Northern Italian Renaissance Painting, Architecture and ... Italian Renaissance Painting, Architecture and Mannerism •Correggio •Giorgione ... • Like poetry,

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  • Northern Italian Renaissance Painting,

    Architecture and Mannerism

    Correggio

    Giorgione

    Titian

    Pontormo

    Parmigianino

    Bronzino

    Tintoretto

    Veronese

    Palladio

  • While Rome ranked as

    Italys preeminent arts center

    at the beginning of the 16th

    century, wealthy and

    powerful families in

    Northern Italy also

    patronized the arts.

    Northern cities such as

    Mantua, Parma and Venice

    were home to talented

    painters, sculptors and

    architects and experienced a

    Renaissance as well.

  • Correggio

    In his brief but prolific career, Correggio produced most of

    his work for patrons in Parma and Mantua.

    His greatest work, the Assumption of the Virgin, a fresco

    painted between 1526-30 in the dome of the Parma

    cathedral, distantly recalls the illusionism of Mantegnas

    ceiling in the Gonzaga palace.

    However scholars believe that it was Leonardo who

    inspired Correggios use of softly modeled forms, spot

    lighting effects of illumination, and slightly hazy overall

    appearance.

    Raphaels influence is also apparent in the the idealized

    figures.

    Some scholars refer to his style as PROTO BAROQUE

  • Correggio, Assumption of the Virgin, 1526-30 fresco

    Parma Cathedral, Italy

  • Mantegna Correggio1471-74 1526-30

  • detail

  • St Peter and St. Paul

    detail

  • The architecture of the dome

    seems to dissolve and the forms

    seem to explode through the

    building drawing the viewer up

    in to a swirling vortex of saints

    and angels.

    Correggios dramatic effects

    with contrasting colors and

    warm sensuous figures was very

    often imitated in ceiling

    decoration in Europe

    throughout the 17th century.

  • Venetian artists and oil paint

    The idealized style and oil painting techniques initiated by theBellini family in the late 15th century were developed further by16th century painters in Venice.

    Venetians were the first Italians to use oil paint on both canvas andwood panel.

    Oil paint on canvas was preferred in Venice rather than frescopainting due to the citys dampness.

    Painting on canvas rather than fresco, also allowed the artist tocomplete the work more conveniently in the studio.

    In addition, oil paint was especially well suited to the rich colors andlighting effects employed great Venetian painters such as:Giorgione, Titian, Veronese and Tintoretto.

  • Giorgione

    The career of Giorgione was brief; he died from the plaguewhen he was about 32 years old.

    Nevertheless his importance to Venetian painting iscritical.

    He introduced enigmatic or puzzling pastoral themes,sensuous nude figures, and above all an appreciation ofnature in a landscape setting.

    His early years are undocumented, but his work suggestshe studied with Giovanni Bellini.

    There also seems to be an influence from Leonardo in hisintensely observed landscapes.

  • GiorgioneAdoration of the Shepard, 1505-10, Oil on panel

  • Bellini

    St Francis in Ecstasy

    1480-85

    Oil on panel

    Giorgione

    Adoration of the Shepard

    1505-10

    Oil on panel

    Can you see Bellinis influence on Giorgione?

  • The TempestGiorgione c. 1510

    The Tempest, Giorgiones most

    famous painting, was completed

    shortly before his death.

    The subject of this painting is

    immediately intriguing to the

    viewer

    What is going on? Why is she

    nursing the baby in the nude?

    The male figure on the left is

    wearing the uniform of a German

    mercenary soldier.

    According to x-rays of the

    painting the woman on the right

    was at one time balanced by a

    second woman on the left.

    The landscape with its impending

    storm seem to be of greater

    importance than the figures.

  • The painting ofthe nude as aninexplicablesubject and thedominance ofthe landscapeare typical ofGiorgione

    Tempest

    c. 1505

    Oil on canvas

    Galleriedell'Accaemia,Venice

  • Detail the

    Tempest

  • Detail the

    Tempest

  • Detail the

    Tempest

  • Giorgione and Titian

    Some scholars believe that Giorgione approached his work

    as many modern day artists do, expressing private thoughts

    and feelings in his paintings.

    Although he also painted traditional subjects produced on

    commission for clients: portraits, altarpieces and paintings

    on exteriors of Venetian buildings.

    In 1507, he was commissioned to paint the exterior of the

    warehouse and offices of German merchants.

    He hired another young artist, Titian, as an assistant.

    The two artists worked together for the next three years,

    until Giorgiones early death.

    The two artists careers were tightly bound together.

  • Titian and Giorgione, The Pastoral Concert

    C. 1508, oil on canvas

    Louvre

  • Like poetry, the painting evokes a mood, a golden age of love and innocence

    recalled in ancient Roman pastoral poetry.

    This kind of poetic painting is new in the history of art, and this painting had a

    profound influence on later generations of painters who saw it and

    reinterpreted it.

  • Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, c. 1501

    oil on canvas, 43 70 inches, Dresden

  • The Sleeping Venus, is an extremely influential painting.

    The painting, one of the last works by Giorgione, portrays a nude woman whoseprofile seems to follow that of the hills in the background.

    The choice of a naked woman marked a revolution in art, and is considered bysome authorities one of the starting points of modern art.

  • The painting was unfinished at the time of his death.

    The sky was later finished by Titian.

  • The landscape mimics the curves of the woman's body and this, in turn,relates the human body back to being a natural, organic object.

    The contemplative attitude toward nature and beauty of the figure is typicalof Giorgione.

    The composition of this painting influenced later painters such as, Ingres andRubens. A direct link connects the Venus of Giorgione to that of Titian, andhis Venus led directly to the Olympia of Manet.

  • What do we know about Giorgiones assistant Titian

    Titians life as an artist is obscure.

    He worked with Giorgione for three years before Giorgionedied, finishing his paintings.

    By that time he had completely absorbed Giorgiones style.

    When Giovanni Bellini died in 1516, Titian became theofficial painter of Venice.

    In 1519, Titian received a commission from Jacopo Pesaro,commander of the Vatican fleet, to commemorate his victoryover the Turks in 1502.

    Pesaro wanted a votive altarpiece for a Franciscan Church inVenice.

    Titian worked on the painting for seven years and changedthe concept three times before he came up with arevolutionary composition.

  • Titian was principally a painter, buta painter whose handling of paintequaled Michelangelo's mastery ofdraftsmanship.

    This supreme skill enabled him todisregard all the time-honored rulesof composition, and to rely on colorto restore the unity, which heintentionally broke up.

    His painting, Madonna with saintsand members of the Pesaro family,was begun only fifteen years afterBellini's Madonna with saints torealize the effect that his art musthave had on his contemporaries.

    It was almost unheard of to movethe Virgin out of the center of thepicture, and to place the two saints -St Francis and St Peter, notsymmetrically on each side, asGiovanni Bellini had done, but asactive participants of a scene.

  • Bellini 1505 Titian c. 1520

  • Titian's contemporaries may have

    been amazed at the audacity with

    which he had dared to upset the

    old-established rules of

    composition.

    They must have, at first, found such

    a picture lopsided and unbalanced.

    Actually it is the opposite.

    The unexpected composition only

    serves to bring the scene to life,

    without upsetting the harmony.

    Titian allowed light, air and colors

    to unify the scene.

    The idea of making a mere flag

    counterbalance the figure of the

    Holy Virgin would probably have

    shocked an earlier generation, but

    this flag, in its rich, warm color, is

    such a stupendous piece of painting

    that it works in this composition.

  • The Venus of Urbino

    1538

    Oil on canvas, 47 x 66 inches

    Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

  • Titian 1538

    Giorgione 1501

  • Isabella dEste

    1534-36

    Oil on canvas

    She was 60 when Titianpainted this portrait.

    She wanted to look 20

    She was the Marchesa ofMantua and one of theleading women of theItalian Renaissance anda major cultural andpolitical figure.

  • The Rape of Europa (1562) is a bold diagonal composition which was admired and

    copied by Rubens. In contrast to the clarity of Titian's early works, it is almost baroque

    in its blurred lines, swirling colors, and vibrant brushstrokes.

  • Titian

    Crowning with Thorns

    c. 1570

    Oil on canvas

    280 x 182 cm

    Alte Pinakothek, Munich

  • Titian was the greatestpainter of the VenetianSchool.

    Over the course of his longlife he, like