85
Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and Terahertz Michel Joussemet Application Engineer Agilent Technologies 1

Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

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Page 1: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Novel Devices and Material

characterization at mm-wave and

Terahertz

Michel Joussemet

Application Engineer

Agilent Technologies

1

Novel Devices and Material characterization

at mm-wave and Terahertz

Eir

e

Type of material

Radome

material

Circuits

Tissue

Phantom

Chemical

Absorber

Food

Graphene

Meta-materials

Type of material

Industry ApplicationProducts

Electronics CapacitorssubstratesPCB antennas ferrites

absorbers SAR phantom materials

Aerospace

Defense

Stealth RAM (radiation absorbing

materials)radomes

Industrial

Materials

Ceramics amp composites AD and automotive

components coatings

Polymers amp plastics Fibers films Insulation

materials

Hydrogel Disposable diaper soft contact lens

Liquid crystal Displays

Other products containing these materials Tires

paint adhesives etc

Food amp

Agriculture

Food preservation (spoilage) research food

development for microwave packaging moisture

measurements

Mining Moisture measurements in wood or paper oil

content analysis

Pharmaceutical

amp Medical

Drug research and manufacturing bio-implants

human tissue characterization biomass

fermentation

Why are dielectric measurement important

Modeling Electromagnetic problems often requires knowledge of a

materialrsquos dielectric properties

bull How long will it take to propagate the signal on the microstrip line

bull How far will the signal attenuate under water

bull How much signal dispersion will occur in the stripline

bull What is the resonant frequency of the dielectric resonator filter

bull How much of the electromagnetic wave will be reflected or transmitted by the dielectric

bull How much of the electromagnetic wave will be absorbed by the anechoic chamber or

phantom material

0

rrrj

Permittivity and permeability definitions

interaction of a material in the presence

of an external electric field

0rr j

interaction of a material in the presence of an external magnetic field

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant)

Permeability

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

MUT

STORAGE

Electromagnetic field interaction

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

LOSS

MUT

STORAGE

LOSS

Electromagnetic field interaction

Loss Tangent

tanr

r

CycleperStoredEnergy

CycleperLostEnergy

QD

1tan

Dissipation Factor D Quality Factor Q

r

r

r

Df

Relaxation Constant t

t = Time required for 1e of

an aligned system to return

to equilibrium or random

state in seconds

cc ft

2

11

1 1

10

100

10 100

Water at 20o C

f

GHz

most energy is lost at 1t

r

r

t

j

s

1

)( equation Debye

A materials measurement system normally includes three main components

Instrument

Material fixture

Software

Materials Measurement System

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 2: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Novel Devices and Material characterization

at mm-wave and Terahertz

Eir

e

Type of material

Radome

material

Circuits

Tissue

Phantom

Chemical

Absorber

Food

Graphene

Meta-materials

Type of material

Industry ApplicationProducts

Electronics CapacitorssubstratesPCB antennas ferrites

absorbers SAR phantom materials

Aerospace

Defense

Stealth RAM (radiation absorbing

materials)radomes

Industrial

Materials

Ceramics amp composites AD and automotive

components coatings

Polymers amp plastics Fibers films Insulation

materials

Hydrogel Disposable diaper soft contact lens

Liquid crystal Displays

Other products containing these materials Tires

paint adhesives etc

Food amp

Agriculture

Food preservation (spoilage) research food

development for microwave packaging moisture

measurements

Mining Moisture measurements in wood or paper oil

content analysis

Pharmaceutical

amp Medical

Drug research and manufacturing bio-implants

human tissue characterization biomass

fermentation

Why are dielectric measurement important

Modeling Electromagnetic problems often requires knowledge of a

materialrsquos dielectric properties

bull How long will it take to propagate the signal on the microstrip line

bull How far will the signal attenuate under water

bull How much signal dispersion will occur in the stripline

bull What is the resonant frequency of the dielectric resonator filter

bull How much of the electromagnetic wave will be reflected or transmitted by the dielectric

bull How much of the electromagnetic wave will be absorbed by the anechoic chamber or

phantom material

0

rrrj

Permittivity and permeability definitions

interaction of a material in the presence

of an external electric field

0rr j

interaction of a material in the presence of an external magnetic field

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant)

Permeability

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

MUT

STORAGE

Electromagnetic field interaction

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

LOSS

MUT

STORAGE

LOSS

Electromagnetic field interaction

Loss Tangent

tanr

r

CycleperStoredEnergy

CycleperLostEnergy

QD

1tan

Dissipation Factor D Quality Factor Q

r

r

r

Df

Relaxation Constant t

t = Time required for 1e of

an aligned system to return

to equilibrium or random

state in seconds

cc ft

2

11

1 1

10

100

10 100

Water at 20o C

f

GHz

most energy is lost at 1t

r

r

t

j

s

1

)( equation Debye

A materials measurement system normally includes three main components

Instrument

Material fixture

Software

Materials Measurement System

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 3: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Type of material

Radome

material

Circuits

Tissue

Phantom

Chemical

Absorber

Food

Graphene

Meta-materials

Type of material

Industry ApplicationProducts

Electronics CapacitorssubstratesPCB antennas ferrites

absorbers SAR phantom materials

Aerospace

Defense

Stealth RAM (radiation absorbing

materials)radomes

Industrial

Materials

Ceramics amp composites AD and automotive

components coatings

Polymers amp plastics Fibers films Insulation

materials

Hydrogel Disposable diaper soft contact lens

Liquid crystal Displays

Other products containing these materials Tires

paint adhesives etc

Food amp

Agriculture

Food preservation (spoilage) research food

development for microwave packaging moisture

measurements

Mining Moisture measurements in wood or paper oil

content analysis

Pharmaceutical

amp Medical

Drug research and manufacturing bio-implants

human tissue characterization biomass

fermentation

Why are dielectric measurement important

Modeling Electromagnetic problems often requires knowledge of a

materialrsquos dielectric properties

bull How long will it take to propagate the signal on the microstrip line

bull How far will the signal attenuate under water

bull How much signal dispersion will occur in the stripline

bull What is the resonant frequency of the dielectric resonator filter

bull How much of the electromagnetic wave will be reflected or transmitted by the dielectric

bull How much of the electromagnetic wave will be absorbed by the anechoic chamber or

phantom material

0

rrrj

Permittivity and permeability definitions

interaction of a material in the presence

of an external electric field

0rr j

interaction of a material in the presence of an external magnetic field

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant)

Permeability

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

MUT

STORAGE

Electromagnetic field interaction

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

LOSS

MUT

STORAGE

LOSS

Electromagnetic field interaction

Loss Tangent

tanr

r

CycleperStoredEnergy

CycleperLostEnergy

QD

1tan

Dissipation Factor D Quality Factor Q

r

r

r

Df

Relaxation Constant t

t = Time required for 1e of

an aligned system to return

to equilibrium or random

state in seconds

cc ft

2

11

1 1

10

100

10 100

Water at 20o C

f

GHz

most energy is lost at 1t

r

r

t

j

s

1

)( equation Debye

A materials measurement system normally includes three main components

Instrument

Material fixture

Software

Materials Measurement System

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 4: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Type of material

Industry ApplicationProducts

Electronics CapacitorssubstratesPCB antennas ferrites

absorbers SAR phantom materials

Aerospace

Defense

Stealth RAM (radiation absorbing

materials)radomes

Industrial

Materials

Ceramics amp composites AD and automotive

components coatings

Polymers amp plastics Fibers films Insulation

materials

Hydrogel Disposable diaper soft contact lens

Liquid crystal Displays

Other products containing these materials Tires

paint adhesives etc

Food amp

Agriculture

Food preservation (spoilage) research food

development for microwave packaging moisture

measurements

Mining Moisture measurements in wood or paper oil

content analysis

Pharmaceutical

amp Medical

Drug research and manufacturing bio-implants

human tissue characterization biomass

fermentation

Why are dielectric measurement important

Modeling Electromagnetic problems often requires knowledge of a

materialrsquos dielectric properties

bull How long will it take to propagate the signal on the microstrip line

bull How far will the signal attenuate under water

bull How much signal dispersion will occur in the stripline

bull What is the resonant frequency of the dielectric resonator filter

bull How much of the electromagnetic wave will be reflected or transmitted by the dielectric

bull How much of the electromagnetic wave will be absorbed by the anechoic chamber or

phantom material

0

rrrj

Permittivity and permeability definitions

interaction of a material in the presence

of an external electric field

0rr j

interaction of a material in the presence of an external magnetic field

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant)

Permeability

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

MUT

STORAGE

Electromagnetic field interaction

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

LOSS

MUT

STORAGE

LOSS

Electromagnetic field interaction

Loss Tangent

tanr

r

CycleperStoredEnergy

CycleperLostEnergy

QD

1tan

Dissipation Factor D Quality Factor Q

r

r

r

Df

Relaxation Constant t

t = Time required for 1e of

an aligned system to return

to equilibrium or random

state in seconds

cc ft

2

11

1 1

10

100

10 100

Water at 20o C

f

GHz

most energy is lost at 1t

r

r

t

j

s

1

)( equation Debye

A materials measurement system normally includes three main components

Instrument

Material fixture

Software

Materials Measurement System

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 5: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Why are dielectric measurement important

Modeling Electromagnetic problems often requires knowledge of a

materialrsquos dielectric properties

bull How long will it take to propagate the signal on the microstrip line

bull How far will the signal attenuate under water

bull How much signal dispersion will occur in the stripline

bull What is the resonant frequency of the dielectric resonator filter

bull How much of the electromagnetic wave will be reflected or transmitted by the dielectric

bull How much of the electromagnetic wave will be absorbed by the anechoic chamber or

phantom material

0

rrrj

Permittivity and permeability definitions

interaction of a material in the presence

of an external electric field

0rr j

interaction of a material in the presence of an external magnetic field

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant)

Permeability

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

MUT

STORAGE

Electromagnetic field interaction

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

LOSS

MUT

STORAGE

LOSS

Electromagnetic field interaction

Loss Tangent

tanr

r

CycleperStoredEnergy

CycleperLostEnergy

QD

1tan

Dissipation Factor D Quality Factor Q

r

r

r

Df

Relaxation Constant t

t = Time required for 1e of

an aligned system to return

to equilibrium or random

state in seconds

cc ft

2

11

1 1

10

100

10 100

Water at 20o C

f

GHz

most energy is lost at 1t

r

r

t

j

s

1

)( equation Debye

A materials measurement system normally includes three main components

Instrument

Material fixture

Software

Materials Measurement System

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 6: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

0

rrrj

Permittivity and permeability definitions

interaction of a material in the presence

of an external electric field

0rr j

interaction of a material in the presence of an external magnetic field

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant)

Permeability

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

MUT

STORAGE

Electromagnetic field interaction

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

LOSS

MUT

STORAGE

LOSS

Electromagnetic field interaction

Loss Tangent

tanr

r

CycleperStoredEnergy

CycleperLostEnergy

QD

1tan

Dissipation Factor D Quality Factor Q

r

r

r

Df

Relaxation Constant t

t = Time required for 1e of

an aligned system to return

to equilibrium or random

state in seconds

cc ft

2

11

1 1

10

100

10 100

Water at 20o C

f

GHz

most energy is lost at 1t

r

r

t

j

s

1

)( equation Debye

A materials measurement system normally includes three main components

Instrument

Material fixture

Software

Materials Measurement System

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 7: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

MUT

STORAGE

Electromagnetic field interaction

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

LOSS

MUT

STORAGE

LOSS

Electromagnetic field interaction

Loss Tangent

tanr

r

CycleperStoredEnergy

CycleperLostEnergy

QD

1tan

Dissipation Factor D Quality Factor Q

r

r

r

Df

Relaxation Constant t

t = Time required for 1e of

an aligned system to return

to equilibrium or random

state in seconds

cc ft

2

11

1 1

10

100

10 100

Water at 20o C

f

GHz

most energy is lost at 1t

r

r

t

j

s

1

)( equation Debye

A materials measurement system normally includes three main components

Instrument

Material fixture

Software

Materials Measurement System

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 8: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

rrr j

rrr j

Electric Magnetic

Permittivity Permeability

Fields Fields

STORAGE

LOSS

MUT

STORAGE

LOSS

Electromagnetic field interaction

Loss Tangent

tanr

r

CycleperStoredEnergy

CycleperLostEnergy

QD

1tan

Dissipation Factor D Quality Factor Q

r

r

r

Df

Relaxation Constant t

t = Time required for 1e of

an aligned system to return

to equilibrium or random

state in seconds

cc ft

2

11

1 1

10

100

10 100

Water at 20o C

f

GHz

most energy is lost at 1t

r

r

t

j

s

1

)( equation Debye

A materials measurement system normally includes three main components

Instrument

Material fixture

Software

Materials Measurement System

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 9: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Loss Tangent

tanr

r

CycleperStoredEnergy

CycleperLostEnergy

QD

1tan

Dissipation Factor D Quality Factor Q

r

r

r

Df

Relaxation Constant t

t = Time required for 1e of

an aligned system to return

to equilibrium or random

state in seconds

cc ft

2

11

1 1

10

100

10 100

Water at 20o C

f

GHz

most energy is lost at 1t

r

r

t

j

s

1

)( equation Debye

A materials measurement system normally includes three main components

Instrument

Material fixture

Software

Materials Measurement System

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 10: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Relaxation Constant t

t = Time required for 1e of

an aligned system to return

to equilibrium or random

state in seconds

cc ft

2

11

1 1

10

100

10 100

Water at 20o C

f

GHz

most energy is lost at 1t

r

r

t

j

s

1

)( equation Debye

A materials measurement system normally includes three main components

Instrument

Material fixture

Software

Materials Measurement System

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 11: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

A materials measurement system normally includes three main components

Instrument

Material fixture

Software

Materials Measurement System

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 12: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Network analyzer

Materials Measurement System

Measurement Fixture

S parameters MUT

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 13: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Impedance AnalyzerLCR meter

Materials Measurement System

The material is stimulated with an AC source and the actual voltage across the material

is monitored Material test parameters are derived by knowing the dimensions of the

material and by measuring its capacitance and dissipation factor

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 14: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Types of fixtures

Transmission

LIne

Resonant

Cavity Free Space

Coaxial

Probe

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 15: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

85071E-Exx

Frequency

Material

types

Liquid

1 GHz 20 GHz 50 GHz 100 GHz 10 GHz 1 MHz 1 kHz DC

Solid

Semi-

solids

(Powder)

Gel

Substrate

85071E

Dielectric test fixture

Dielectric probe

Materials measurement software

Liquid test fixture

Magnetic material test fixture

16451B 16453A

16452A

Toroidal

core 16454A

10 GHz split

cylinder resonator

Split post dielectric resonators (SPDR)

85072A

85070E

Probe Kit Fixture Portfolio

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 16: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

The measured data from the instrument is not always presented in the most convenient

terminology or format In this case software is required to convert the measured data

to permittivity or permeability Software may also be required to model any interaction

between the fixture and MUT to allow the extraction of the bulk material properties

Materials Measurement System

Software

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 17: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Frequency of interest

Expected value of er and mr

Required measurement accuracy

Material properties (ie homogeneous isotropic)

Form of material (ie liquid powder solid sheet)

Sample size restrictions

Destructive or non-destructive

Contacting or non-contacting

Temperature

Which Technique is Best

It Dependshellip on

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 18: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Measurement Techniques vs Frequency and Material Loss

Parallel Plate

Frequency

Loss

Transmission line

Resonant Cavity

Coaxial Probe

Microwave RF Millimeter-wave Low frequency

High

Medium

Low

Free Space

50 MHz 20 GHz 40 GHz 60 GHz 5 GHz 500+ GHz

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 19: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Coaxial Probe System

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid using the coaxial probe method

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 20: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Method features

bull Broadband

bull Simple and convenient (non-destructive)

bull Limited r accuracy and tan d low loss resolution

bull Best for liquids or semi-solids

Material assumptions

bull ldquoSemi-infiniterdquo thickness

bull Non-magnetic

bull Isotropic and homogeneous

bull Flat surface

bull No air gaps or bubbles

Coaxial Probe

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 21: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Three Probe Designs

High Temperature Probe

bull0200 ndash 20GHz (low end 001GHz with impedance analyzer)

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullSurvives corrosive chemicals

bullFlanged design allows measuring flat surfaced solids

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 22: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Three Probe Designs

Slim Form Probe

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullLow cost consumable design

bullFits in tight spaces smaller sample sizes

bullFor liquids and soft semi-solids only

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 23: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Three Probe Designs

Performance Probe

Combines rugged high temperature performance with high

frequency performance all in one slim design

bull0500 ndash 50GHz

bullWithstands -40 to 200 degrees C

bullHermetically sealed on both ends OK for autoclave

bullFood grade stainless steel

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 24: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Coaxial Probe System

Calibration is required

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 25: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Coaxial Probe System

Three standards

Air Short Water

Air Short Load

User Defined Debye Cole

Cole Cole-Davidson

Permittivity Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 26: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Coaxial Probe Example Data

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 27: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Coaxial Probe Example Data

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 28: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

the Perfect Martini Every Time

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 29: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

USDA Fruit Ripeness Research

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 30: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Sugar Characterization

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 31: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

CPAC Carbon Nano Tube Research

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 32: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Coaxial Probe Best Practices

bull Keep probe tip clean

bull Avoid bending cable

bull Watch for bubbles

bull Measure temperature

bull Use Calibration Refresh

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 33: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for solid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Dielectric measurement setup for liquid

using the parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 34: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Parallel plate capacitor method

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 35: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Parallel plate capacitor method

Frequency response of a circuit board Cole-Cole plot of a ceramic material

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 36: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Transmission Line System

Network Analyzer

Sample holder

connected between coax cables

Calibration is required

Coaxial

Waveguide

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circuit common

Guard

Guard

Guard

Force

Force

Force

Force

Triaxial Cable Triaxial connector

Page 77 Page 77

Carbon NanotubeGraphene FET SET

Semiconductor

Device Analyzer

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer

Developed I-V curves using the built-in application

software for CNT FET characterization

Measuring CNT FETrsquos and CNT SETrsquos using the

Agilent B1500A

Web site wwwagilentcomfindnano

Application Note 5989-2842EN

Complete characterization of CNT FETrsquos or SETrsquos

Page 78

Graphene FET modeling

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 79

Page 80

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

bull Enables scientists to image and manipulate atoms and molecules under normal lsquoroomrsquo conditions

bull Is the only technique to allow imaging of molecules in liquids

bull Allows almost an unlimited number of variations for measuring properties or interactions at the molecular level

bull Provides the ability to directly measure single molecule affinities by attaching to a drug antibody or even a virus

What is AFM

Page 81

Images obtained with AFM equipment ndash diverse

applications

Electronic Materials Material Science Life Sciences

Image showing the

aggressiveness of CHO

cancerogenous cells Scan

size 40 um

SMM dCdV image of doped

SiGe device Scan size

10nm

Image of Polydiacetylene

Crystal showing molecular

structure Scan size 25nm

Page 82

Scanning Microwave Microscopy System (SMM)

Coaxial cable

Agilent PNA

Scanning AFM in X and Y

and Z (closed loop)

Agilent 5400

AFMSPM

Instrument

Agilent Precision

Machining and Process

Technologies to deliver

RFMW to the conductive tip

Page 82

Page 83

Complementing SMM with Agilent EMPro 3DEM simulations

Measurement details Paper details

Agilent 5400 AFMSPM

Agilent PNA

Electromagnetic Simulations at the Nanoscale

EMPro Modeling and Comparison to SMM

Experiments

Web site wwwagilentcomfindafm

Application Note 5991-2907EN

EMPro software efficiently complements SMM in

- Understanding of the underlying electromagnetic field

- Physical properties (complex impedance permittivity

permeability)

- 3D sample geometry AFM tip diameter and shaft angle and

measurement frequency

References

R N Clarke (Ed) ldquoA Guide to the Characterisation of DielectricMaterials at RF and Microwave Frequenciesrdquo Published by The

Institute of Measurement amp Control (UK) amp NPL 2003

J Baker-Jarvis MD Janezic RF Riddle RT Johnk P Kabos C Holloway RG Geyer CA Grosvenor ldquoMeasuring the

Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials Solids Liquids Metals Building Materials and Negative-Index Materialsrdquo NIST

Technical Note 15362005

ldquoTest methods for complex permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of solid electrical insulating materials at microwave frequencies and

temperatures to 1650deg rdquo ASTM Standard D2520 American Society for Testing and Materials

Janezic M and Baker-Jarvis J ldquoFull-wave Analysis of a Split-Cylinder Resonator for Nondestructive Permittivity Measurementsrdquo IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques vol 47 no 10 Oct 1999 pg 2014-2020

J Krupka AP Gregory OC Rochard RN Clarke B Riddle J Baker-Jarvis ldquoUncertainty of Complex Permittivity Measurement by

Split-Post Dielectric Resonator Techniquesrdquo Journal of the European Ceramic Society

No 10 2001 pg 2673-2676

ldquoBasics of Measureing the Dielectric Properties of Materialsrdquo Agilent application note 5989-2589EN April 28 2005

Thank You

Page 37: Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave … · Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave and ... Novel Devices and Material characterization at mm-wave

Transmission Line

Material assumptions

bull Sample fills fixture cross section

bull No air gaps at fixture walls

bull Smooth flat faces perpendicular to long axis

bull Homogeneous

Method features

bull Broadband ndash low end limited by practical sample length

bull Limited low loss resolution (depends on sample length)

bull Measures magnetic materials

bull Anisotropic materials can be measured in waveguide

Transmission Algorithms

(85071E also has three reflection algorithms)

Algorithm Measured S-parameters Output

Nicolson-Ross S11S21S12S22 r and r

Precision (NIST) S11S21S12S22 r

Fast S21S12 r

Free space System

Dielectric measurement setup for free space measurement

Material assumptions

bull Flat parallel faced samples

bull Sample in non-reactive region

bull Beam spot is contained in sample

bull Known thickness gt 20360

Method features

bull Non-contacting non-destructive

bull High frequency ndash low end limited by practical sample size

bull Useful for high temperature

bull Antenna polarization may be varied for anisotropic materials

bull Measures magnetic materials

l

Reflection

(S11 )

Transmission

(S21 )

Free space System

Free Space High-Temperature

bull No tolerance requirements on sample

bull Sample is easily thermally isolated

bull Fibrous insulation virtually transparent to microwaves

Free space System

Setup

Pneumatic + Ground

measurement

Pneumatic

measurement

Free space System

Sample in holder

between two antennae Agilent Materials Measurement

Software

with Free Space Calibration

Virginia Diodes Inc

Transmit and Receive

(TR) Frequency

Extenders

Sub Millimeter Wave System

Agilent PNA-X dual

source network

analyzer

Sub Millimeter Wave System Block Diagram

Quasi-Optical VNA Measurements

RF LO amp IF

Signal

Cables

50 GHz

VNA VDI WR-22

Extenders

Quasi-optical

Dielectric

Measurement

Setup

325-500

GHz

bull Quasi-optical dielectric measurements performed at Agilent

VDI offers frequency

extenders from 75GHz

through 1050 THz with

outstanding dynamic

range

VDI Frequency Extenders amp Horns

THz Waveguide Calibration

frac14-Wave

Calibration Shim

bull Typical VDI Waveguide Calibration Kit at WR-34

and lower

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 3 eighth-wave shims

bull 2 quarter-wave shims

bull To allow TRL calibration

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibrations TRL SOLT Offset Short Offset

Load hellip

bull VDI Calibration Kit at WR-22 and above

bull Quarter-wave shim is thin and fragile Move

to SOLT using precision load

bull 2 Waveguide Loads

bull Precision Loads 50 dB RL typical

bull 2 Waveguide Shorts

bull 2 Waveguide Quarter-wave Delayed Shorts

bull 1 Precision Waveguide Straight Section

bull Calibration SOLT

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Calibration is Required

Before a measurement can be made a calibration must be

performed to remove systematic errors

TRL Calibration

Thru

Reflect

Line

Move the antenna away

to compensate for the

thickness of the short

Move it back for the next

step

Move the antenna away

on a quarter-wavelength

and then back in the

original position

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two port calibration at waveguide or coax input into antennas

removes errors associated with network analyzer and cables

ECal SOLT or TRL

Cal done here

Two Tiered Calibration

Gated Reflect Line (GRL) Calibration

Two additional free space calibration standards remove errors

from antennas and fixture

Reflect

(metal plate of

known thickness)

Line

(empty fixture)

Two Tiered Calibration

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Cal Error Model

forward only

bullCoax or Waveguide 2-port Cal corrects errors from end of cable back into

the instrument

bullErrors from Antennas and Fixture can be thought of as being lumped into

a GRL error adapter

bullThe GRL error adapter is quantified by measurements of reflect and line

standards

2-port Cal Terms 2-port Cal Terms

D

MUT

Ms

Tr

Tt

Ml

1

S11 S22

S21

S12

GRL Error

Adapter

GRL Error

Adapter

forward only

GRL Cal Error Model

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22 T11

T12

T21

O11 O22

O21

O12

Six Unknowns

O21 = O12

O11

O22

T21 = T12

T11

T22

Need Three

Standards

GRL Cal Error Model

-10000

-9000

-8000

-7000

-6000

-5000

-4000

-3000

-2000

-1000

000

-200 000 200 400 600 800 1000

Mag

(S)

(dB

)

Time (ns)

S11 Time Domain - Empty Fixture

S11 (dB) Linear (S11 (dB))

Transmitting

Antenna Receiving

Antenna

time domain gate

includes only

reflections before

sample

Gated ldquoStandardrdquo

3201 points used to avoid aliasing

Min Points = 1 + Alias Free Range (s) Frequency Span (Hz)

sample

holder

Measure O11 amp T11

MUT

S11 S22

S21

S12

T22

T12

T21

O22

O21

O12

Four Unknowns

O21 = O12

O22

T21 = T12

T22

GRL Cal Error Model

Resonant Cavity Method

Agilent Split Cylinder Resonator IPC TM-650-

255513

Split Post Dielectric Resonators from QWED

ASTM 2520 Waveguide Resonators

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

f f c

Q c

empty cavity

fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

00313011

4

23032

1

css

cr

ss

sccr

QQV

V

fV

ffV

Resonant Cavity Technique

Q

f s f f c

s Q c

empty cavity

sample inserted fc = Resonant Frequency of Empty Cavity

fs = Resonant Frequency of Filled Cavity

Qc = Q of Empty Cavity

Qs = Q of Filled Cavity

Vs = Volume of Empty Cavity

Vc = Volume of Sample

ASTM 2520

S21

Resonant Cavity Example Data

Resonant vs Broadband Transmission Techniques

Resonant Broadband

Low Loss materials Yes

errdquo resolution le10-4

No

errdquo resolution ge10-2-10-3

Thin Films and Sheets

Yes

10GHz sample thickness lt1mm

No

10GHz optimum thickness ~ 5-10mm

Calibration Required No Yes

Measurement Frequency Coverage

Discrete Frequencies Broadband or Banded

Summary Technique and Strengths

Page 67

The first graphene samples formed were produced by

pulling atom thick layers from a sample of graphite using

sticky taperdquo

What is Graphene

This research was awarded of the Nobel prize in Physic in 2010 by

Andrei Geim and Kostya Novoselov at the University of Manchester

What is Graphene

Page 68

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon

atoms

A graphene sheet is only one atom thick so it takes 3 million sheets

on top of each other to be the thickness of one millimeter

Graphene is the strongest material ever measured

ldquoIt would take an elephant balanced on a pencil to break through a

sheet of graphene the thickness of cling filmrdquo

copy Scientific AmericanMatt Collins

What are the applications of Graphene

Page 69

Bendable Graphene Battery Credit KAIST university Korea

Flexible electronic (Displays)

Andhellip

bull Supercapacitors

bull Absorbing materials

bull Solar panels

bull Avionic components

bull Prosthetic

bull Flash memory

bull Tennis racquet

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 70

Agilent Role in GrapheneNano technology Science

Graphene

Page 71

Graphene Material Validation amp Measurement

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Networkimpedance

Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Measurements

Sheet Resistance

S-parameters

Dielectric

characteristics

Frequency

Response

Time Response

Pulse Stimulus

DC power

Applications

Speciific feature ( ie

absorption loss heat transfer)

Mw amp THz Graphene

Characterization

DC Characterization of Graphene

structure

I Wave

T Wave

A Wave

R Wave

Software

Instruments control

Material

characteristics

S-parameters

Curve fitting

Optimization

Page 72

Graphene characterization

Single post-dielectric resonators operating on their quasi TE011

modes were used for the measurement of the surface resistance

and conductivity of graphene films grown on semi-insulating

SiC

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Measurements of the sheet resistance and conductivity of thin

epitaxial

graphene and SiC films

J Krupka1 and W Strupinski2a

1Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw University of

Technology Koszykowa 75

00-662 Warsaw Poland

2Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 133 01-919

Warsaw Poland

copy 2010 American Institute of Physics doi10106313327334 For more info wwwqwedeu

Page 73

THz Graphene characterization

Frequency domain measurements of the absolute value of

multilayer graphene (MLG) and single-layer graphene

(SLG) sheet conductivity and transparency from DC to 1 THz

Measurement details

THz source

THz receiver

Paper details

Terahertz Graphene Optics

Nima Rouhi1 Santiago Capdevila2 Dheeraj Jain1 Katayoun Zand1 Yung

Yu Wang1 Elliott Brown3 Lluis Jofre2

and Peter Burke1 (1048589)

1 Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science University of California

Irvine CA 92697 USA

2 Universitat Politegravecnica de Catalunya Barcelona Spain

3 Wright State University Dayton OH 45435 USA

Received 13 June 2012 Revised 7 August 2012 Accepted 9 August

2012

copy Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Frequency extenders allow

measurements to 11 THz

Page 74

Graphene-based Devices

Devices Measurements

DC Characterization

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Transconductance

RF amp Mw Characterization

bull S-parameters

bull Ft

bull Impedance

measurement

bull Frequency response

Software

ICCAP MBP MQA

bull IV measurement

bull CV measurement

bull Spice model card

creation

bull Spice model card

validation

Instruments

Parametric Analyzer

Network Analyzer

SourceMeasure Unit

Page 75

Page 76

State-of-the-Art Graphene High-Frequency Electronics

Yanqing Wu Keith A Jenkins Alberto Valdes-Garcia Damon B

Farmer Yu Zhu Ageeth A Bol

Christos Dimitrakopoulos Wenjuan Zhu Fengnian Xia Phaedon

Avouris and Yu-Ming Lin

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights New York 10598

United States copy 2012 American Chemical Society Nano Lett 2012 12

Evaluation of devices based on CVD grown Graphene and epitaxial Graphene on SIc

High Frequency S parameters up to 30 GHz were

measured on a PNA with standard GSG probes

showing a theoretical Ft of 300GHz

DC Characterization is performed using a B1500A

parametric analyzer

Measurement details

High Frequency Graphene Transistor

Semiconductor Analyzer Network Analyzer

Paper details

Shielding box

Source Drain

Side Gate

Si Sub

SiO 2

Carbon Nanotube

Back Gate

Guard

Co-axial Cable

SMU 1

SMU 2

S

SMU 3

SMU 4

Chuck

Chuck Guard

Back Gate

connection Circ