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    NON SPESIFIK

    IMUNNITY

    Dr Nur Rahman, STP MP

    Email: rahmancahaya@yahoo.com

    Prodi D4 Gizi

    Politeknik Kesehatan Kemenkes Malang

    IMUNOLOGI GIZI

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    Summary of Important Aspects of

    Innate Defense

    Defense Component• First-Line Defenses Physical barriers • Antimicrobial substances

    • Normal flora

    • Cell Communication Surface receptors

    • Cytokines

    Adhesion molecules • Sensor Systems

    • Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

    • Complement System

    • Phagocytes Macrophages

    • Neutrophils

    Inflammation (a coordinated response • to invasion or damage)

    • Interferons

    • Fever

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    PENTING

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    • The complement system consists of about 20

    interacting proteins that greatly enhance the

    ability of phagocytic cells to identify and

    eliminate pathogens.

    • The complement proteins are synthesized in

    the liver, and they circulate in blood in an

    inactive form

    The Complement System

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    • They can bind directly to the PAMPs on pathogens, and this tags them in a way that facilitates the identification and elimination of pathogens by phagocytic leukocytes.

    • They trigger the release of histamine from mast cells.

    • They facilitate the removal of antigen-antibody complexes. Antibodies are generated by the adaptive immune system, and, like complement proteins, they tag foreign substances to enhance their removal by

    phagocytic cells. However, unlike complement, antibodies are highly specific in their ability to identify pathogens and foreign substances.

    Other Functions of the Complement Proteins

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    • The elements of the innate (non-specific)

    immune system :

    • Anatomical barriers,

    • Secretory molecules and

    • Cellular components

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    • Mechanical factors

    • Chemical factors

    • Biological factors 

    Anatomical barriers to infections 

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    PENTING

    Ch i l f

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    • The epithelial surfaces. • Thus, the skin acts as our first line of defense against invading

    organisms.

    • The desquamation of skin epithelium also helps remove bacteria and other infectious agents that have adhered to the epithelial

    surfaces. • Movement due to cilia or peristalsis helps to keep air passages and

    the gastrointestinal tract free from microorganisms.

    • The flushing action of tears and saliva helps prevent infection of the eyes and mouth.

    The trapping effect of mucus that lines the respiratory andgastrointestinal tract helps protect the lungs and digestive systems from infection.

    Chemical factors  PENTING

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    Chemical factors

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    • Fatty acids in sweat inhibit the growth of bacteria. Lysozyme and phospholipase found in tears, saliva and nasal secretions can breakdown the cell wall of bacteria and destabilize bacterial membranes.

    • The low pH of sweat and gastric secretions prevents growth of bacteria.

    • Defensins (low molecular weight proteins) found in the lung and gastrointestinal tract have antimicrobial activity.

    • Sweat also contains low molecular weight anti-microbial 

    peptides that interact with bacterial cell membranes(including MRSA) in which they form a channel that allows the passage of water and ions, disrupting the transmembrane potential, leading to the death of the cell.

    Chemical factors  PENTING

    http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=Lysozyme http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=phospholipase http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=phospholipase http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=Lysozyme http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=phospholipase http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=Defensins http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=Defensins http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=phospholipase http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=Lysozyme

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    • Surfactants in the lung act as opsonins

    (substances that promote phagocytosis of

    particles by phagocytic cells).

    PENTING

    Bi l i l f t

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    • The normal flora of the skin and in the

    gastrointestinal tract can prevent the

    colonization of pathogenic bacteria by

    secreting toxic substances or by competing with pathogenic bacteria for nutrients or

    attachment to cell surfaces.

    Biological factors 

    f

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    • Humoral factors play an important role in

    inflammation, which is characterized by

    edema and the recruitment of phagocytic

    cells. These humoral factors are found in serum or they are formed at the site of

    infection.

    Humoral barriers to infection 

    http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=edema http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=phagocytes http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=phagocytes http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=phagocytes http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=phagocytes http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?query=edema

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    • Complement system

    Coagulation system 

    Lactoferrin and transferrin 

    Interferons 

    Lysozyme 

    Interleukin-1 

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    • Complement system The complement system is the major humoral non-specific defense mechanism

    •   Coagulation system  For example, beta-lysin, a protein produced by platelets during coagulation can lyse many Gram positive bacteria by acting as a cationic detergent.

    Lactoferrin and transferrin 

    By binding iron, an essential nutrient for bacteria, these proteins limit bacterial growth.

    Interferons  Interferons are proteins that can limit virus replication in cells.

    Lysozyme  Lysozyme breaks down the cell wall of bacteria.

    Interleukin-1 

    Il-1 induces fever and the production of acute phase proteins, some of which are antimicrobialbecause they can opsonize bacteria.

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