminar condi-tions at Reynolds numbers below10. Thismethodology has alreadybeen used to determine the viscosity and rheologic characteristicsof substrate slurries or lamentous fungi culture broths(Houchinand Hanley., 2004), (Bongenaar. et al., 1973).The device was characterized by determining the constants forthe systemand shear rate. The sensitivity of themethodwasprovenat different stirrer rates and geometries. Different models describ-ing the viscosity having shear rates as variable were applied. Wehave observed that the change of viscosity of the culture brothdue to substrate degradation can be monitored with the presentedmethod. Regression analysis between rheologic and product mea-surement can be performed in order to evaluate the inuence ofrheology on the biogas yield, energy consumption and process sta-bility.ReferencesHouchin, T.L., Hanley, T.R., 2004.Measurement of rheology of distillers grain slurriesusing a helical impeller viscometer. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology11316, 723732.Bongenaar, J.J.T.M., et al., 1973. Method for Characterizing Rheological Properties ofViscous Fermentation Broths. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 15.1, 201206.doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2010.09.013[P-C.48]Novel eco-friendly aliphatic copolyesters: structure-propertyrelationship and biodegradation behaviourAnnamaria Celli 1,, Paola Marchese1, Simone Sullalti 1, CorradoBerti 1, Giancarlo Barbiroli 1, Sophie Commereuc21 Univesity of Bologna, Italy2 Universit Blaise Pascal and Ecole Nationale Suprieure de Chimie deClermont-Ferrand, FranceKeywords: biopolyesters; Copolymerization; Biodegradation; 1,4-cyclohexyleneNowadays, literature shows a great interest in developing newpolyesters, with the desired nal properties according to the possi-ble applications, by combining different monomers available frompetrolchemical industry or, more recently, from biomass.1,4-cylohexanedicarboxylic acid (or the corresponding diester)is a very interesting monomer, relatively less studied and charac-terized, instead, by notable properties, such as a potential originfrom renewable resources. The 1,4-cyclohexylene unit is struc-turally rigid and can induce relative stiffness in themacromolecularchain in which it is inserted and, then, improve the poor physicalandmechanical properties typical of the aliphatic polyesters.More-over, it has been found that the nal properties of the polyesterscontaining 1,4-cyclohexane dicarboxylate units strongly dependon the stereochemistry of the rings. Indeed, a high percentage ofthe trans isomer in the cycloaliphatic units favours a high level ofcrystallinity and relatively high melting temperature. On the otherhand, a low trans content induces low crystallinity up to a fullyamorphous phase.Therefore, we have combined this monomer with diols andother diacids, for example with 1,4-butanediol, dimethyl adi-pate or 1,12-dodecanedioic acid, to obtain novel copolyesters.Interesting correlation between molecular structure and thermo-mechanical properties have been found, indicating that the nalproperties can be easily modulated by changing the length of the(CH2)- sequences, the isomeric ratio of the 1,4-cyclohexyleneunits, and the molar composition of the copolyesters. Moreover,biodegradation tests have been carried out in an aqueous mineralnutrient medium inoculated by micro-organisms resulting fromactive ground or compost. Some copolyesters present a very highbiodegradation rate,mainly connected toa low level of crystallinity.Therefore, the use of the 1,4-cycloaliphatic unit as buildingblocks for novel aliphatic polyesters can lead to opti-S206 Special Abstracts / Journal of Biotechnology 150S (2010) S1S576mum combinations of thermo-mechanical properties andbiodegradability.doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2010.09.014[P-C.49]New polymers from renewable resources: synthesis, character-ization, and photodurability of aliphatic polyesters containingglycerolAnnamaria Celli 1,, Paola Marchese1, Simone Sullalti 1, CorradoBerti 1, Sophie Commereuc2, Vincent Verney21 University of Bologna, Italy2 Universit Blaise Pascal and Ecole Nationale Suprieure de Chimie deClermont-Ferrand, FranceKeywords: Biopolyesters; Glycerol; Photodegradability;Poly(alkylene dicarboxylate)Aliphatic polyesters, synthesized from monomers obtainablefrombiomasses, arean interestingclassofmaterialswhichcombineexcellent properties, such as biodegradability andbiocompatibility,with quite poor physical properties and often high costs. For thisreason modication of aliphatic polyesters have recently attractedconsiderable attention.In particular, by considering the poly(alkylene dicarboxylate)s,linear aliphatic polyesters synthesizedby combinationof diolswithdicarboxylic acids, one of the possible strategies to improve thethermo-mechanical characteristics is the chemical modicationof the macromolecular architecture, by addition of a multifunc-tional monomer. Here we present the results of the chemicalmodication of the poly(butylene dodecanoate), derived from 1,4-butanediol and 1,12-dodecanedioic acid, by addition of glycerol, athreefunctional alcohol, byproduct of the production of biodiesel.The synthesis of the novel polyesters, characterized by a glyc-erol content varying from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%, has been optimized.The analysis of the molecular structure, carried out by 1H NMRspectroscopy, and the chemical properties of the materials (forexample, solubility) reveal a complex polymer network, due to thereactivity of all the OH groups of glycerol. Even if the thermalproperties of the crystal phase seem not affected by the presenceof the glycerol, the mechanical properties change with respectto those of the homopolymer. Moreover, as the materials, duringtheir service life, can be submitted to photodegradation, as well asbiodegradation and hydrolytic degradation, due to outdoor use, thedurability is a property of great importance. Therefore, a study ofthe photodegradability of the novel polyesters has been carried outand attention has been paid on the molecular structure evolutionupon photodegradation monitored by melt rheology. The differ-entmechanisms occurring during photoageing, chain scissions andthree-dimensional network formation, have been identied.doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2010.09.015[P-C.50]Studies on glucose assay in real samples using glucose oxidasebiosensors with different membrane supportsO. Bizerea Spiridon1, G. Preda1, B. Vlad-Oros1, M. Vintila1, M.Dragomirescu1,2,1 West University of Timisoara, Romania2 Banats University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary MedicineTimisoara, RomaniaKeywords: Glucose oxidase; Glucose potentiometric biosensor;PVA membrane; GlutaraldehydeBiosensors for glucose using glucose oxidase (GOx) (EC 1.1.3.4.)were developed. The sensors could be used for glucose assay in0.7510-4 M 10-2 M concentration range (Pisoschi and Danet,2004),(Pisoschi et al., 2006). Our preliminary studies were focusedon the inuence of the GOx immobilization in/on the biosensormembrane with glutaraldehyde (GA) or tetrakis (2-hydroxyethyl)orthosilicate (THEOS)) (Vlad-Oros et al., 2009). The results showedthat, in the caseof enzyme immobilizationwith glutaraldehyde, thebiosensor sensitivity increases signicantly, especially at low glu-cose concentrations (0.7510-4 M 1.2510-4 M). We attempted todevelop a biosensorwith biodegradablemembrane, but the perfor-mances of this biosensor proved to be lower, especially regardingthe enzymatic reaction rate and sensitivity (Bizerea-Spiridon etal., 2008). The glucose biosensor using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) asmembrane lead to improved performances for dilute glucose solu-tions assays (10-4 M). Thus, the sensibility, the response time anddata reproducibility were enhanced.The biosensors with enzymebounded with GA on celophane and PVA respectively can be usedto assay glucose in synthetic solutions (physiological serum, per-fusable solutions) or natural products (juices or vines).ReferencesPisoschi, A.M., Danet, A.F., 2004. Constructia si determinarea caracteristiciloranalitice ale unui biosenzor potentiometric pentru glucoza. Rev. Chim. 55 (11),843850.Pisoschi, A.M., Danet, A.F., Negulescu, Gh.P., 2006. Glucose determination bycellophane-based and nylon-based enzymic electrodes; application on juicesand wine analysis. EJEAFChe 5 (1), 11851194;.Vlad-Oros, B., Bizerea-Spiridon, O., Preda, G., Chiriac, A., 2009. Studies regardingthe inuence of the enzyme immobilization methods on the electrodic surfaceupon the performances of the glucose biosensor. Rev. Chim. (Bucuresti) 60 (7),639648.Bizerea-Spiridon, O., Vlad-Oros, B., Preda, G., Chiriac, A., Obtaining and characteri-zation of a biosensor based on biodegradable membrane used for glucose assay,ECOMAT sept. 2008, Bucuresti, Romania, p.110 113.doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2010.09.016[P-C.51]Steam explosion of cane bagasse using phosphoric acid as thepretreatment catalystA.P. Pitarelo1, D. Szczerbowski1, P.M. Ndiaye1, A. ZandonFilho1,2, L.P. Ramos1,1 Federal University of Paran, Brazil2 Tuiuti University, BrazilKeywords: Cane bagasse; Pretreatment; Hydrolysis; BioethanolThe criteria for pretreatment optimization is changing remark-ably as more efcient enzyme cocktails are made available forsaccharication together with microorganisms that are capableof fermenting pentoses and hexoses simultaneously. This workwas carried out as part of the CaneBioFuel project to revisit the

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