2
271 Notes and News MEDICAL RESEARCH IN INDIA INVESTIGATIONS carried out in 1950 under the auspices of the Indian Council of Medical Research 1 included an investiga- tion into mosquito repellents and insecticides. In tests of piperonyl butoxide and cashew-nutshell oil as synergists to pyrethrins, it was found that piperonyl butoxide had a well-marked effect; but large amounts are needed and this substance is expensive. Cashew-nutshell oil was found to be a good synergist for pyrethrins in space sprays, and further experiments on its use in residual sprays are being carried out. D.D.T. deposits on walls of village huts were tested chemically and biologically, and under ordinary village conditions D.D.T. deposits seemed to deteriorate rapidly. Three weeks after the application only 25% was found on the sprayed surface, irrespective of the quantities used ; and six weeks after application hardly any D.D.T. could be detected. Experiments on the combined action of D.D.T. and benzene hexachloride (B.H.C.) showed that when 25 mg. of D.D.T. and 5 mg. of the gamma isomer of B.H.C. were used together they had a longer residual effect than 50 mg. of D.D.T. and 10 mg. of B.H.C. used separately. Other interesting work included a study of the movements and habits of insects. In order to recognise the chosen insects without artificial magnification, common house-flies were treated with X rays. This resulted in a mutation in the first generation, in which the fourth wing vein was greatly thickened and the border of the wing deeply indented; these characteristics were visible to the naked eye. A NEW HEARING-AID A NEW miniature hearing-aid-the Belclere, Ultimite 101 -is said by the makers to reproduce speech and music very clearly ; and, by a new type of microphone suspension and automatic volume-control, to reduce surface noise to a minimum and prevent sudden blare. The moulded circuit lmit is said to be impervious to shock, dust, and damp. The instrument measures 42 X 65 X 19 mm.-slightly smaller than a packet of 10 cigarettes-and weighs 3 oz. It costs £ 35 15s., and its two batteries 2s. 3d. and 2s. The makers are Messrs. John Bell & Croyden, 117, High Street, Oxford. VITAMIN-A POISONING IN a leading article earlier this year 2 we referred to the experience of eskimos and arctic explorers that eating the liver of the polar bear or arctic fox leads to toxic effects. The cause of this toxicity is the high vitamin-A content of these organs ; and Loriie 3 has described similar effects in a Chinese family who had eaten shark’s liver. The main symptoms were headache, weakness, dizziness, and vomiting, which lasted about 9-11 hours, and were followed by a remarkable feeling of well being. About 36 hours after the early symptoms desquamation of the skin began around the mouth, and spread to involve the whole body ; the desquamation was completed within a week. Diarrhoea and abdominal pain were not complained of, and drowsiness and visual symptoms, recorded in other cases, were also not noticed. One patient who had suffered from " athlete’s foot " for some years was completely relieved of this for some weeks after desquamation of the skin of the feet and toes. In the same patient, looseness of the bowels, from which he had also suffered for some years, disappeared for a similar period. Another of the men, who was partly bald, claimed that he had a fresh growth of black hair on the bald crown of his head, and that hair elsewhere on his head, previously grey, was growing black. These effects lasted only a few weeks. The liver eaten was not analysed ; but liver from another shark, caught at the same time, was found to contain 165,000 international units of vitamin-A per gramme. Dr. Lonie now writes from Palmerston North, New Zealand, as follows : " Since this date a further family outbreak, involving 3 persons, has come to light. One of the cases was investigated in hospital here, and later described to a medical 1. Indian Council of Medical Research : Report of the Scientific Advisory Board for the year 1950. Obtainable from the secretary of the council, Central Secretariat, P.O. Box 494, New Delhi. Pp. 346. Rupee 1. 2. Lancet, 1951, i, 394. 3. Lonie, T. C. N.Z. med. J. 1950, 49, 680. staff meeting by the physician in charge. Desquamation was a notable feature. The liver in this case was that of a local fish-groper (or hapuka)-and was eaten fried. This type of fish liver has an extremely high vitamin-A content,4 and is normally used as a source of vitamin-A concentrate." FOXGLOVES IN MEDICINE THE Wellcome Film Unit has completed a 16 mm. sound film in colour which outlines the history, pharmacology, and production of digitalis and digoxin. A series of animated diagrams illustrates the relation between heart action and electrocardiographs in normal and diseased hearts, and describes the therapeutic effect of digoxin. The action of digoxin in two cases of heart-failure is also shown. Appli- cation for copies of the film (running-time 261/2 minutes) should be made to the Wellcome Film Unit, 183-193, Euston Road, London, N.W.I. University of Oxford On July 28, the following degrees were conferred : D.M.—* C. E. Davies, W. H. Greany, B. S. B. Wood. Ch.M.-R. H. Percival. B.M.—Barbara M. Crumley, Leonora H. Goulty, J. D. Granger, J. D. Klauber, B. R. S. Ma,inwaring, * J. A. P. Marston, Paul Maton Terry, W. D. May, Mary H. Miller, J. E. K. Moore, * B. M. Ogilvie, Geoffrey Rushworth, D. H. Taylor. * In absentia. University of London At recent examinations for the degree of M.D., the following were successful: ’Branch I (medic,ine).-J. C. Batten, P. E. Bharucha, Brenda M. Buck, Joyce B. Burke, E. J. M. Campbell, H. M. T. Coles, P. B. Fernando, 0. D. Fisher, *Wallace Fox, M. E. H. Halford, J. G. Hamilton, B. J. S. Harley, D. H. Isaac, B. A. G. Jenkins, I. A. Kellock, *fJ. M. Ledingham, J. N. Mickerson, A. A. Morgan, C. J. Zerny. Branch II (pathology).-Kevin Anderson, A. J. Beale, P. J. Collard, F. V. Flynn, R. A. Goodbody, R. C. Jennings, M. B. King, 0. G. Lane, Donald MacKinnon, J. D. Manning, P. L. Masters, P. C. Meyer, Harold Miller, V. W. Pugh, D. B. Richards, K. T. Weavers. Branch III (_psychological medicine).-J. G. Howells, Clement Rose. Branch IV (midwifery and diseases of women).-Kathleen A. D. Drury, G. S. Foster, H. T. Mansfield. Branch V (hygiene).—H. E. A. Carson, P. S. Fuller, P. G. Roads, Leslie Silverstone. * Distinction. t University medal. The university has accepted a grant of £10,000 from the Nuffield Foundation for research in biophysics at King’s College under the direction of Prof. J. T. Randall, D.sc., F.R.s. The present work of the laboratory, already supported by the Medical Research Council and the Rockefeller Founda- tion, is to be extended to develop the use of electronic devices in conjunction with ultraviolet and infra-red radiations in the study of cells and the structures of biologically important molecules. University of Toronto The Charles Mickle fellowship of this university for 1951 has been awarded to Dr. Norman Gregg, of Camperdow-n, New South Wales, for his " incrimination of maternal rubella as a cause of congenital defects." Royal Medico-Psychological Association The Burlingame prize (£100) of this association has been awarded to Dr. Martin Roth, director of clinical research, Graylingwell Hospital, for his paper on Changes in the E.E.G. under Barbiturate Anæsthesia produced by Electroconvulsive Treatment and their Significance for the Theory of E.c.T. Action. Closed Shop On Aug. 1 Durham County Council accepted the recom- mendation of their emergency committee (see Lancet, July 28, p. 182) to refrain from questioning doctors and dentists about trade-union membership when they apply for posts. Though, the council thus decided not to enforce the closed-shop policy for these two professions, a motion to rescind their previous general resolutions to implement it was defeated by 62 votes to 12. 4. Shorland. Trans. 7th Pacific Science Congress.

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271

Notes and News

MEDICAL RESEARCH IN INDIA

INVESTIGATIONS carried out in 1950 under the auspices ofthe Indian Council of Medical Research 1 included an investiga-tion into mosquito repellents and insecticides. In tests of

piperonyl butoxide and cashew-nutshell oil as synergists topyrethrins, it was found that piperonyl butoxide had a

well-marked effect; but large amounts are needed and thissubstance is expensive. Cashew-nutshell oil was found to bea good synergist for pyrethrins in space sprays, and furtherexperiments on its use in residual sprays are being carriedout. D.D.T. deposits on walls of village huts were testedchemically and biologically, and under ordinary villageconditions D.D.T. deposits seemed to deteriorate rapidly.Three weeks after the application only 25% was found on thesprayed surface, irrespective of the quantities used ; and sixweeks after application hardly any D.D.T. could be detected.Experiments on the combined action of D.D.T. and benzenehexachloride (B.H.C.) showed that when 25 mg. of D.D.T. and5 mg. of the gamma isomer of B.H.C. were used together theyhad a longer residual effect than 50 mg. of D.D.T. and 10 mg.of B.H.C. used separately. Other interesting work included astudy of the movements and habits of insects. In order torecognise the chosen insects without artificial magnification,common house-flies were treated with X rays. This resultedin a mutation in the first generation, in which the fourth wingvein was greatly thickened and the border of the wingdeeply indented; these characteristics were visible to thenaked eye.

A NEW HEARING-AID

A NEW miniature hearing-aid-the Belclere, Ultimite 101 ’

-is said by the makers to reproduce speech and music veryclearly ; and, by a new type of microphone suspension andautomatic volume-control, to reduce surface noise to a minimumand prevent sudden blare. The moulded circuit lmit is saidto be impervious to shock, dust, and damp. The instrumentmeasures 42 X 65 X 19 mm.-slightly smaller than a packet of10 cigarettes-and weighs 3 oz. It costs £ 35 15s., and its twobatteries 2s. 3d. and 2s. The makers are Messrs. John Bell& Croyden, 117, High Street, Oxford.

VITAMIN-A POISONING

IN a leading article earlier this year 2 we referred to theexperience of eskimos and arctic explorers that eating theliver of the polar bear or arctic fox leads to toxic effects. Thecause of this toxicity is the high vitamin-A content of theseorgans ; and Loriie 3 has described similar effects in a Chinese

family who had eaten shark’s liver. The main symptoms wereheadache, weakness, dizziness, and vomiting, which lastedabout 9-11 hours, and were followed by a remarkable feelingof well being. About 36 hours after the early symptomsdesquamation of the skin began around the mouth, and spreadto involve the whole body ; the desquamation was completedwithin a week. Diarrhoea and abdominal pain were notcomplained of, and drowsiness and visual symptoms, recordedin other cases, were also not noticed. One patient who hadsuffered from " athlete’s foot " for some years was completelyrelieved of this for some weeks after desquamation of the skinof the feet and toes. In the same patient, looseness of thebowels, from which he had also suffered for some years,disappeared for a similar period. Another of the men, whowas partly bald, claimed that he had a fresh growth of blackhair on the bald crown of his head, and that hair elsewhere onhis head, previously grey, was growing black. These effectslasted only a few weeks. The liver eaten was not analysed ;but liver from another shark, caught at the same time, wasfound to contain 165,000 international units of vitamin-Aper gramme.

Dr. Lonie now writes from Palmerston North, New Zealand,as follows : " Since this date a further family outbreak,involving 3 persons, has come to light. One of the cases was

investigated in hospital here, and later described to a medical

1. Indian Council of Medical Research : Report of the ScientificAdvisory Board for the year 1950. Obtainable from thesecretary of the council, Central Secretariat, P.O. Box 494,New Delhi. Pp. 346. Rupee 1.

2. Lancet, 1951, i, 394.3. Lonie, T. C. N.Z. med. J. 1950, 49, 680.

staff meeting by the physician in charge. Desquamation wasa notable feature. The liver in this case was that of a local

fish-groper (or hapuka)-and was eaten fried. This type offish liver has an extremely high vitamin-A content,4 and isnormally used as a source of vitamin-A concentrate."

FOXGLOVES IN MEDICINE

THE Wellcome Film Unit has completed a 16 mm. soundfilm in colour which outlines the history, pharmacology, andproduction of digitalis and digoxin. A series of animated

diagrams illustrates the relation between heart action andelectrocardiographs in normal and diseased hearts, anddescribes the therapeutic effect of digoxin. The action of

digoxin in two cases of heart-failure is also shown. Appli-cation for copies of the film (running-time 261/2 minutes)should be made to the Wellcome Film Unit, 183-193, EustonRoad, London, N.W.I.

University of OxfordOn July 28, the following degrees were conferred :D.M.—* C. E. Davies, W. H. Greany, B. S. B. Wood.Ch.M.-R. H. Percival.

B.M.—Barbara M. Crumley, Leonora H. Goulty, J. D. Granger,J. D. Klauber, B. R. S. Ma,inwaring, * J. A. P. Marston, PaulMaton Terry, W. D. May, Mary H. Miller, J. E. K. Moore, * B. M.Ogilvie, Geoffrey Rushworth, D. H. Taylor.

* In absentia.

University of LondonAt recent examinations for the degree of M.D., the following

were successful:’Branch I (medic,ine).-J. C. Batten, P. E. Bharucha, Brenda M.

Buck, Joyce B. Burke, E. J. M. Campbell, H. M. T. Coles, P. B.Fernando, 0. D. Fisher, *Wallace Fox, M. E. H. Halford, J. G.Hamilton, B. J. S. Harley, D. H. Isaac, B. A. G. Jenkins, I. A.Kellock, *fJ. M. Ledingham, J. N. Mickerson, A. A. Morgan, C. J.Zerny.Branch II (pathology).-Kevin Anderson, A. J. Beale, P. J.

Collard, F. V. Flynn, R. A. Goodbody, R. C. Jennings, M. B. King,0. G. Lane, Donald MacKinnon, J. D. Manning, P. L. Masters,P. C. Meyer, Harold Miller, V. W. Pugh, D. B. Richards, K. T.Weavers.

Branch III (_psychological medicine).-J. G. Howells, Clement Rose.Branch IV (midwifery and diseases of women).-Kathleen A. D.

Drury, G. S. Foster, H. T. Mansfield.Branch V (hygiene).—H. E. A. Carson, P. S. Fuller, P. G. Roads,

Leslie Silverstone.* Distinction. t University medal.

The university has accepted a grant of £10,000 from theNuffield Foundation for research in biophysics at King’sCollege under the direction of Prof. J. T. Randall, D.sc.,F.R.s. The present work of the laboratory, already supportedby the Medical Research Council and the Rockefeller Founda-tion, is to be extended to develop the use of electronic devicesin conjunction with ultraviolet and infra-red radiations inthe study of cells and the structures of biologically importantmolecules.

University of TorontoThe Charles Mickle fellowship of this university for 1951

has been awarded to Dr. Norman Gregg, of Camperdow-n,New South Wales, for his

" incrimination of maternal rubellaas a cause of congenital defects."

Royal Medico-Psychological AssociationThe Burlingame prize (£100) of this association has been

awarded to Dr. Martin Roth, director of clinical research,Graylingwell Hospital, for his paper on Changes in the E.E.G.under Barbiturate Anæsthesia produced by ElectroconvulsiveTreatment and their Significance for the Theory of E.c.T.Action.

Closed ShopOn Aug. 1 Durham County Council accepted the recom-

mendation of their emergency committee (see Lancet, July 28,p. 182) to refrain from questioning doctors and dentists abouttrade-union membership when they apply for posts. Though,the council thus decided not to enforce the closed-shop policyfor these two professions, a motion to rescind their previousgeneral resolutions to implement it was defeated by 62 votesto 12.

4. Shorland. Trans. 7th Pacific Science Congress.

Page 2: Notes and News

272

Royal College of Physicians of LondonDr. R. R. Bomford has been appointed Bradshaw lecturer

for 1952.

Royal College of Surgeons of EnglandAt a meeting of the council held on Aug. 2, with Sir Cecil

Wakeley, the president, in the chair, Mr. L..E. C. Norburywas appointed Hunterian orator for 1953. Mr. J. H. Cobb,of Sheffield, was elected a member of the court of examiners forotolaryngology, and Mr. N. R. Wyndham, of Australia, waselected a temporary member for general surgery. Dr. F.Stansfield was appointed lecturer in anatomy.Diplomas of membership were granted to the candidates

named in the report of the comitia of the Royal College ofPhysicians (Lancet, Aug. 4, p. 227) and on A. A. Waterman.Diplomas in public health were also granted to those namedin the report of the comitia, and a diploma in laryngologyand otology to K. A. McNeill.

Royal College of Obstetricians and GynaecologistsAt a meeting of the council held on July 28, the following

officers were re-elected : president, Dame Hilda Lloyd;vice-presidents, Mr. J. E. Stacey, Mr. V. B. Green-Armytage ;hon. treasurer, Mr. Arthur Gemmell; hon. secretary, Mr.H. G. E. Arthure ; Hon. curator of the museum, Mr. AleckBourne.The following were elected to the membership :T. L. Adamson, G. W. E. Aitken, G. J. Amiel, D. L. Arnold,

Kenneth Baker, J. S. Barr, E. L. G. Beavis, R. M. Bernard, RobertBrown, T. W. Capell, Helen A. Cawson, Lydia Colaco, FrancoisDaubenton, C. H. De Boer, Mary R. Ellis, Joseph Firth, C. M.Flood, Joseph Gardiner, J. F. C. Grant, R. G. H. Hall, David Hay,S. R. Hewitt, P. F. C. Jackson, D. H. McGrath, Donald MacVicar,Kazimierz Antoni Makos, R. T. Martin, J. K. Morrison, Margaret B.Noble, J. K. Ogden, Henry Roberts, Heather J. S. Ross, GamalEl Din Mohamed Kamel Sami, J. C. W. Somerville, N. G. G. Talbot,J. M. Thomas, R. R. Trussell, A. C. H. Wensley, Marion Williams,Lawrence Willoughby, Abd Elmonem El Sayed Abou Zikry.

Treatment of Anthrax, Botulism, and Snake-biteEmergency supplies of sera for the treatment of anthrax,

botulism, and snake-bite are kept at the following centres,which maintain a 24-hour service.

Centre Telephone no.Dispensary, Newcastle General Hospital .. Newcastle 35211Dispensary, Cumberland Infirmary, Carlisle Carlisle 590Seacroft Hospital, York Road. Leeds.. Leeds 45194Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, York.. Cottingham 47372Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road,Nottingham .......... Nottingham 66292

Regional Blood Supply Depot, BrooklandAvenue, Cambridge-

Monday to Friday, 8 A.M.—10 P.M. ;Saturday, 8 A.M.-6 r.m..... Cambridge 2536

All other times........ Cambridge 87988North Middlesex Hospital, London, N.18 .. Tottenham 3071South London Blood Supply Depot, Stanley

Road, Sutton, Surrey...... Vigilant 0068Dispensary, Royal South Hants and South-ampton Hospital (snake antiserum only) Southampton 76211

Northampton General Hospital.... Northampton 4680Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading.... Reading 2231Ham Green Hospital, Bristol.... Bristol 31165Swilly Isolation Hospital, Plymouth.... Plymouth 4311

Pathological Department, Royal Devon andExeter Hospital........ Exeter 3519

Pathological Department, Royal CornwallInfirmary, Truro Truro 3029

Canton Infectious Diseases Hospital, Cardiff Cardiff 960Dispensary, Selly Oak Hospital, Birmingham Selly Oak 1361

Dispensary, Manchester Royal Infirmary.. Ardwick 3300Fazakerley Isolation Hospital, Liverpool.. Aintree 2324

In addition, 10-ml. containers of anthrax antiserum for useprophylactically in persons exposed to infection may beobtained during the day-time from the following centres :Public Health Laboratory, 16-18, Edmund

Street, Bradford........ Bradford 24314Public Health Laboratory, 184, High Street,

. Kingston-upon-Hull ...... Hull 35371Bacteriological Department, City Labora-

tories, 126, Mount Pleasant, Liverpool .. Royal 3636Central Public Health Laboratory, ColindaleAvenue, London, N.W.9 ...... Colindale 6041

and 4081Public Health Laboratory General Hospital, ,

Westgate Road. Newcastle, 4 .... Newcastle 34920Public Health Laboratory, General Hospital,Northampton ........ Northampton 347

Public Health Laboratory, County Hall,Taunton .......... Taunton 3451

Public Health Laboratory. Institute of Pre-ventive Medicine, The Parade, Cardift Cardiff 8288

Institute of Ophthalmology, LondonSir Cecil Wakeley, P.R.C.S., will give the inaugural lecture

of the new session at the institute, Judd Street, W.C.1, onWednesday, Oct. 3, at 4 P.M. The annual dinner of the institutewill be held at 8 P.M. on the same day at the RembrandtRooms, Thurloe Place, Kensington, S.W.7. Tickets (18s. 6d.each) may be obtained from the secretary of the institute.

Institute of Psychiatry, LondonA two-year postgraduate course will be held at the Maudsley

Hospital, beginning on Oct. 1, under the auspices of theInstitute of Psychiatry. Further particulars may be obtainedfrom the secretary of the institute, Maudsley Hospital,Denmark Hill, London, S.E.5.

NAPT Essay PrizeThe National Association for the Prevention of Tuber-

culosis have awarded their prize of 100 guineas for an essayon the control of tuberculosis in the United Kingdom, bya chest physician of not more than ten years’ standing, toDr. W. H. Tattersall. Dr. P. G. Arblaster and Dr. M. B. Paulwere placed second and third in the competition.

Queen Elizabeth Hospital for ChildrenIt is proposed to hold a dinner in London early in October

in honour of Dr. E. Bellingham Smith, who is retiring after44 years’ association with this hospital. Further particularsmay be had from Dr. M. P. B. Reid, Queen Elizabeth Hospitalfor Children, Hackney Road, London, E.2.

Royal Institute of Public Health and HygieneProf. Wilson Smith, F.R.S., has been appointed Bengue

lecturer for 1951. He has chosen as his subject InfluenzaVirus Research and its Biological Implications, and he willdeliver his discourse at the institute, 28, Portland Place,London, W.1, on Wednesday, Sept. 19, at 3 P.M.

Royal Institute of PhilosophyOn Friday, Oct. 12, at 5.15 P.M., Sir Henry Cohen, F.R.C.P.,

will deliver the Manson lecture at University Hall, 14, GordonSquare, London, W.C.1. He is to speak on the Status ofBrain in the Concept of Mind.

National Society for Cancer ReliefThe Book of Cancer Relief published by this society includes

an outline of the facilities now available under the CancerAct, 1939, and the National Health Service Acts for peoplesuffering from this disease. A list of homes that are pre-pared to receive cancer patients is also included. Copies(2s. 6d. each) may be obtained from the offices of the society,47, Victoria Street, London, S.W.1.

Since the last edition appeared in 1946 Medicine in Britainhas been changed, at least on the surface, by the NationalHealth Service Acts, and in his fourth edition Dr. Hugh Clegggives a lucid account of the new service backed by a tellingdiagram. The booklet (London: Longmans, Green & Co.

Pp. 63. 2s. 6d.) is the second of the British Council’s attractiveseries on British Life and Thought to appear in the pleasantnew cover appropriately dominated by the lion and theunicorn.

Births, Marriages, and Deaths

BIRTHS

STEER.-On Aug. 1, in London, the wife of Dr. Charles Steer—a daughter.

MARRIAGESHEATON—COLEMAN.—On July 27, in Bournemouth, John M.

Heaton, M.B., to Joy Louise Coleman.THURSBY-PELHAM—ROBINSON.—On July 4, at Nantwich, David

Cressett Thursby-Pelham, M.R.C.P., to Helen Gunn Robinson,M.B.

DEATHS

GELLERT.—On July 31, at South Petherton, Somerset, HarryHerbert Gellert, M.B. Edin.

MOSTYN.—On July 26, at Wembley Park, John Probert Mostyn,M.B. Lond., M.R.C.P., D.C.H., aged 27.

SCOTT.—On Aug. 3, Douglas Hay Scott, M.B. St. And., of Surbiton,Surrey.

SIMMONS.—On July 27, George Alan Simmons, M.R.C.S., of Newbury.WALKER.—On Aug. 5, at Torquay, Thomas Malcolm Walker,

M.R.C.S., aged 78.