NOMENCLATURE,CHRONOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY OF PRIMARY DENTITION

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Hy : PvutccL HuvIyu.zS /S?eDrct O| |reeeentits & |rrurntiur Drntistrv Drct O| |reeeentits & |rrurntiur DrntistrvPNTFD0UCTDNPND|ENCLATUFEP0ENTAL FDF|ULAEPTEETH NU|8EFNC SYSTE|SPCHFDNDLDCYPEFUPTDNP|DFPHDLDCYPCLNCAL |PLCATDNSPFEFEFENCES.lNTR00UCTl0N:::PThe fIrst step In understandIng dental anatomy Is to learn the nomenclature, or the system of names used to descrIbe or classIfy the materIal Included In the subject.PA knowledge of the development of the teeth and theIr emergence Into the oral cavIty Is applIcable to clInIcal practIce as well as to archaeology, demography, forensIcs and palaeontology.PThe word dentton refers to all of theteeth In the upper jaw bone (maxIlla) andlower jaw bone (mandIble).P The upper teeth are called maxIllaryteeth and together form an arch shapeknown as maxIllary arch of teeth.P The lower teeth are called mandIbularteeth, collectIvely formIng themandIbular arch of teeth.mportance and FunctIons of PrImary Teeth:Sdney Fnn: Clncal pedodontcs , 4thedtonP |echanIcal preparatIon of chIld's food for dIgestIon and assImIlatIon.P |aIntenance of space for permanent teeth.P StImulatIon of growth of the jawsP 0evelopment of speechP CosmetIc functIon.**Therefore, premature loss of decIduous teeth Is to be avoIded.P Human exhIbIts.0IPHYD0DNTTHECD0DNT HETEPD0DNTNomenclature:::The system of names , used to descrIbe or classIfy the materIal Included In the subject.P 0ecduous tooth( aby, prmary, mlk).one of the temporary set of teeth of a mammal that are replaced by permanent teeth.P !ermanent tooth.8:..e88or dentton wh.h 8 permcnent , wh.h mcy not be the .c8e be.c:8e of dentcl .cre8 perodontcl d8ec8e8 cnd trc:mc.0ental formulae:::2 1 2 3I C P h = 162 1 2 3 2 1 2 3I C P h = 162 1 2 3 2 1 2I C h = 102 1 22 1 2I C h = 102 1 2!rmary / decduous teeth:!ermanent teeth:Ash MM, Nelson S. Wheeler's 0ental AnatomyTooth numberny systems:::P Zsigmondy / PaImer notation system: P A0A In 1947 recommended thIs P method as the numberIng method of choIce.P n UnIted States It Is often referred as !almer notatIony Adolph Zsymondy ,1861 for permanent denttonModfed n 1874 for prmary dentton.!almer,1870 ndependentlyE 0 C A A C 0 EE 0 C A A C 0 E E 0 C A A C 0 EE 0 C A A C 0 E A C 0 E F C H l J T S R D ! 0 N M L K A C 0 E F C H l J T S R D ! 0 N M L K P&niversaI numbering system PFecommended by A0A In 1968 y: !arredt,1882) 3 2 1 61 62 63 6 6 3 2 1 71 72 73 7 7 3 2 1 61 62 63 6 6 3 2 1 71 72 73 7 7P ederation entaire nternationaIe):P Two dIgIt systemP Adopted by WHD E A0F .P Also known as ISD-30 notatIon.y Royer L,1987P'iktor Haderup of enmark in 1891:PEPEAN numbering systemEg : +01 maxiIIary Ieft centraI incisor01+ maxiIIary right centraI incisor-01 mandibuIar Ieft centraI incisor01- mandibuIar right centraI incisor 7 6 3 2 1 1 2 3 6 7 7 6 3 2 1 1 2 3 6 7 7 6 3 2 1 1 2 3 6 7 7 6 3 2 1 1 2 3 6 7 1 2 3 6 7 10 11 12 13 1 1 16 32 31 30 2 2 27 26 2 2 23 22 21 20 1 1 171 2 3 6 7 10 11 12 13 1 1 16 32 31 30 2 2 27 26 2 2 23 22 21 20 1 1 171 17 16 1 1 13 12 11 21 22 23 2 2 26 27 2 7 6 3 2 1 31 32 33 3 3 36 37 31 17 16 1 1 13 12 11 21 22 23 2 2 26 27 2 7 6 3 2 1 31 32 33 3 3 36 37 3

&niversaI numbering systemZsigmondy system: Permanent 0entItIon 7 6 3 2 1 1 2 3 6 7 - 7- 6- - - 3- 2- 1- -1 -2 -3 - - -6 -7 - 7 6 3 2 1 1 2 3 6 7 - 7- 6- - - 3- 2- 1- -1 -2 -3 - - -6 -7 -'Iktor Haderup0I NotatIon ZsIgmondy l PaImer NotatIonEuropean Tooth numbering SystemUnIversaI Tooth NumberIng System Chronoloyy:::Pefnton: the study whIch deals wIth the tImIngs of the varIous stages of tooth development, startIng wIth the InItIatIon of the fIrst dental tIssue laId down to the emergence of tooth Into the oral cavIty and Its completIon of calcIfIcatIon.y Tandon S .Textbook of pedodontcs . 2ndedton%ypes of chronoIogies : P 1 age of attaInment chronologIes based on tooth emergence.(Loyan 8 Kronfeld,1933Schour 8 Massler,1941)P age predIctIon chronologIes based on beIng In a stage.(Coldsten H,1979) P maturIty assessment scale used to assess whether a subject of known age Is In front of or behInd compared wIth a refrence populatIon.(Wolansk,1966)PDrIgInally chronology for dentItIon was based on the data of Loyan and Kronfeld (1933)PLater a careful revIew of data was done by varIous researchers lIke Massler and Shour (1941), Moorrees ,Fannny and Hunt(1963), Kraus and Jordan(1965) 8 Nystrom(1977).Logan and Kronfeld, 19.Schour hassIer 11Lunt FC , Law 08 : J Am 0ent Assoc 89:87879,1974. S0(standard devIatIon):nt cnd cw , 1Z4Tandon S. :Textbook of pedodontIcs.ndedItIon 1998Erupton:::P0efInItIon : "r:pton Is defIned as the axIal or occlusal movement of the tooth from Its developmental posItIon wIthIn the jaws to Its functIonal posItIon In the occlusal plane."PTeeth are formed In the jawbone, and mustgrow through the bone and coverIng gum Intothe mouth.PThe permanent tooth begIns to grow underthe baby tooth.PThe root of the baby tooth begIns to dIssolve(resorb), and the baby tooth becomes loose.PWhen the crown erupts, It Is covered by acutIcle or coverIng that protects the enamel.The cutIcle slowly worn away by chewIng andtooth brushIng.P%ype8 of er:pton:P l ]4 1ContInuously growIng.4 ContInuously extrudIng.4 ContInuously Invested teeth.P ll ]4 1 ActIve eruptIon.4 PassIve eruptIon.ContInuousIy growIng :PTooth formatIon and eruptIon occurs throughout the lIfe.PThese teeth have extensIve wear.PEruptIon velocIty (rapId)Increases whenever the velocIty of wear Increases and when antagonIst teeth Is removedPEx : rodents and lyomorphsContInuousIy extrudIng:PTeeth stop formIng once root formatIon Is complete. P|oderate occlusal wear.PHeIght of clInIcal crown Is maIntaIned by eruptIon of tooth E apIcal mIgratIon of surroundIng epIthelIal attachments wIthout sImultaneous deposItIon of alveolar bone.PAs occlusal wear progresses the tooth eventually loosens and exfolIates PEx : cattle and sheep ContInuousIy Invested teeth:PTeeth stops formIng after a predIctable amount of root development.P0Iffers from contInuous extrudIng type of eruptIon In alveolar bone remoldIng In response to eruptIon.PWIth normal attrItIon, the clInIcal crown shortens as the tooth erupts to maIntaIn vertIcal heIght and occlusal functIon.PEx : human teeth.PActIve eruptIon:PPassIve eruptIon:P!hysoloyc tooth movement :4 1 PFE EFUPT7E TDDTH |D7E|ENT4 2 EFUPT7E TDDTH |D7E|ENT4 3 PDST EFUPT7E TDDTH |D7E|ENT!RE ERU!TlVE T00TH M0VEMENTPt Is preparatory to eruptIve phasePt consIsts of movements of thedevelopIng and growIng tooth germswIthIn the alveolar process before rootformatIon to maIntaIn theIr posItIon Inthe expandIng jawsPThIs Is accomplIshed by both bodIlymovement and eccentrIc growth.ERU!TlVE T00TH M0VEMENT :P0urIng thIs phase, tooth moves from Itsdevelopmental posItIon In jaws to ItsfunctIonal posItIon In occlusIon.PWhIle the maIn dIrectIon of eruptIve forceIs axIal, movements also occurs In otherplanes accountIng for tIltIng and drIftIng.PEruptIon rate of teeth are greatest at thetIme crown emerges ,whIch dIfferaccordIng to tooth type.!0ST ERU!TlVE T00TH M0VEMENT :P n the post eruptIve phase the tooth makes movements prImarIly to accommodate the growth of jawsP These movements followIng eruptIon are those made by the tooth after It has reached Its functIonal posItIon In the occlusal plane.P They may be dIvIded Into three categorIes:4 |ovements made to accommodate the growIng jaws.4 Those made to compensate for contInued occlusal wear.4 Those made to accommodate InterproxImal wear.Mechansm of tooth erupton:::P nItIal theorIes that doesn't explaIn tooth eruptIon satIsfactorIly.4'ascuIar pressure and bIood vesseI thrust.4PuIpaI pressure and PuIpaI growth.4TractIon by perIodontaI fIbrobIasts.4CushIon Hammock LIgament TheoryP TheorIes that most convIncIngly explaIn tooth eruptIon In man and other mammalIan specIes.4Poot eIongatIon theory.4AIveoIar bone remodeIIng theory. Sequence of tooth erupton:A 8 0 C EA 8 0 C ESequence of tooth erupton:P0ecIduous teeth:A 8 0 C EA 8 0 C Ey: Sato and 0ywara ,1971PLunt and Law,19748:e8ted thct lctercl n.8or ,fr8t molcr cnd .cnne tend to er:pt ecrler n mcxllc thcn n the mcndblePermanent dentItIon:DF6 1 4 5 7 86 1 4 5 7 86 1 4 5 7 86 1 4 5 7 86 1 4 5 7 86 1 4 5 7 86 1 4 5 7 86 1 4 5 7 8hoyers,1P The mandIbular fIrst permanent molars are often the fIrst permanent teeth to erupt. They are quIckly followed by the mandIbular central IncIsors. o cnd Moyer815J) found lIttle or no clInIcal sIgnIfIcance to the eruptIon of the IncIsors before the molars.P After analyzIng serIal records of 16, chIldren In Newburgh and KIngston, New York, Carlos and CIttelsohn(1965) concluded that the average eruptIon tIme of the lower .entrcl n.8or8 wc8 ecrler thcn thct of the fr8t molcr8 by cbo:t 1.5 month8 n both boy8 cnd rl8. P Df consIderable Interest was the gender dIfference In the eruptIon sequence of permanent teeth. P The mcndb:lcr .cnne erupted before the maxI