Notes: Cellular Respiration Chapter 4 section 4.4; 4.5 and 4.6

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  • Notes: Cellular RespirationChapter 4 section 4.4; 4.5 and 4.6

  • Chemical energy and foodHow much energy is in food?When 1 gram of glucose (C6H12O6) is burned in the presence of oxygen, 3811 calories are released.What is a calorie? A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.

  • Chemical energy and foodOn a food label Calories (with a capital C) represent kilocalories. 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories.Cells use the energy in glucose by slowly releasing it.

  • Chemical energy and foodHow many calories are in 2 crackers?

    How many calories are in 6 crackers?

    60,000180,000

  • Cellular Respiration is the SLOW release of energy from glucose.

    4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration TEKS 4B, 9B

    Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars.Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen.Aerobic stages take place in mitochondria.

  • Overview of Cellular RespirationIs the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen within the mitochondria.

    Oxygen + glucose carbon dioxide + water + energyO2 + C6H12O6 CO2 + H2O + ATP

  • Glycolysis (part 1)Glycolysis is the process by which one molecule of glucose is broken in half to produce two 3-carbon molecules of pyruvate (sometimes called pyruvic acid). Occurs within the cytoplasm.

    4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail TEKS 4B, 9B

    Glycolysis is needed for cellular respiration.The products of glycolysis enter cellular respiration when oxygen is available.two ATP molecules are used to split glucosefour ATP molecules are producedtwo molecules of NADH producedtwo molecules of pyruvate produced

    4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration TEKS 4B, 9B

    Glycolysis must take place first.anaerobic process (does not require oxygen)takes place in cytoplasmsplits glucose into two three-carbon moleculesproduces two ATP molecules and 2 NADH (NET)

  • Aerobic Cellular RespirationIf Oxygen is presentThe remaining 90% of the energy from the glucose molecule that was not used in glycolysis is used in the part of cellular respiration that requires oxygen (aerobic). Cell Respiration occurs within the mitochondria when oxygen is present. Also named aerobic respiration. There are two parts after glycolysis: the Krebs Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain.

    4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration TEKS 4B, 9B

    Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis.The Krebs cycle transfers energy to an electron transport chain.takes place in mitochondrial matrixbreaks down three-carbon molecules from glycolysismakes a small amount of ATPreleases carbon dioxidetransfers energy-carrying moleculesKrebs Cycle

  • The Krebs CycleKrebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)- Pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide molecules in a series of steps that also form ATP, NADH, and FADH2 for use in the Electron Transport Chain. Occurs within the matrix

    Play until 1:20

    4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail TEKS 4B, 9B

    The Krebs cycle is the first main part of cellular respiration.Pyruvate is broken down before the Krebs cycle.carbon dioxide releasedNADH producedcoenzyme A (CoA) bonds to two-carbon molecule

    4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail TEKS 4B, 9B

    The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.

    4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail TEKS 4B, 9B

    NADH and FADH2 are made intermediate molecule with CoA enters Krebs cyclecitric acid (six-carbon molecule) is formedcitric acid is broken down, carbon dioxide is released, and NADH is madefive-carbon molecule is broken down, carbon dioxide is released, NADH and ATP are madefour-carbon molecule is rearrangedThe Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.

    4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration TEKS 4B, 9B

    The electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP.takes place in inner membraneenergy transferred to electron transport chainoxygen enters processATP producedwater released as a waste product

  • In the Electron Transport Chain,Electron Transport Chain- Uses high energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 from Krebs cycle to build up H+ ions in the Intermembrane space making it positive and the matrix negative.

    4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail TEKS 4B, 9B

    The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.high-energy electrons enter electron transport chainenergy is used to transport hydrogen ions across the inner membranehydrogen ions flow through a channel in the membrane

    4.5 Cellular Respiration in Detail TEKS 4B, 9B

    The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.The breakdown of one glucose molecule produces up to 38 molecules of ATP.ATP synthase produces ATPoxygen picks up electrons and hydrogen ionswater is released as a waste productThe electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.

    4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration TEKS 4B, 9B

    The equation for the overall process is:C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O The reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration.

  • In the Electron Transport Chain,The H+ ions will then move through the ATP synthase to the negative side causing the ATP synthase to turn. Each turn brings ADP and a phosphate (Pi) together to form high energy ATP.

  • The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain occur in the mitochondria.

  • Fermentationif no oxygen is presentFermentation occurs when no oxygen is present. Also called anaerobic respiration - meaning without oxygen. It turns NADH back into NAD+ so that it can be recycled and glycolysis can continue.

    4.6 Fermentation TEKS 4B

    Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue.Fermentation is an anaerobic process.occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respirationdoes not produce ATPFermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.

    4.6 Fermentation TEKS 4B

    Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells.glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate moleculespyruvate and NADH enter fermentationenergy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acidNADH is changed back into NAD+NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis

  • Lactic Acid fermentation- in a shortage of oxygen in your muscle cells, it regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continue. Lactic acid builds up in your muscles which causes pain and soreness. pyruvic acid + NADH lactic acid + NAD+

  • Lactic acid fermentation also occurs with certain microorganisms to produce certain foods; Ex. yogurt, sour cream and picklesyogurt

    Sauerkraut

    4.6 Fermentation TEKS 4B

    Fermentation and its products are important in several ways.Alcoholic fermentation is similar to lactic acid fermentation. Occurs in YEAST CELLSglycolysis splits glucose and the products enter fermentationenergy from NADH is used to split pyruvate into an alcohol and carbon dioxideNADH is changed back into NAD+NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis

  • Two Types of Fermentation:Alcoholic fermentation- Performed by yeast and other microorganisms

    pyruvic acid + NADH alcohol + CO2 + NAD+

  • We can use this to help us make things such as bread and wine

  • The TotalsCellular respiration produces 36 ATP molecules.More ATP is produced with oxygen than without. Cellular respiration is more efficient using oxygen.

    2232

  • The TotalsGlycolysis: 2 ATPFermentation: None! but regenerates electron carriers for glycolysisKrebs Cycle: 2 ATPsElectron Transport Chain: 32 ATPs

  • Total Number of ATP produced:Anaerobic respiration: 2 ATP (From glycolysis)Aerobic respiration: 36 ATP (From glycolysis, krebs cycle and electron transport chain)

  • Energy and Exercise: Quick EnergyRunning a short race, you use ATP in your muscles, and produce new ATP by lactic acid fermentation and cellular respiration.When sprinting, you produce most of your ATP using lactic acid fermentation because you have run out of oxygen for the Krebs cycle. You breathe heavily after you finish a race to rebuild your ATP supply.

  • Energy and Exercise: Long-term EnergyWhen running a long race, you use carbohydrate energy stored as glycogen from your muscles and other tissues. This will give you enough energy for up to 20 minutes of activity.After using up glycogen, your body will use up fats for energy. Aerobic exercises like running and swimming are beneficial for weight control.

  • REVIEW

  • Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular RespirationIf storing energy is compared to money in a savings account, photosynthesis deposits the energy and cellular respiration withdraws the money.Cellular Respiration is the reverse reaction of photosynthesis.

  • What is the formula for photosynthesis?6CO2 + 6H2O + light 6O2 + C6H12O6

    What is the formula for cellular respiration (think about the opposite)?6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

  • Photosynthesis uses CO2 in the atmosphere, but cellular respiration puts it backPhotosynthesis releases O2 into the atmosphere but cellular respiration using O2 to release energy from the foodCellular respiration occurs in all eukaryotes and some prokaryotesPhotosynthesis occurs only in plants, algae, and some bacteria. Other organisms (heterotrophs) get their food by