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NX Manufacturing Fundamentals Student Guide April 2007 MT11041 — NX 5 Publication Number mt11041_g NX 5

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NX Manufacturing Fundamentals

Student GuideApril 2007

MT11041 — NX 5

Publication Numbermt11041_g NX 5

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Manual History

ManualRevision

UnigraphicsVersion

PublicationDate

Version 16.0 March 1999Version 17.0 January 2001Version 17.0 June 2001Version 18.0 September 2001Unigraphics NX September 2002Unigraphics NX 2 September 2003NX 3 November 2004NX 4 January 2006NX 5 April 2007

This edition obsoletes all previous editions.

Proprietary and Restricted Rights Notices

This software and related documentation are proprietary to UGS Corp.

© 2007 UGS Corp. All Rights Reserved.

All trademarks belong to their respective holders.

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Contents

Course Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Course Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Student responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Layer standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Implementing a layer standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Seed Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9How to use this manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Lesson format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Activity format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Learning tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Workbook Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Classroom System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Basic CAM Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

The NC Programming Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2Manufacturing toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

Create the Manufacturing assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6Creating the Manufacturing Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7Create an Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8Specify additional Operation settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9The Operation Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12

Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4Retrieve from Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9

Cavity Mill and Parent Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

Creating the manufacturing assembly and parent groups . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3Cavity Milling overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4

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Contents

Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5Modify Parent Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7Choose the Blank and Part in the WORKPIECE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9Additional Cavity Milling topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11Cut Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13In-Process Work Piece for Cavity Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15Cavity Milling Stock options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17Cutting Parameters – Trim by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19

The Operation Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

The Operation Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4The Operation Navigator views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5Parent Groups, Operations and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7The Operation Navigator appearance and columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10

Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1

Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2Absolute Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3Work Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4Machine Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5Saved Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6Summary of Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7Absolute Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8Work Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9Machine Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10Reference Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12Additional Coordinate System information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13I,J,K Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14Rotary Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15Tool Axis versus ZC Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16Orientation of the WCS to MCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19

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Contents

Visualization (ISV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1

Tool Path Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2Replay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-43D Dynamic Tool Path display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6Setting Tool Path display options – Edit Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9

Planar Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1

Planar Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3Part boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4Blank boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5Check boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6Trim boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7Multi-level Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8Depth of cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10MILL_BND geometry Parent groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12Introduction to Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15

Face Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1

Face Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2Face Milling Area geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3Face Milling geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4Cut Area and Face Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5Cut Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6Additional Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7Blank Distance, Depth per Cut, Final Floor Stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8Boundary Construction from a Face and its Chamfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10Face Milling and surrounding geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12Machining multiple faces in one Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13Cutting parameters, Region Sequencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15Face Milling – Blank Overhang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18Wall Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20

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Contents

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21

Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1

Creating Drilling Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2Drilling Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3Cycle Parameter Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4Minimum Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5Creating Drilling Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6The Drill Geometry Parent Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8Depth Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9Optimizing the Tool Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12

Text Engraving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1

Text Engraving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5

Tool Path Information Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

Output CLSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2Post Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4NX POST Execute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5Manufacturing Output Manager (MOM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8Post Processing Using NX POST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9NX POST Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12Shop Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13Shop Documentation dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-16

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index-1

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Course Overview

Course DescriptionThe NMF course teaches the use of the NX Manufacturing application forcreating 2–1/2 and 3–axis tool paths.

Intended AudienceThis course is designed for Manufacturing Engineers, Process Planners andNC/CNC Programmers that have the basic knowledge of NC/CNC manualprogramming of 3–axis positioning and contouring equipment.

PrerequisitesThis is a basic NX manufacturing class that requires you to have basiccomputer knowledge and experience as an NC/CNC programmer.

ObjectivesAfter successfully completing this course, you should be able to perform thefollowing activities in NX:

• Create Manufacturing assemblies

• Understand the Master Model concept

• Create parent group objects that supply information to operations

• Utilize options and parameters that are common to various operationtypes

• Create drilling, milling and subsequent tool paths

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Student responsibilities

Student responsibilities• Be on time.

• Be considerate of the needs of other students.

• Listen attentively and take notes.

• Ask questions.

• Practice what you learn.

• Have fun!

Layer standardsParts used in this course were created using layer categories the same as orvery similar to those found in the Model template parts.

Layers provide an advanced alternative to display management (Show andHide) to organize data.

Layer categories in the Model template parts

Layers Category Description1–10 SOLIDS Solid bodies11–20 SHEETS Sheet bodies21–40 SKETCHES All external sketches41–60 CURVES Non-sketch curves61–80 DATUMS Planes, axes, coordinate systems91–255 No category assigned

Implementing a layer standard

You may implement or enforce layer standards using some of the methodsbelow:

• Create NX Open programs to create a standard part organization andverify it upon release.

• Use a macro to create layer categories: Tools→Macro→Playback.

• Your administrator can enforce company standards by providing suitabletemplates.

In this course you may use a layer organization method you anticipateusing in your work.

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Course Overview

Seed PartsSeed parts are an effective tool for establishing defaults or any settings thatare part dependent (saved with the part file). This may include non-geometricdata such as:

• Sketch preferences

• Commonly used expressions

• Layer categories

• User-defined views and layouts

• Part attributes

• Various machining attributes

Once a seed part is established, it should be write-protected to avoidaccidental modification.

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How to use this manual

How to use this manualThe following guidelines describe how you can get the most benefit from youruse of the course guide and the accompanying HTML activities.

Lesson format

The general format for lesson content is:

• Instructor presentation

• One or more activities

• Workbook project

Projects allow you to test your new skills without detailed instruction.

Consult your instructor for additional information.

• Summary

Activity format

Activities have the following format:

Step 1: This is an example of a step. Numbered steps specify the actionsyou will perform.

Always read the Cue and Status information while working throughactivities and as you perform your regular duties.

As you gain skills you may need only to read the step text to completethe step.

Learning tips

• Ask questions.

• Confirm important facts by restating them in your own words.

It is important to use your Student Guide in the sequence it is written.

Workbook OverviewThe workbook contains a project that requires you to apply the knowledgethat you learned in the class and in the student activities. The projects do notcontain detailed instructions as do the student activities.

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Course Overview

It is the intent of this project to allow you to apply the skills taught in thiscourse. However, the time constraint of this course is also a factor, at anypoint when progress is not being made, enlist the help of your instructor.

Classroom System Information

Your instructor will provide you with the following items for working in theclassroom:

Student Login:

User name:

Password:

Work Directory:

Parts Directory:

Instructor:

Date:

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1Lesson

1 Basic CAM Fundamentals

Purpose

This lesson introduces several concepts that you will need to understandand apply in order to effectively use the Manufacturing application ofNX. Applying these concepts, prior to creating operations, will save youconsiderable time in the creation of your program.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Know the six steps of the NC Programming Sequence

• Recognize and identify the five different Manufacturing toolbars

• Understand the NX Manufacturing Process

• Select the CAM Express Role and create the Manufacturing Setup

• Recognize and identify the differences in creating program, tool, geometryand method parent group objects

• Recognize and identify the usage differences in operations

• Understand the meaning of generating a tool path

• Recognize and use the Operation Navigator

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Basic CAM Fundamentals

The NC Programming SequenceThe normal sequence of steps, in the NC Programming Sequence of the NXManufacturing Application, is to perform the following:

• Create the Manufacturing Setup - creates a manufacturing assembly andadds other data related to your type of part.

• Establish the Parent Group objects - minimizes the selection of objectsfor repeated use and establishes the concept of inheritance, whereparameters can be passed down to other objects.

• Create the operation(s) - allows you to assign specific parameters andmethods that affect how the tool path is created.

• Verify the tool paths created - minimizes errors by visualization of thetool path.

• Post Process the tool paths - formats the data for your particularmachine tool/controller combination.

• Create Shop Documentation - minimizes the effort that shop personneluses to set up and process the individual job.

This sequence is shown in the following Manufacturing Process flow chart.

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Basic CAM Fundamentals

Manufacturing toolbarsFive toolbars exist for the Manufacturing application. They are:

• Manufacturing Create - allows the creation of operations and groups(program, tool, geometry and method) in your NC program. The fourgroup creation dialogs allows for the creation of groups that defineparameters shared among operations. The position of any group may bechanged by cutting and pasting above, below, or inside of any other groupin the Operation Navigator.

• Manufacturing Operations - allows the selection of functions related tothe generation and verification of tool paths as well as post processing andthe creation of shop documentation.

• Manufacturing Objects - allows for editing, cutting, copying, pasting,deletion and displaying of an object.

• Manufacturing Workpiece - allows for displaying and saving of a 2D and3D work piece object.

• Operation Navigator - the Operation Navigator is a graphical userinterface (GUI) that enables you to manage operations and operationparameters for the current part. The Operation Navigator allows youto specify groups of parameters that are shared among operations. TheOperation Navigator allows you to view objects in the Program Order,Machine Tool, Geometry or Method view, using a tree structure toillustrate the relationships between groups and operations. Parametersmay be passed down or inherited from group to group and from groupto operation based on the positional relationships in the OperationNavigator.

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Basic CAM Fundamentals

Create the Manufacturing assembly

In Manufacturing, Assemblies pertain to the Master Model conceptThisconcept protects the design criteria from corruption by other users. When youcreate a Manufacturing Assembly and add a component, such as a fixtureplate or clamping device, application specific data can be generated in aseparate part file that will reference the master geometry. This preventsthe duplication of model geometry and allows for the concurrent use of theMaster Model.

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Basic CAM Fundamentals

Creating the Manufacturing SetupWhen using CAM Express templates, the Manufacturing Setup creates amaster model assembly where the setup part is the top level assembly. Thisallows the Programs, Tools, Geometry and Machining Method groups to becreated in a separate file than the master model. This is normally the parentof the Manufacturing Assembly.

The Manufacturing Setup also includes Manufacturing Templates that aremost likely to be used on a specific part type.

Setup Templates include the following for inch and metric parts;

• DieMold Express

• Turning Express

• Machinery Express

• Multi Axis Express

These templates create some basic parent groups for you. These include:

• A Program group.

• A tool Carrier and 30 Pockets

• An MCS parent group with an empty Geometry group.

• Method groups

The templates also load creation templates for the four parent groups. Thetemplates will match the part type that you selected when you created theSetup

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Basic CAM Fundamentals

Create an Operation

Before you createan operation, youmay assign the:

Program

Geometry

Tooland Method Parent

Group to the operation.

First you select the operation type (Subtype), then the various Parent Groupobjects and then finally the Name of the operation. Note that if you select theSubtype after the Name, the Name is changed to the default of the Subtypeselected. Once you have made the selection, you choose OK to the dialog boxand then the various operation or Subtype dialogs will be displayed.

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Basic CAM Fundamentals

Specify additional Operation settingsAdditional settings are available in the operation dialogs. These includesettings such as;

• Cut Pattern

• Tool Stepover

• Depth Per Cut

• Non Cutting Moves

Generating the tool path

After you specify all the operation settings, you Generate the tool path.Generating the tool path results in use of the specified settings and optionsfor tool path calculation.

Verification, Post Processing, and creating Shop Documentation

After you are satisfied with the operations and the tool paths that you create,you may use other Manufacturing application features to visually inspectthe data.

You can post process all of the tool paths so that the data is in the standardformat used by NC/CNC machine tool controllers.

Finally, you can create the Shop Documentation that describes the data toshop personnel.

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Basic CAM Fundamentals

The Operation NavigatorThe Operation Navigator is a graphical user interface that allows you tomanage operations and their parameters in the current part. It allows you tospecify groups of parameters that are shared among operations and uses atree structure to illustrate the relationships between groups and operations.Parameters are passed or inherited from group to group and from group tooperation based on the positional relationships in the Operation Navigator.The Operation Navigator is found on the Resource bar and is a primary toolused in the creation and/or modification of operations.

Manufacturing application capabilities

The Manufacturing Application has extensive capabilities allowing you togenerate very simple to extremely complex tool paths.

You will be introduced to:

• The CAM User Interface

• Creation of Parent Groups and use of the Operation Navigator

• Specific Drilling, Planar Milling, and Cavity Milling operation types

• The processes you will use to create milling/drilling operations

• Tool path generation procedures

• Visualization, Post Processing, and Shop Documentation procedures

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Basic CAM Fundamentals

ActivityIn the Basic CAM Fundamentals section, do the activity:

• Creating the Manufacturing Setup

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Basic CAM Fundamentals

SummaryThis lesson is an introduction to basic CAM concepts.

In this lesson, you learned:

• The six steps of the NC Programming Sequence

• The functionality of the five different Manufacturing toolbars

• The NX Manufacturing Process

• To recognize and select the proper CAM Setup that determines the typesof operations that are made available to you

• To recognize and identify the differences in the various ManufacturingCreate options

• To recognize the Operation Navigator

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Lesson

2 Tools

Purpose

Cutting tools perform the material removal process that is crucial tomachining. This lesson will teach you how to create and use tools.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Understand the concept of carriers, pockets and tools

• Create carriers, pockets and tools

• Assign tool numbers

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Tools

ToolsCutting tools are grouped according to the type of machining that theyperform. For example, drilling tools are listed in the drill type, but not in themill_planar or mill_contour type. The following chart shows the types andassociated tools. Some cutting tools are available in more than one group.

Type Button Description Usage

mill_planar, mill_contour,mill_multi_axis

milling tool general milling purposes,available in 5, 7 and 10parameter configurations

mill_planar, mill_contour,mill_multi_axis

ball mill applicable for ball-end millapplications. Available intapered or str. flute config.

mill_planar, mill_contour,mill_multi_axis

face mill slab milling applications

mill_planar t-cutter cutting under overhangingledges

mill_planar, mill_contour,mill_multi_axis

barrel cutter surface contouringapplications

mill_planar, mill_contour,mill_multi_axis

thread mill thread millingapplications

mill_planar spot drill spot drilling holes

drill drill drilling holes

drill boring bar boring holes for accuracy

drill reamer ream holes to tolerancesize

drill counter bore tool counter bored holes

drill counter sinking tool counter sunk holes

drill tap tapped holes

drill spot facing tool spot faced holes

mill_contour 7–parameter tool represents 7 parametertool definition

mill_contour 10–parameter tool represents 10parametertool definition

mill_planar user defined milling tool represents special userdefined milling formcutters

all carrier represents machinecarousel which holdscutting tools

all pocket represents the pocket thatcutting tools are stored in

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Tools

all retrieve from library retrieve a tool from thecutting tool library

all head represents a tool mountinghead

Some objects are not actual cutting tools that are listed as part of theCreate Tool dialog box. The items are associated with cutting toolsand are available with every group object (carrier, pocket, head andretrieve from library).

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Tools

CarrierA carrier represents the tool carousel on the machine tool and can hold anumber of tools. The basic purpose of a carrier is to mimic the tool carousel ofthe machine tool.

Use the following steps to create a carrier:

1. Click Create Tool or choose Insert → Tool.

2. Click Carrier .

3. Choose OK.

4. If desired, the carrier can be given a name.

5. Choose OK to create the carrier.

Pocket

Once a carrier has been created, pockets are placed in the carrier. A pocketrepresents the individual holding position on the carousel or tool changingdevice. The purpose of the pocket is to hold individual tools. A pocket can beassigned a number, which can then be inherited by the tool that resides inthat pocket. The pocket number will then become the tool number when theNC program is post processed. Note the Carrier/Pocket/Tool relationshipin the diagram that follows:

Use the following steps to create a pocket:

1. Click Create Tool or choose Insert → Tool.

2. Click MCT_Pocket .

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Tools

3. Verify that the Parent group is Carrier.

4. Choose OK.

5. Enter the number of the pocket.

6. Choose OK to create the pocket.

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Tools

Retrieve from LibraryNX CAM is delivered with a library of commonly used cutting tools. Thissaves you the time of creating each tool individually. Mechanisms forinsertion into the tool library are provided for those tools that are not part ofthe standard library

Cutting Tools

Cutting tools for modern metal working machines come in many differentstyles and varieties. Most of these tools are supported in NX and are groupedaccording to the type of machining that they perform.

Cutting Tool Parameters

Since each type of cutting tool is different, numerous parameters areavailable for their definition.

Numerous parameters, such as diameter, length and number of flutes arecommon. Other parameters are unique to each type of tool, such as the pointangle of a drilling tool.

The Holder Tab

In addition to specifying the various parameters of the cutting tool, you mayalso define the parameters of the tool holder by selection of the Holder tabon the tool definition dialog.

The holder is built in a series of steps from the end of the tool upward. Foreach step, the Diameter, Length, Taper Angle and Corner Radius may bespecified. Usually, the first step is smaller than the last step.

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Tools

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Tools

ActivityIn the Tools section, do the activity:

• Tool Creation

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Tools

SummaryCutting tools are crucial to efficient machining of simple to complex parts.The ability to define and use numerous types of cutting tools are criticalto the manufacturing process. NX allows this flexibility through the use ofcarriers, pockets and tools.

In this lesson you:

• Learned about the definition and use of carriers, pockets and tools

• Learned the definition and use of holders

• Created carriers, tools and holders and assigned pockets

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Lesson

3 Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

Purpose

This lesson introduces the fundamentals of Cavity Mill operations. CavityMill is used in roughing operations involving planar and contoured geometry.You will also create some of the tools required and incorporate their usethrough the Tool Parent Group object and use the Operation Navigator toobserve the method in which operations inherit information.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Understand the use of Cavity Mill

• Create and modify various Parent Group objects in Cavity Mill operations

• Apply the use of Cavity Mill operations to rough geometry from anunfinished to semi-finished condition

• Create and use Tool objects

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

Creating the manufacturing assembly and parent groupsCreating parent groups before creating the cutting operations can save timeand simplify the following operations. The parent groups define the Programs,Tools, Geometry and Methods to be used in the operations. The parametersspecified in the parent groups is inherited by the cutting operations. Themanufacturing assembly and machining environment will also be selected.The following outlines the procedure

• Create the Manufacturing Assembly

• Select the Manufacturing Environment

• Specify the parent groups

• Create the cutting operations

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

ActivityIn the Cavity Mill and Parent Groups section, do the activity:

• Creating the manufacturing assembly and parent groups

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

Cavity Milling overviewCavity Milling is designed for volume removal of material. It works bestwhen used to remove excess amounts of material from blank stock to producea near-net shape part.

• Cavity Milling works with planar and/or contoured geometry and usesa fixed tool axis.

• Stock removal is done in levels. At each new level the tool path follows thepart contours at that level.

• Cavity Milling can be used on sheet bodies, wire frame, and solid bodies.Solid bodies are easiest to use

How Cavity Milling creates Tool Paths

In order to efficiently use Cavity Mill, it is important to understand theprocess that Cavity Milling uses to create tool paths. The process is:

• Select or define Blank (or stock) material

• Select Part geometry

• Top and bottom of the selected geometry is automatically set as thehighest and lowest level of cutting

• Based on the defined Cut Levels, a plane(s) is created that is perpendicularto the tool axis

• At each Cut Level, a cut pattern is created to remove material from thatlevel

Plane symbols are used to display the Cut Ranges (the larger symbols) andLevels (the smaller symbols).

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

ActivityIn the Cavity Mill and Parent Groups section, do the activity:

• Create a Cavity Milling operation

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

Modify Parent Groups

The Operation Navigator — Geometry View

Cavity Milling operations (all operations) obtain or inherit some types ofinformation from objects that exist outside the operation that is being created.

The ROUGHING_1 operation that you created is shown in the GeometryView, of the Operation Navigator, below.

The operation, ROUGHING_1, obtains the PART and BLANK geometry fromthe Geometry Parent Group WORKPIECE.

Above the WORKPIECE Geometry Parent Group, lies the MCS_MILL ParentGroup. This Geometry Parent Group contains information about the locationand orientation of the Machine Coordinate System and the Clearance Plane.

By following the hierarchy, of the parent groups and operations, you seethat the MCS_MILL parent is passing information to the WORKPIECEparent. The WORKPIECE parent then passes this information, plus anyinformation that it contains, to the ROUGHING_1 operation. By this method,the ROUGHING_1 operation inherits the geometry information as well asother parameters needed to create a tool path.

The Operation Navigator – Machine Tool View

If the Operation Navigator were changed to the Machine Tool view, geometryobjects would no longer display. Instead, tools that exist in the part wouldbe displayed.

Once again, the Operation Navigator displays the ROUGHING_1 operation.However, this time, it displays the operation as it pertains to the cuttingtool that is being used.

Through the principle of inheritance, information about the tool, includingoffset register and tool number, are passed to the operation.

In the next activity, you will create a new tool. Then you will change theexisting operation to use that new tool.

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

ActivityIn the Cavity Mill and Parent Groups section, do the activity:

• Modify the Machine Tool Parent Group

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

Choose the Blank and Part in the WORKPIECEDefining the Part, Blank, and Check geometry in the Geometry Parent Groupwill allow any operations that are located under it to inherit the geometryobject.

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

ActivityIn the Cavity Mill and Parent Groups section, do the activity:

• Parent Groups in an Operation

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

Additional Cavity Milling topicsAdvanced Cavity Milling Topics include:

— Cut Levels

— Cut Patterns

— In-Process Work Piece for Cavity Milling

— Cavity Milling Stock Options

Cut Levels

Cavity Milling cuts geometry in planes or levels.

The advantage to this approach is that tool paths remain relatively short, dueto minimum tool path movement, which is performed in layers.

The disadvantage is that when machining geometry that is close to horizontalmore stock may remain than desired.

The closer the geometry approaches horizontal, the more stock that remains.Through the use of Cut Level parameters, you can reduce the amount ofstock that remains.

The Cut Levels dialog box is located under the Cut Levels button in theCavity Mill dialog box.

The Cut Levels dialog box has two primary functions:

• Create and modify Ranges

• Modify Cut Levels within Ranges

To reduce the amount of additional stock, a new range can be added. TheDepth per Cut in that Range only is modified.

In the next activity, you will use various Cut Level parameters.

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

ActivityIn the Cavity Mill and Parent Groups section, do the activity:

• Cut Level parameters

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

Cut PatternsThe Cut Pattern determines the cut pattern used for cutting.

Cut Patterns

• Zig-Zag machines in a series of parallel straight line passes. Climb orconventional cut directions are not maintained since the cut directionchanges from one pass to the next.

• Zig always cuts in one direction. The tool retracts at the end of each cut,then positions to the start of the next cut.

• Zig with Contour also machines with cuts going in one direction. However,contouring of the boundary is added between passes, before and afterthe cut motion. The tool then retracts and re-engages at the start of thecontouring move for the next cut.

• Follow Periphery offsets the tool from the outermost edge that is definedby Part or Blank geometry. Internal islands and cavities will requireIsland Cleanup or a clean up Profile pass.

• Follow Part creates concentric offsets from all specified Part geometry.The outermost edge and all interior islands and cavities are used tocompute the tool path. Climb (or Conventional) cutting is maintained.

• Trochoidial cut pattern uses small loops along a path (resembles astretched-out spring). This is a useful cut pattern in high speed machiningapplications when constant volume removal needs to be maintained.

• Profile follows a boundary using the side of the tool. For this method, thetool follows the direction of the boundary.

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

ActivityIn the Cavity Mill and Parent Groups section, do the activity:

• Zig-Zag Cut Pattern

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

In-Process Work Piece for Cavity MillingTo make the various Cavity Milling operations as efficient as possible, youmust determine what has been machined in each operation. The materialthat remains after each operation is executed is referred to as the In-Processwork piece or IPW.

To use the IPW, certain conditions must be adhered to. Tool path generationmust be done sequentially, from the first operation to the last, within a certaingeometry group. The tool path must be successfully generated and acceptedin all previous operations in the sequence before the IPW can be used forthe next operation of the sequence.

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

ActivityIn the Cavity Mill and Parent Groups section, do the activity:

• In-Process Work Piece (IPW)

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

Cavity Milling Stock optionsStock options for Cavity Milling are found on the Cut Parameters dialog box.This dialog box is activated by selecting the Cutting button found on theCavity Mill operation dialogs.

Some of the stock options are as follows:

-Part Side Stock adds stock to the individual walls of the part.

-Part Floor Stock adds stock to the floor.

-Check Stock is the distance that the tool will stay away from the checkgeometry.

-Trim Stock is the distance that the tool will stay away from the trimboundary.

-Blank Stock is stock applied to Blank geometry.

-Blank Distance applies to Part geometry. This is an offset distance whichcan be used for a casting or forging.

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

ActivityIn the Cavity Mill and Parent Groups section, do the activity:

• Blank Distance option

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

Cutting Parameters – Trim byTrim by enables the Blank geometry to be recognized on core parts whenthe Blank geometry has not been explicitly defined. The Trim by methodprovides a Silhouette option to clean up the material which surrounds thePart geometry.

This option positions the tool to the outer most edge periphery (silhouette) ofthe part geometry and then offsets it outside by the tool radius. The silhouettecan be consider as a shadow of the part projected along the tool axis.

When using Trim by Silhouette, the processor uses the traces at the bottom ofthe defined part geometry as trim shapes. These shapes are then projectedalong the tool axis to each cut level and are used to generate machinableregions as trim shapes.

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Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

SummaryCavity Milling is used to remove large amounts of material in roughingoperations. You can use Cavity Milling on planar or contoured geometry.Material removal is performed in levels using a fixed tool axis.

In this lesson you:

• Learned how to create a Cavity Milling operation

• Learned how information passes from Parent Group objects to operationsthrough the concept of inheritance

• Modified Parent Group objects

• Changed inheritance by moving operations in the Operation Navigator

• Used the In Process Workpiece for accurate removal of material usingdifferent size cutting tools

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Lesson

4 The Operation Navigator

Purpose

This lesson introduces you to the basic use and functionality of the OperationNavigator.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Customize types of data displayed in the Operation Navigator

• Cut, paste, drag and drop data in the Operation Navigator

• Recognize the Operation Navigator symbols

• Rename an operation

• Manipulate the screen placement of the Operation Navigator

• Drag and drop multiple objects

• Activate the Operation Navigator from the resource bar

• Perform functions by right-clicking

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The Operation Navigator

The Operation NavigatorThe Operation Navigator is selected from the resource bar after you haveinitially entered the Manufacturing application.

The resource bar contains numerous options designated by tabs with icons,based on preferences that you select and the application which is activated.

Double-clicking the Operation Navigator tab allows the Operation Navigatorto break away from the resource bar. The Operation Navigator can then bedocked wherever you may choose to drag and drop it.

When you close the Operation Navigator window, it will return to the resourcebar.

Objects

The objects (Parent Groups) that you create are displayed in the OperationNavigator in one of four different views:

• Program Order View

• Machine Tool View

• Geometry View

• Machining Method View

Each view displays classes or groups (Commonly referred to as ParentGroups) of information that is relevant to that particular view. For example,an end mill used for milling would fall within the Machine Tool view, sincea machine tool uses the cutting tool. Check geometry would fall within theGeometry view since the check geometry is used when machining the part.

The Operation Navigator also allows you to:

• drag and drop objects

• cut and paste objects

• delete objects

• edit objects

• rename objects

• edit object parameters

Display of the Operation Navigator is also controlled by the OperationNavigator toolbar which is located on the Manufacturing menu bar.

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The Operation Navigator

Choosing any of the icons that represent the various Operation Navigatorviews will determine the view that is displayed.

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The Operation Navigator

ActivityIn the The Operation Navigator section, do the activity:

• Operation Navigator

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The Operation Navigator

The Operation Navigator viewsWhen creating new cutting operations you will choose the appropriate parentgroups. This will allow you to use the same programs, tools, geometry andmethods for multiple operations. It will also allow you to change the parentsfor multiple operations without editing each operation individually.

The parent groups include the following:

• Program

• Machine Tool

• Geometry

• Machining Method

These parent groups are separated into the four views of the OperationNavigator.

The Program Order view is used to sequence the operations for output tothe CLSF or post processor. It also shows which program parent groupeach operation belongs to. This is the only view in which the order of theoperations is relevant.

The Machine Tool view arranges operations by cutting tools and can organizecutting tools by the type of tool.

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The Operation Navigator

The Geometry view shows the MCS and machining geometry that operationsand or geometry Parent Groups will use.

The Machining Method view allows the organization of operations undermachining disciplines that share common parameter values such as rough,semi-finish, and finish.

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The Operation Navigator

Parent Groups, Operations and InheritanceAs mentioned previously, objects (commonly referred to as Parent Groups)and operations that you create are displayed in the Operation Navigator inone of four different views. The Operation Navigator uses a tree structure toshow the relationship between the various Parent Groups and operations.

Parent Groups may contain other Parent Groups and or operations.Information can be passed down (or inherited) to lower members containedwithin the group. This information might be a physical cutting tool, part orcheck geometry, MCS, tolerance or stock values. Any change you make tothe Tool, Geometry or Method Parent Group, changes that setting in theoperations or other Parent Group contained within that particular group.

For example, if you change a Method Parent Group cut feed rate, alloperations contained in that Parent Group will have their cut feed ratechanged. If you were to cut an operation from within a Parent Group andpaste it under another Parent Group (in that same view) the operation willinherit the values of the new Parent Group. Most parameter or objects thatcan be inherited can be modified so that they are not inherited.

In the example that follows of the Geometry View, the Parent Groups are:

• Unused Items - Default Geometry group name, sometimes used as a placeholder.

• MCS_MILL - Parent Group containing the MCS. This MCS will be commonto all group objects contained within MCS_MILL.

• WORKPIECE- Parent Group containing the work piece geometry.

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The Operation Navigator

The Operation Navigator appearance and columns

Status Icons in columns

The Operation Navigator can display both icons and text, icons, or just textin the columns that are displayed.

The Name column

In the Name column, operations are preceded by a status symbol whichrepresents Complete, Regenerate, or Repost.

The icons and their representation are:

Complete indicates the tool path has been generated and output has beencreated (post processed or CLS output). The path has not changed since theoutput was generated.

Regenerateindicates the tool path has not been generated or the toolpath is out of date. In the Operation Navigator, use Right–click →Objects →Update List to display an Information window to see what has changed and iscausing the tool path to be regenerated.

Repost indicates the tool path has never been output or the tool path haschanged since it was last output. In the Operation Navigator, use Right–click→ Objects → Update List to display an Information window to see what haschanged and is causing the repost status. This information window displaysthe prompt Need to Post. Click Output CLSFon the toolbar to repost andupdate the status.

The Toolchange column

Displayed only in the Program View. The icons displayed are based on thetype of the tool used. If a drill tool is being used, the button for a drill toolis displayed.

The Tool Number column

Displays actual tool number which is passed on to the post processor.

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The Operation Navigator

The Carrier Number column

Displays Carrier number.

The Pocket Number column

Displays Pocket number.

The Path column

Represents the status of the tool path. The status can be:

Generated indicates that the tool path has been created. It may or maynot contain actual tool movement.

None indicates the tool path has either been deleted or not generated.

Imported indicates that the tool path is a Cutter Location Source File(Tools → CLSF → Import). It can be replayed, post processed or edited withthe graphical tool path editor (Right–click → Tool path → Edit).

Edited indicates the tool path has been changed with the graphical toolpath editor (Right–click → Tool path → Edit).

Suspect indicates that questionable geometry was encountered when thetool path was generated. The path may or may not be valid and needs tobe examined by using either Right–click→ Object → Display or Right–click→ Object → Information which will show diagnostics with a description ofthe condition encountered.

Transformedindicates the tool path is from a transformed operation(Right–click → Object → Transform).

The In-Process Workpiece (IPW) column

The IPW column indicates that an In-Process Workpiece has been saved byuse of the Visualize Dynamic Material Removal option. The icons displayedare:

Generated indicates the IPW has been generated and is current.

None indicates that an IPW does not exist.

Out of Date indicates the IPW is not current. It is updated if the nextoperation uses the IPW or if the operation is generated by the DynamicVisualize option. This button will appear in the IPW column for all theoperations below the operation that is out of date.

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The Operation Navigator

SummaryIn this lesson you:

• Became familiar with the functionality and views of the OperationNavigator.

• Selectively changed the data displayed in columns on the OperationNavigator.

• Used the cut, paste, drag and drop functions of the Operation Navigator.

• Moved an operation in the Operation Navigator to use a different tooland inherit its values.

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Lesson

5 Coordinate Systems

Purpose

This lesson will explain the different coordinate systems that are used in theManufacturing application, including the purpose and function of each one.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Understand the use and functionality of the various coordinate systems.

• Create and move the Machine Coordinate System (MCS).

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Coordinate Systems

Coordinate SystemsA coordinate system can be viewed as a marker in 3-D model space to whichother objects are referenced.

There are five coordinate systems that Manufacturing uses. They are:

• Absolute Coordinate System

• Work Coordinate System

• Machine Coordinate System

• Reference Coordinate System

• Saved Coordinate System

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Coordinate Systems

Absolute Coordinate SystemThe Absolute Coordinate System is fixed in model space, and cannot bemoved.This coordinate system is invisible to the user.

It is most useful as a reference for large assemblies. Frequently, users willdesign large scale machines composed of many different components. It iseasy to find their relative position to being absolute since the components arelocated in reference to one another.

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Coordinate Systems

Work Coordinate SystemThe Work Coordinate System (WCS) has several modeling and somemanufacturing functions as well. The WCS is a moveable coordinate system,which increases its usefulness. Not only can the WCS be moved in modelspace, but its orientation can change as well.

The WCS is a visible coordinate system, and is represented as the following:

Notice that each leg of the WCS is followed by a "C". This is a visual indicationthat it is the WCS. The WCS is used in creating geometry. Most important tomanufacturing users, it is also used when establishing I,J,K vectors. I,J,Kvectors are used to establish the tool axis, cut direction and geometric entities.

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Coordinate Systems

Machine Coordinate SystemThe Machine Coordinate System (MCS), like the WCS, is also a moveablecoordinate system.

Notice that the MCS has an M at the end of each leg to distinguish itfrom the WCS. Also, the legs of the MCS are longer than the WCS. In thefollowing figure, both the WCS and MCS are shown together, to emphasizethis difference.

The MCS references the NC/CNC program origin or simply 0,0,0, since thelocation of the MCS is the zero reference point for all tool path output. If theMCS moves, so does the zero point of all tool paths that use it.

Another important function of the MCS is contained in the Z-axis. Thedefault tool axis is the same as the Z-axis of the MCS.

It is important to remember that if a tool axis is established using I,J,Kvectors, that tool axis is actually based on the orientation of the WCS. If thedefault tool axis is used, it is based upon the orientation of the MCS.

The MCS is only visible when in the Manufacturing application.

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Coordinate Systems

Saved Coordinate SystemAn additional coordinate system that you sometimes refer to is known as theSaved Coordinate System. The Saved Coordinate System is a marker, orplace holder, to designate a position in model space. You can move the WCSor the MCS to this saved location.

The following is an example of a Saved Coordinate System:

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Coordinate Systems

Summary of Coordinate Systems

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Coordinate Systems

Absolute Coordinate System• Fixed in model space

• Cannot be displayed unless assigned to WCS or MCS

• User may save coordinate system to mark location

• Useful as a reference in large assemblies

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Coordinate Systems

Work Coordinate System• Referred to as the WCS

• Displayed in graphics area with C after each leg

• Moveable and changeable

• Used heavily in modeling

• I,J,K Vectors are based on orientation of WCS

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Coordinate Systems

Machine Coordinate System• Referred to as the MCS

• Displayed in graphics area with M after each leg

• Moveable and changeable

• Zero (0,0,0) location for tool path output

• Default tool axis, Z-axis is referenced by this coordinate system

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Coordinate Systems

Reference Coordinate System• Referred to as the RCS

• Eliminates re-specification of parameters by allowing the retrieval andmapping of stored parameters

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Coordinate Systems

ActivityIn the Coordinate Systems section, do the activity:

• Changing the MCS Position

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Coordinate Systems

Additional Coordinate System informationThe following additional information pertains to coordinate systems.

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Coordinate Systems

I,J,K VectorsA vector can be thought of as a line between two points, has magnitude anddirection. The first point of the vector is always assumed to be 0,0,0. Thesecond point is the one you define. A temporary line between these two pointsis created to establish a vector.

The letters I,J,K correspond (parallel) to the X,Y,Z axes of the WorkCoordinate System.

• I - relates to - X

• J - relates to - Y

• K - relates to - Z

When a value is given for each axis, the second point is computed creatingthe vector.

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Coordinate Systems

Rotary VectorsWhen programming, it is not uncommon for some machine tools to support 4and 5-axis movement. There are rules for naming the rotary axes on machinetools. These rotary axes are given the letter designation A, B, or C.

The letter A designates a rotary axis about the linear X. To determinepositive rotation, form your hand into a thumb’s-up gesture (right hand rule),and point your thumb in the positive X direction. Your curled fingers showpositive A axis rotation.

The letter B designates a rotary axis about the linear Y. To determine positiverotation, form your hand into a thumb’s-up gesture and point your thumb inthe positive Y direction. Your curled fingers show positive B axis rotation.

The letter C designates a rotary axis about the linear Z. To determine positiverotation, form your hand into a thumb’s-up gesture and point your thumb inthe positive Z direction. Your curled fingers show positive C axis rotation.

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Coordinate Systems

Tool Axis versus ZC AxisIt is commonly assumed that 3-axis machining can only be performed with thetool axis at the same orientation as the machine tool’s Z-axis. This assumptionis incorrect. On 4-axis machining centers, it is possible to perform 3-axismilling with the rotary axis at a different orientation than the MCS Z-axis.

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Coordinate Systems

Orientation of the WCS to MCSOrient WCS to MCS allows the WCS to position and orient to the operationor group object when either is edited. This is a toggle button found in theManufacturing Preferences dialog box. When editing milling, drilling or holemaking operations, Orient WCS to MCS will place the WCS at the activeMCS. The active MCS for any single operation will be the MCS defined in theparent Mill Orient Geometry Group of the operation being edited.

The next activity will demonstrate a simple way to perform 3-axis millingwith the tool axis at a different angle than the MCS Z-axis.

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Coordinate Systems

ActivityIn the Coordinate Systems section, do the activity:

• Changing the Tool Axis

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Coordinate Systems

SummaryThe ease of manipulation of the Machine Coordinate System affords theflexibility of performing various types of machining operations. The followingfunctionality is used in defining coordinate systems and vectors that controlmachine tool output:

• When defining vectors, the values are entered with respect to the WCS.

• Machine tool output coordinate output is controlled by the MCS.

• The default tool axis is the same as the MCS Z-axis.

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6

Lesson

6 Visualization (ISV)

Purpose

This lesson introduces you to the Visualization options that are part of theIntegrated Simulation Verification (ISV) module. Visualization allows youto verify tool paths with options allowing the display of material removal,control of tool display, IPW creation and collision checking.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Use Visualization to inspect single and multiple tool paths

• Display the tool as it removes material in one or more tool paths

• Change Tool Path display options

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Visualization (ISV)

Tool Path VisualizationTool Path Visualization provides graphical tool path display for all machiningoperations. Visualization also includes detecting unacceptable conditionssuch as gouging.

There are three methods of Verification:

• Replay - displays the tool or tool assembly, positioning to each point withinthe tool path, allowing for gouge checking

• 3D Dynamic - displays the tool as it moves along the tool path(s), showingthe path(s) with the material removed

• 2D Dynamic - processes faster than 3D but doesn’t allow for part rotationduring replay.

The 3D Dynamic verification method requires that you define the Blank inthe WORKPIECE Parent Group object.

You can access the Tool Path Visualization dialog box by choosing:

• The Toolpath Verify button from the Manufacturing Operationstoolbar

• Toolpath →Verify, from the Operation Navigator

• Tools →Operation Navigator →Toolpath →Verify, from the menu bar.

• Toolpath Verify button within an operation

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Visualization (ISV)

ReplayYou also have the option to select a single tool path or a series of tool paths forverification purposes.

Replay is designed to provide a quick method of viewing the tool path bydisplaying the cutter location at each GOTO point. This is the quickestmethod of verification.

The Replay options allow you to:

• Replay all tool paths

• Replay by current cut level

• Replay a specified number of tool motions

• Replay displaying warnings and collisions (gouges)

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Visualization (ISV)

ActivityIn the Visualization (ISV) section, do the activity:

• Replay Verification

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Visualization (ISV)

3D Dynamic Tool Path display3D Dynamic displays the cutter as it follows a tool path and removes material.

You can also use the 3D Dynamic option to generate a faceted model from theIn-Process Work piece (IPW).

If material is encountered at RAPID moves, these areas are highlighted inred as a warning.

If you are using multiple tools, each tool will display in a different color.

3D Dynamic Material — generates a 3D display. Rotate, Zoom and Panoptions are available.

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Visualization (ISV)

ActivityIn the Visualization (ISV) section, do the activity:

• 3D Dynamic removal

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Visualization (ISV)

Setting Tool Path display options – Edit DisplayThe tool path display options are used to control the display of the cuttingtool and the tool path.

You can define the setting in the Method Parent Group or within an operation.Within the Method Parent Group, the settings will apply to all operationsthat are located below it (inherited). Within the operation, the settings applyto just that operation. Individual operation display settings override settingsfrom the Parent Group.

To edit the tool path display options within an operation, you use the Edit

Display button.

The Process Display Parameters

Examine the tool path Display Options.

Display Cut Regions Displays the cut area before processing thepath.

Pause After Display Pauses after the cut region and/or thecutter path is displayed.

Refersh Before Display The screen is refreshed before the next cut.Suppress Tool Path Display The path is not displayed

You can toggle the options on and off as needed. For example, you may want tosee the Cut Regions as you start to develop the tool path. Later, when you mayonly need to look at the cutter path, the cut region display can be turned off.

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Visualization (ISV)

ActivityIn the Visualization (ISV) section, do the activity:

• Edit Display options

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Visualization (ISV)

SummaryIn this lesson, you learned how to verify operations and tool paths using theReplay and 3D Dynamic options of the ISV module.

In this lesson you:

• Replayed single and multiple operations

• Used the 3D Dynamic Replay option to examine material removal in anoperation

• Replayed operations step by step for visualization purposes

• Used the Edit Display features to change the tool display in an operation

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7

Lesson

7 Planar Milling

Purpose

This lesson introduces you to the interaction and usage of Planar Milling. Youuse Planar Milling for roughing and finishing operations using boundarygeometry.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create Planar Mill operations

• Create Part and Blank boundaries in a MILL_BND Parent Group

• Create Planar Milling tool paths that cut multiple levels

• Utilize Profile cut pattern

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Planar Milling

Planar MillingPlanar Milling allows you to define an area to be machined where thegeometry is applicable for 3-axis milling while the Z-axis remains fixed.For example, a part having a pocket to be machined, where the walls areperpendicular to the floor, would be typical of Planar Milling.

Planar Milling guidelines:

• Planar Milling can be used to rough and/or finish

• Planar Milling uses a fixed tool axis.

• Planar Milling multiple levels can be done only when the boundary andfloor planes are parallel.

• Planar Milling does not use solid geometry to determine cut regions;instead it uses boundaries.

• Planar Milling can perform single and multi-level cutting

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Planar Milling

BoundariesPlanar Milling is controlled by boundaries. The tool will cut inside or outsideof the boundary depending upon whether you are cutting pockets or islands.

Boundaries are created by selecting a face or a series of edges, curves, orpoints to define a profile. Boundaries can be created:

• in a MILL_BND geometry Parent Group

• within an operation

The MILL_BND geometry Parent Group method is preferred when aboundary is used by several Planar Milling operations. This allows you todefine geometry once that can be used in several operations.

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Planar Milling

Part boundariesPart boundaries are used to define the part geometry.

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Planar Milling

Blank boundariesBlank boundaries are used to define the material within which the part islocated. This boundary type is very useful for parts that have protrudingfeatures that are above the overall topology of the part. For example, if a bossis located on the top of the part and you need to machine all the materialaround it, you will need to define the area for machining by selecting a Blankboundary.

As shown in the figure above, the Blank boundary defines the excess stockto remove. The tool will enter from outside the Blank boundary and removematerial until it encounters the part boundary.

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Planar Milling

Check boundariesCheck Boundaries are used to identify areas you do not want the tool toviolate.

An example of check geometry would be clamps, fixture components or specificareas of a part that does not get cut.

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Planar Milling

Trim boundariesTrim boundaries are used to control specific areas for cutting/non cuttingpurposes.

When creating boundaries you can select planar faces, edges, curves andpoints.

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Planar Milling

Multi-level CuttingTo successfully perform multi-level cutting in Planar Milling, some rules needto be followed. These rules pertain to best practices for boundary creation,and setting the depth per pass. They are:

• Planar Milling ignores all boundaries until the tool is below the levelof that boundary; each boundary needs to be at the top of the geometrythat it represents

• The part can contain an unlimited number of boundaries

• You can cut sides and tops of islands

• You can specify the depths of cut or the maximum and minimum cutdepths

• If you have islands within the pocket, cut levels are created at the top ofthese islands; if a level cannot be generated at the top of an island andremains within the cut depth constraint, you can specify an optional passto cut the top face of the islands

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Planar Milling

Depth of cutYou define the cut levels for your multi-level tool path using the Depth of CutParameters dialog box which is activated by the Cut Depths button from themain PLANAR_MILLING (or like type operation) dialog box.

When there are islands in the part, and the maximum and minimumdepths of cut are defined, the tops of the islands will be one of thecut depths. This is subject to the number of islands defined and thespecified maximum and minimum cut depths.

Use the Top Off Islands option to ensure that they are cut even if theMinimum depth value bypasses an island top.

There are five types of Cut Levels available under the Type label:

• User Defined - You can set the Maximum, Minimum, Initial, and Lastdepths of cut

• Floor Only - Generates a single cut level at the Floor plane

• Floor & Island Tops - Generates one cut level at the Floor plane and thengenerates a cleanup cut at the top of each island

• Levels at Island Tops - Generates a cut level at the top of each island

• Fixed Depth - Generates cut levels at a constant depth, using theMaximum field

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Planar Milling

ActivityIn the Planar Milling section, do the activity:

• Select a Boundary within an Operation

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Planar Milling

MILL_BND geometry Parent groupsWhen an area of a part is machined using many different operations, it maybe desirable to create Geometry Parent Groups. This allows you to selectgeometry once that can be used in many different operations.

MILL_BND is one type of Geometry Parent Group that is used in PlanarMilling operations that allows you to define boundary geometry once andreuse it numerous times.

Creating MILL_BND Parent Groups

To create a Geometry Parent Group, click Create Geometry from the mainmenu bar.

Choose the MILL_BND .

MILL_BND Geometry Parent can be used by the following operation types:

• PLANAR_MILL

• PLANAR_PROFILE

• ROUGH_FOLLOW

• ROUGH_ZIGZAG

• ROUGH_ZIG

• CLEANUP_CORNERS

• FINISH_WALLS

• FINISH_FLOORS

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Planar Milling

ActivityIn the Planar Milling section, do the activity:

• Geometry Parent Groups

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Planar Milling

Introduction to ProfilingThis portion of the lesson introduces Profiling.

Follow Periphery, Follow Part, and Zig-Zag are designed for milling areas.Generally, they use closed boundaries. Profiling typically uses an openboundary.

Profile follows a boundary using the side of the tool. For this method, the toolfollows the direction of the boundary.

The following activity will demonstrate the creation of an open boundaryfollowed by the creation of an operation using the Profile cut method.

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Planar Milling

ActivityIn the Planar Milling section, do the activity:

• Profile Cut Pattern

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Planar Milling

SummaryPlanar Milling operations offer diverse methods of roughing and finishingplanar or 2D geometry. The flexibility of these operations allows for roughing,semi-finishing and finishing, using a multitude of options to achieve thedesired results.

In this lesson you:

• Defined boundary geometry inside of an operation

• Created an operation to rough and finish a pocket

• Selected and used boundary geometry in a MILL_BND Geometry ParentGroup

• Edited a MILL_BND Geometry Parent Group

• Created a Planar Milling operation to remove material in multiple cuts

• Edited boundary members and data within an operation

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Lesson

8 Face Milling

Purpose

This lesson is an introduction to Face Milling which is used in cutting oneor more planar faces.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create Face Milling operations

• Cut single and multiple faces

• Avoid cutting open areas on a face

• Use various Cut Methods in face milling operations

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Face Milling

Face MillingFace Milling is designed to help you quickly and easily create milling toolpaths for planar faces. It uses Cut Area or Boundary geometry to define thelimits of the machining area.

Face Milling requires the selection of a face or faces. The faces must be bothplanar and perpendicular to the tool axis.

The tool axis is defined by the MCS as a Z-axis vector. Since Face Millingremoves material in planar levels with respect to the tool axis, the normal ofa face boundary plane must be perpendicular with the tool axis. If not, theface will be ignored during tool path generation.

Face Milling requires geometry, a cutting tool and various parameters togenerate a tool path. For each selected cut area or boundary to be cut, tracesare created from geometry, regions are identified and then cut withoutgouging the part.

Geometry used in Face Milling

Face Milling requires Part and Face geometry.

The cut area for FACE_MILL_AREA operations is determined by selectingsolid faces.

The cut area for FACE_MILL operations is created using boundaries.

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Face Milling

Face Milling Area geometry• Part Geometry – Part Geometry is selected using bodies that represent

the finished part.

• Cut Area – Cut Area geometry is used to contain the tool path. CutArea will not place limitations on types of faces allowed. Tool paths aregenerated for faces that are flat and normal to the tool axis. Cut Areafaces are a subset of Part geometry. You can select the entire part as CutArea geometry and all of the flat faces normal to the tool axis will be used.

• Wall geometry Wall geometry is based on Cut Area faces. For eachface/floor in the Cut Area, walls will start with faces that are adjacent tothe floor and form a concave angle or curve up relative to the materialside of the floor. The walls will continue upward, including faces that aretangent, concave, or slightly convex.

• Check Body– Check bodies can be selected as areas to avoid whilemachining, clamps and other holding devices are typically selected ascheck bodies.

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Face Milling

Face Milling geometryFace Mill geometry varies slightly from Face Mill Area geometry.

Face Mill geometry operations use the following geometry types;

• Part Geometry – You can select bodies that represent the finished part.

• Face Boundary – geometry consists of closed boundaries with insidematerial indicating the areas to be cut. A face boundary can be created byselecting one or more of the following

– Planar faces

– Curves and/or edges

When a face boundary is created from a face, the body associated to theselected face boundary is automatically used as part geometry to avoidany gouging of the part.

A face boundary created from curves, edges or points does not have thisassociation.

All members of a face boundary have tanto tool positions. At least one faceboundary must be selected to generate a tool path. The normal of a faceboundary plane must be parallel with the tool axis.

• Check Body – Check bodies can be selected as areas to avoid whilemachining, clamps and other holding devices are typically selected ascheck bodies.

• Check Boundary – Check boundaries are similar to check bodies exceptthat they are generated from faces, edges or curves.

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Cut Area and Face GeometryYou can use Cut Area, or Face Geometry (blank boundaries) to define theblank containment for a Face Milling operation. Cut Area is the preferredmethod.

Some of the differences between using Face Geometry and Cut Area includethe following:

Cut Area Face GeoemtryWall geometry is allowed Wall geometry is not allowedNon-planar geometry is ignored Non-planar geometry is not allowedGeometry faces must be a subset ofthe part geometry

Geometry can be created from faces,curves, edges or points

Always ignores holes, chamfers willbe off

You specify Ignore Holes and IgnoreChamfer options

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Face Milling

Cut PatternCut Pattern determines the tool path pattern used to machine cut regions.

The following cut patterns are available;

• Zig-Zag, Zig, and Zig with Contour produce variations of parallel linearcutting moves.

• Follow Periphery produces a sequence of concentric cutting passes thatprogress inward or outward.

• Follow Part creates a cut pattern by forming an equal number of offsetsfrom all specified Part geometry. Follow Part offsets from Blank geometryonly when there is no defined Part geometry to offset from.

• Trochoidal cut pattern feature is used when you need to limit excess stepover to prevent tool breakage when the tool is fully embedded into a cutand when you want to avoid cutting excess material. Most cut patternsgenerate embedded regions between islands and parts during the engageas well as in narrow areas. The use of Trochoidal Cut pattern eliminatesthis problem by creating a trochoidal cut offset from the part. The toolpath cuts along the part, and then uses a smooth follow pattern to cutthe regions inward. Trochoidal cutting can be described as a method ofmilling where the cutter moves in a circular looping pattern while thecenter of the circle moves along a path. This is similar in appearanceto a stretched-out spring.

– (1) Stepover

– (2) Path Width

• Profile produces a single cutting pass that follows the cut region contour.Profile is designed to finish the walls of a part.

• Mixed allows you to select different cut methods at each region to ensurethe most efficient machining for various regions of the part. If you decidethat the predetermined automatic cut patterns are not efficient, you canchoose to use Manual Cut Pattern and create your own or select Omitfor no cutting at all.

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Face Milling

Additional PassesAdditional Passes are available only when using a Profile cut method.It allows the removal of material in multiple passes. Additional Passesrepresents the number of passes in addition to the single pass along theboundary.

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Face Milling

Blank Distance, Depth per Cut, Final Floor StockBlank Distance defines the total thickness of material to be removed and ismeasured above the plane of the selected face geometry along the tool axis.

Blank Distance is used with Final Floor Stock and defines the thicknessof material that is left uncut above the face geometry. The total thicknessof material to be removed is the distance between the Blank Distance andthe Final Floor Stock.

Depth Per Cut equally subdivides the total thickness of material to beremoved into numerous levels.

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Face Milling

Boundary Construction from a Face and its ChamfersIgnore Chamfers determines whether or not adjacent chamfers, fillets, androunds will be recognized when creating boundaries from selected faces.

When Ignore Chamfers is toggled off, boundaries are created on the edgesof the selected faces.

When toggled on, boundaries are created to include chamfers, fillets, androunds adjacent to selected faces.

If other objects are to inherit these boundaries, you would use Blankboundaries in a MILL_BND Geometry Parent Group.

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Face Milling

ActivityIn the Face Milling section, do the activity:

• Face Milling – Basics

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Face Milling

Face Milling and surrounding geometryYou can machine faces inside of a part. The Face Mill option will determinewhich faces to cut or avoid without gouging other geometry.

The following activity will show some of the strengths of Face Milling’s abilityto determine the use of surrounding geometry.

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Face Milling

ActivityIn the Face Milling section, do the activity:

• Face Milling – Interior Geometry

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Face Milling

Machining multiple faces in one OperationIn some cases it may be advantageous to machine several faces in a singleoperation and to specify a separate cut pattern for each face. This can beaccomplished by using the Mixed cut pattern.

Here are the steps required for using this option:

• Create a new Face Milling operation

• Select the Faces to be machined

• Set the Cut Method to Mixed

• Generate the tool paths

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Face Milling

Cutting parameters, Region SequencingThe Cutting Parameter, Region Sequencing, uses four methods ofautomatically and manually specifying the order in which cut regions aremachined. The four methods are:

Standard — allows the processor to determine the order in which cut regionsare machined. The order in which cut regions are machined can be arbitraryand inefficient when using this option.

Optimize

Follow Start Points and Follow Predrill Points — orders the machining ofcut regions based on the order in which Cut Region Start Points or Pre-DrillEngage Points were specified.

The following activity will guide you through the process of machiningmultiple faces in one operation.

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Face Milling

ActivityIn the Face Milling section, do the activity:

• Face Milling – Utilize Mixed Cut Pattern

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Face Milling

Face Milling – Blank OverhangBlank Overhang allows you to control the distance that the cutting tool willtravel beyond the edge of a face.

Blank Overhang is the distance from the leading edge of the cutter to theedge of the face that is being cut.

Setting the Blank Overhang parameter to a value smaller than the cutterdiameter minimizes tool motion.

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Face Milling

Blank Overhang is not the same as Blank Stock. There is a distinct differencebetween the two parameters.

Blank Stock applies additional stock to a finished face while Blank Overhangis the distance that the leading edge of the cutter extends beyond the edge ofthe face.

Use of these parameters, either individually or in combination, can greatlyminimize the amount of time that is spent cutting air.

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Face Milling

ActivityIn the Face Milling section, do the activity:

• Face Milling – Utilize Blank Overhang

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Face Milling

Wall GeometryWall Stock and Wall Geometry in Face Milling Area Operations. Use WallStock and Wall Geometry to override the global Part Stock for walls relatedto the machined faces on a Part Body. With Wall Stock and Wall Geometryin Face Milling operations, you can select faces on the Part body (other thanthe faces being machined) as Wall Geometry and apply a unique Wall Stockto those faces in place of Part Stock.

Walls can be defined automatically or selected manually.

Automatic Wall detection allows Face Milling operations to recognize andapply wall stock to faces that are adjacent to selected Cut Area faces. Thefollowing illustrates how automatic walls are selected. For more informationplease see the technical documentation.

Automatic Wall Limitations: Automatic Wall detection will not apply if FaceGeometry (blank boundaries) is used to define blank containment. In caseswhere the wall faces extend below the Cut Area floor face(s), Automatic Wallmay select more wall faces than is appropriate. In these cases you will needto select the wall geometry manually.

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Face Milling

ActivityIn the Face Milling section, do the activity:

• Wall Geometry and Wall stock

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Face Milling

SummaryThis lesson was an introduction to Face Milling. Face Milling’s flexibility andease of creating specific operations for milling faces of a part affords youincreased productivity and efficiencies in the machining of your parts.

In this lesson you:

• Cut single and multiple faces

• Used the Traverse option to move the tool quickly over void areas of a face

• Used the ignore holes option to minimize the time cutting air

• Used different cut patterns when cutting multiple faces on the part

• Used the Blank Overhang option to minimize cutter travel

• Used the Run-Off and various helical engagement options to maximizetool life by controlling engagement into the part

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Lesson

9 Drilling

Purpose

Drill Operation types are used to create tool paths for drilling, tapping, boring,counter boring and reaming operations. Numerous parameters are used tocontrol depths and features that are associated with various types of holes.Associated with drilling operations are drill geometry parent groups whichcontain the geometry necessary to create various drilling type operations.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create Drill Geometry Parent Groups

• Specify drill geometry

• Specify and edit drill geometry from within an operation

• Optimize drilling tool paths

• Create cycles and cycle parameter sets

• Create drilling tools

• Create operations for Spot Drilling, Drilling, and Reaming

• Use various options to control drilling operations

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Drilling

Creating Drilling OperationsThe process of creating a drilling operation, select the following;

• Operation Type

• Operation Subtype

• Program

• Tool

• Geometry

• Machining Method

After the selections are made the operation is created and generated.

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Drilling

Drilling CyclesA cycle describes the machine tool movements necessary to perform point topoint machining functions, such as drilling, tapping or boring.

Through post processing, cycle statements are normally output as cannedcycle codes.

However, some machines do not have canned cycles. In those cases, onlyGOTO points are output.

Cycle Characteristics Types

• The cycle type of No Cycle, Peck Drill, and Break Chip do not outputCYCLE/ commands in the tool path; the motion is simulated with GOTOpoints

• Standard Cycle options will output a CYCLE/ command at each of thespecified CL (Cutter Location) points

• ‘Drill’, ‘Drill Deep’ and ‘Drill, Break Chip’ output canned cycles and arethe equivalent of ‘No Cycle’, ‘Peck Drill’ and ‘Break Chip’ which outputsimulated motion

• generate code for all the tool motions in a CYCLE/ operation to beexecuted by the machine tool, or

• generate GOTO/ command statements to define each of the tool motionsand machine functions which simulate the desired cycle

After you choose one of the cycle options other than No Cycle, Peck Drilland Break Chip, you must specify how many parameter sets you intend todefine for that cycle operation.

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Drilling

Cycle Parameter SetsCycle Parameter Sets are machining parameters such as depth, feed rate,dwell times and cutting increments.

If all the point to point positions in a tool path have the same cycle parametervalues, you will use one Cycle Parameter Set. If you want to vary any of thecycle parameter values, for example the depth (when not using model depth), you will create a Cycle Parameter Set for each hole or group of holes withdifferent depths. You can have up to five parameter sets per cycle.

The following is a summary of the different cycle parameter options:

• CAM - is a number that specifies a preset CAM stop position for tool depthfor machine tools with no programmable Z axis

• Csink Diameter - is the diameter of a countersunk hole

• Depth - is the depth of cut

• Dwell - is the delay of tool at the depth of cut

• Entrance Diamete -is the outside diameter of an existing hole that is to beenlarged by a countersink operation

• Feedrate - is the cutting feed rate

• Increment - is the dimensional value of one of a series of regularconsecutive cuts to progressive depths used in Peck and Break Chipdrilling operations

• Option- is used to activate machining characteristics that are unique to aparticular machine and is usually post processor dependent (this functionincludes the word OPTION in the CYCLE/ statement)

• RTRCTO - is the cycle retract distance

• Step Values - is the dimensional value of one of a series of regularconsecutive cuts to progressive depths used in Standard - Drill, Deep andStandard - Drill, Brkchp operations

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Drilling

Minimum ClearanceThe Minimum Clearance distance determines how the tool is positionedbefore entering the material.

If a Clearance Plane has not been set, the tool will position to the next holeat the rapid feed rate directly to the specified Minimum Clearance distanceabove the part surface. If a Clearance Plane is specified, the tool will moveat the rapid feed rate from the Clearance Plane to the specified MinimumClearance.

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Drilling

Creating Drilling ToolsThe Setup that you specify becomes the Type shown in the Create dialog box.

Select the Drill Type on the Create Tool dialog to create drilling tools TheSubtype determines the drilling tool to be created.

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Drilling

The Drill Geometry Parent GroupsGeometry Parent Groups contain the geometry that is used in an operation(s).

The Geometry Parent Groups that are used for Drill operation types are:

MCS –The MCS is used to define the origin for subsequent tool pathdata based on the Machine Coordinate system.

WORKPIECE – The WORKPIECE is typically used to assign Part andBlank material. It is also used in tool path verification.

DRILL_GEOM – The DRILL_GEOM geometry parent is used to definehole geometry used in drilling operations.

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Drilling

ActivitiesIn the Drilling section, do the activities:

• Create Drill Geometry Parent Groups

• Create a Spot Drilling Operation

• Create a Drilling Operation

• Create a Reaming Operation

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Drilling

Depth OffsetThe Depth Offset options are used in conjunction with the depth you set inthe Cycle Parameter Sets. Depth Offset options are:

• Blind Hole - Defines the amount of material that will remain above thebottom of a blind hole using the tip of the tool

• Thru Hole - Defines the distance that the drill will move past the breakout of a thru hole

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Drilling

Optimizing the Tool PathIn some cases the tool path that is generated may not be the most efficienttool path in terms of motion. Optimize allows you to rearrange the tool movesinto a more efficient order.

To summarize the Optimize dialog box:

• Shortest Path - arranges the points in the order required to minimizetotal machining time

• Horizontal Bands and Vertical Bands -are used for confining the toolpath; these bands are used for other machining constraints, such as clamplocations, machine travel limits, table size, etc.

• Repaint Points -repaints all the points after each optimization if toggledto Yes

Shortest Path options

To summarize Optimization Parameters dialog box:

• Level Standard or Advanced - Refers to the process of analysis that youwant to use in determining the shortest tool path; advanced increasesmachine time efficiency at a maximum

• Based On - Distance is the only option for a fixed axis tool path; variableaxis tool paths can take the tool axis into account when determiningmachining efficiency

• Start Point - controls the start point of the tool path

• End Point - controls the end point of the tool path

• Start Tool Axis - is for variable axis tool paths only and controls the toolaxis at the beginning of the cutting motion

• End Tool Axis - is for variable axis tool paths only and controls the toolaxis at the end of the cutting motion

• Optimize - initiates the optimization process

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Drilling

ActivityIn the Drilling section, do the activity:

• Optimize a Tool Path

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Drilling

SummaryDrilling operation types allows for tool path creation for various types ofholes. Numerous options which are available to you allow the control ofdepths, type of cycles generated and quality of the hole that is being created.

In this lesson, you learned how to:

• Create DRILL_GEOM Parent Groups

• Retrieve tools from the standard tool library

• Optimization functionality

• Create the necessary tools used for spot drill, drilling, and reamingoperations

• Specify the options to define Cycle Parameter sets

• Set the tool depth and defined the tool offset to prevent the tool fromgouging the bottom of a blind hole

• Set the Minimum Clearance Distance for tool positioning

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Lesson

10 Text Engraving

Purpose

This lesson will show you how to generate tool paths for Text Engraving onplanar and contour surfaces.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create drafting notes to be engraved

• Create tool paths for planar text from drafting notes

• Create tool paths for contour text from drafting notes

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Text Engraving

Text EngravingThere are numerous occasions that you may want to engrave part informationor identification on to a planar or contoured surface.Text Engraving allowsyou to generate a tool path that engraves text from drafting notes usingPlanar Milling or Fixed Axis Surface Contouring operation types.

Use this operation type when engraving text (drafting notes) onto a part. Thetool will make one pass following the strokes of the font of the text object inan on condition.

To use this feature you must select an existing drafting annotation or createthe desired text selecting Insert → Annotation from the main menu bar.You can then select the note for cutting in either Planar Milling or SurfaceContouring. Enter the text string that you wish to engrave in the text box.Create your text without a leader. Insert the text onto your part by clickingthe left mouse button on the desired area. To create a group of text, clickCreate Geometry, select mill_planar (1) as the Type (or mill_contour forcontoured text), and then click MILL_TEXT (2).

Notes pertaining to text creation:

• Several fonts use multiple strokes to fill in solid areas on a character. Ifa cutter with a very small tip diameter is used for these fonts, the areasbetween the strokes may not be cut.

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Text Engraving

• If you set the text depth/part stock so that the tool cuts below the partsurface, gouge checking reports the moves as gouges.

• Check and Trim Boundaries are ignored in tool path generation.

• Create text in a plane parallel to the floor plane.

• For tool path creation, the text is project along the tool axis to the floorplane.

• For contour text creation that use ball tools. Do not use a depth greaterthan the radius of the ball tool.

• In Surface Contouring, tool paths are not reliable if the negative floorstock (part stock - text depth) exceeds the lower radius of the tool. Awarning is generated when such conditions occur.

• The default tool axis is the +ZM axis.

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Text Engraving

ActivitiesIn the Text Engraving section, do the activities:

• Planar and Contour Text Engraving

• Create a Contour Text operation

• Create a Planar Text operation

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Text Engraving

SummaryThis lesson introduced you to Text Engraving operations

In this lesson you:

• Created drafting notes.

• Engraved a text string using Contour Text operation types.

• Engraved a text string using Planar Mill Text operation types.

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11Lesson

11 Tool Path Information Output

Purpose

This lesson introduces several ways that tool path data can be output asdata and text. You will learn how to use NX POST to post process yourprogram. Once you successfully post the program you can then create theshop documentation that can be used on the shop floor.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Output a CLSF

• Post process with NX POST

• Create Shop Documentation

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Tool Path Information Output

Output CLSFCutter Location Source Files, also referred to as CLSF, are output formatsthat can be used for input into numerous post processing systems, includinglegacy GPM and other 3rd party systems.

Output CLSF - is used to create a CLSF.

Types of output are:

• CLSF_STANDARD - standard APT (Automatic Programmed Tools) typeoutput, with GOTO and post processors statements

• CLSF_COMPRESSED - outputs only the START and END-OF-PATHstatements

• CLSF_ADVANCED - automatically generates Spindle and Load Toolcommands based on operation data

• CLSF_BCL - represents Binary Coded Language which is a specificcontroller language developed in conjunction with the US Navy

• CLSF_ISO - represents a cutter location source file based on ISO standards

• CLSF_IDEAS_MILL - represents an IDEAS compatible cutter locationsource file for milling

• CLSF_IDEAS_TURN - represents an IDEAS compatible cutter locationsource file for turning

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Tool Path Information Output

If you have legacy data that you need to post using the GPM, you would usethe CLSF_Standard format.

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Tool Path Information Output

Post ProcessingTool paths consist of GOTO points and other information that controls themovement of a tool with respect to the part. This unmodified tool path usuallyneeds to be specifically formatted for a particular machine tool/controllercombination. Differences are based on character formats, tool changerequirements, type of machine, number of controlled axis of motion, etc.

The tool path must be formatted to match the unique characteristics of themachine tool/controller combination. The procedure of modifying this generictool path to a form that can be understood and used by the machine toolcontroller is called post processing.

Two elements are required for post processing. They are:

• Tool path - A NX internal tool path

• Post processor - this is a program that reads, converts and reformats toolpath information for a particular machine tool/controller combination

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Tool Path Information Output

NX POST ExecuteNX provides a post processor, NX POST, which utilizes NX tool path data asinput and outputs machine controller readable NC/CNC code.

NX POST is customized through the use of user created Event Handlerand Definition files. These files, in conjunction with NX POST, are used togenerate output for the simplest to the very complex of machine tool/controllercombinations.

The NX POST processor is highly scalable and can be used to generate outputfor simple milling machines and lathes to ultra complex multi-axis (4+ axis)machining and production centers (a production center is considered to be amilling/turning type machine). The flexibility of NX POST is achieved throughthe scripting language Tcl and the use of the NX concept of Definition files.

The following flowchart illustrates the steps required to process (post process)tool path data in an acceptable format for a machine tool/controller usingthe NX POST post processor.

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Tool Path Information Output

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The NX POST execute module consists of the following components:

• Event Generator - sends Events to NX POST when you post process; anEvent is a collection of data which is processed by NX POST, creating datawhich causes a specific action(s) by the machine tool/controller

• Event Handler - is a file containing a specific set of instructions, written inthe Tcl scripting language, dictating how each event type is to be processed

• Definition file- is a file containing specific information about machinetool/controller format

• Output file- is a file generated by NX POST, passed to the machinetool/controller, that executes specific instructions

The Event Generator, Event Handler, and the Definition file areinterdependent and together convert the internal tool path into a setof instructions that can be read and executed by the specific machinetool/controller combination.

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Tool Path Information Output

Manufacturing Output Manager (MOM)The Manufacturing Output Manager, commonly referred to as MOM, is autility program used by NX POST for generating output based upon datathat is stored within the internal tool path. Functionally, NX POST uses theManufacturing Output Manager to start, add data and specify functions tothe interpreter, and to load Event Handlers and Definition files.

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Tool Path Information Output

Post Processing Using NX POSTThe NX POST post processor is activated by selecting Post Process from theManufacturing Operations toolbar.

Post processors are added to the Post Process dialog box by modifying thetemplate_post.dat file located in the /mach/resource/postprocessor directory.This file specifies the location of the Definition and Event handler files usedfor your particular post processor.

Output File Name allows you to specify where you want the posted outputto go.

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Tool Path Information Output

NX POST BuilderThe NX POST mechanism, as mentioned earlier, uses Tcl (Tool CommandLanguage) scripts and numerous files to post process information. These filesare used to extract information from the part file, process this informationaccording to defined rules, format the information for output and then outputthe data to a file which is later used by the machine control for machininga part. These files may be customized and require the knowledge of the Tclscripting language.

To ease the process of creating these files and knowing Tcl, the NX POSTBuilder was developed.

NX POST Builder provides an interactive graphical User Interface forbuilding post processors. The design intent of the NX POST Builder isto create all the necessary files needed for post processing without theknowledge of file structure or Tcl.

The NX POST Builder is very flexible and allows for the definition of varioustypes of output blocks and word addresses. Sequence of output in the NCoutput file is very easy to control for blocks involving the start of program,start of operation, end of operation, end of program, tool changes and cannedcycles.

NX POST Builder currently configures post processors for the following:

• 3-axis milling machines

• 4-axis milling machines with a rotary table or a rotary head

• 5-axis milling machines with dual rotary heads or dual rotary tables

• 5-axis milling machines with rotary head and rotary table

• 2 and 4 axis lathes

• Mill-Turn centers (lathes with a live milling spindle)

• 2 and 4 axis Wire EDM machines

The following flowchart illustrates the process of building a post processorusing the NX POST Builder.

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Tool Path Information Output

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Tool Path Information Output

ActivityIn the Tool Path Information Output section, do the activity:

• Post Processing with NX POST

11-12 NX Manufacturing Fundamentals ©UGS Corp., All Rights Reserved mt11041_g NX 5

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Tool Path Information Output

Shop DocumentationShop Documentation allows you to generate customized information in theform of reports that can aid in the manufacturing processes of creating a part.

This information includes data concerning:

• tools and material

• control geometry

• machining parameters

• post commands

• tool parameters

• tool path information

Output can be either ASCII text or HTML format.

Generic templates are provided or customized templates can be createdand used to create very detailed output that can be incorporated into themanufacturing environment.

©UGS Corp., All Rights Reserved NX Manufacturing Fundamentals 11-13

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Tool Path Information Output

Shop Documentation dialogsShop Documentation is activated by clicking Shop Documentation from theManufacturing Operations toolbar.

The Shop Documentation dialog box lists the Available Templates which areused to format the output.

These customized templates create various formatted output in both ASCIItext and HTML for:

• operation and tool list

• operation list by method

• tool list by program

• advanced operation list

• web page listings

You can add your own custom templates to the dialog box by modifying theshop_doc.dat file located in the /mach/resource/shop_doc directory. This filespecifies the location of the template and event handler files used for yourshop documentation.

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Tool Path Information Output

ActivityIn the Tool Path Information Output section, do the activity:

• Create Shop Documentation

©UGS Corp., All Rights Reserved NX Manufacturing Fundamentals 11-15

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Tool Path Information Output

SummaryThe flexibility of the post processing and shop documentation options thatare available allows you to post process data and generate customized shopdocumentation for your specific needs.

In this lesson you:

• Used the NX POST post processor to create output for a 3-axis millingmachine

• Created Shop Documentation for providing information for set-ups andmanufacturing processes in both ASCII text and HTML formats

11-16 NX Manufacturing Fundamentals ©UGS Corp., All Rights Reserved mt11041_g NX 5

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Index

AAbsolute Coordinate System . . . . . . 5-3

BBlank Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5Boundaries

in Planar Mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3

CCavity Mill

Blank Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8Cut Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10Cut Patterns

Cut Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12How to create a tool path . . . . . . . 3-4In-Process work piece . . . . . . . . . 3-14Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4Part Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8

Cavity Millingcut parameters

trim by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18Check Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6–7-7CLSF Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2CLSF Compressed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2CLSF Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2Coordinate System

Absolute Coordinate System . . . . . 5-3I, J, K Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14Machine Coordinate System . . . . . 5-5Rotary Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15Saved Coordinate System . . . . . . . 5-6Work Coordinate System . . . . . . . 5-4

Creating a MILL_BND ParentGroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11

Cut Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10Cut Method

Face Mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6

Cut Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12Cycle Parameter Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4

DDefinition file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7Depth of Cut

in Planar Mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9DRILL_GEOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7Drilling

Cycle Parameter Sets . . . . . . . . . . 9-4Cycle Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3Depth Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9Geometry Parent Groups . . . . . . . 9-7Minimum Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5Optimizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10Tool Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6

DynamicTool Path Visualization . . . . . . . . . 6-5

EEdit Display

Tool Path Display Options . . . . . . . 6-7Event Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7Event Handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7

FFace Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2Face Mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3–8-4

Additional Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7blank overhang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16

difference with blank stock . . 8-17Cut Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6Face Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4Multiple Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13Part Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4Stock Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8

©UGS Corp., All Rights Reserved NX Manufacturing Fundamentals Index-1

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Index

G

General Milling EnhancementsIn-Process Workpiece for fixed axis

milling applicationshow to use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14

Geometry Parent GroupsDRILL_GEOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7MCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7WORKPIECE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7

Geometry View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6

I

I, J, K Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14

L

languageTcl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10

M

Machine Coordinate System . . . . . . . 5-5Machine Tool View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5Manufacturing Output Manager . . 11-8Method Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6MILL_BND Parent Group . . . . . . . 7-11

Creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11MOM

Post processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8Multi-Level Cutting

in Planar Mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8

N

NX Post Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10NX POST Builder

Flow Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10NX POST Execute

Flow Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5Post processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5

O

Operation Navigator . . . . . . . . 1-10, 4-2Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8

Geometry View . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6, 4-6Machine Tool View . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5Method Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6Program Order Views . . . . . . . . . . 4-5resource bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10Tool View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5

OptimizingTool Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10

Output CLSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2CLSF Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2CLSF BCL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2CLSF Compressed . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2CLSF Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2CLSF ISO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2CLSF Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2

Output File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7

P

Parent Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7Geometry Parent Group . . . . . . . . 3-8Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7MILL_BND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7WORKPIECE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8

Part Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4Part Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3–8-4Planar Mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2

Blank Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3Check Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . 7-6–7-7Depth of Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9Multi-Level Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8Part Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4Profile Cut Method . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13

Post processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4MOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8NX Post Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10NX POST Execute . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5

Post processorNX Post Execute . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5

Process Display ParametersTool Path Display Options . . . . . . . 6-7

Program Order Views . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5

Index-2 NX Manufacturing Fundamentals ©UGS Corp., All Rights Reserved mt11041_g NX 5

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Index

RReplay

Tool Path Visualization . . . . . . . . . 6-3Rotary Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15

SSaved Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . 5-6Shop Documentation . . . . . . . . . . 11-13

TTcl

Post processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10Tool Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16Tool Path Display Options

Edit Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7Process Display Parameters . . . . . 6-7

Tool Path Visualization

Dynamic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5Replay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3

ToolsDrilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6

VVectors

I, J, K Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14Rotary Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15

WWork Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . 5-4WORKPIECE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7

ZZC Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16

©UGS Corp., All Rights Reserved NX Manufacturing Fundamentals Index-3

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L E A R N I N G

A D V A N T AG E

UGS Education Services offers a blend of training solutions for all of our product lifecycle management products. Our Online Store “Learning Advantage” was developed to provide our customers with “just in time” training for the latest in application developments. Here are some of the Learning Advantages:

• Customers have direct access • Self-paced course layout • Online Assessments • Just in time training for the latest release

To learn more about the “Learning Advantage” visit our website http://training.ugs.com or email us at training @ugs.com

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STUDENT PROFILE

In order to stay in tune with our customers we ask for some background information. This information will be kept confidential and will not be shared with anyone outside of Education Services.

Please “Print”…

Your Name U.S. citizen Yes No Course Title/Dates / thru Hotel/motel you are staying at during your training Planned departure time on last day of class Employer Location Your title and job responsibilities / Industry: Auto Aero Consumer products Machining Tooling Medical Other Types of products/parts/data that you work with Reason for training Please verify/add to this list of training for Unigraphics, I-deas, Imageware, Teamcenter Mfg., Teamcenter Eng. (I-Man), Teamcenter Enterprise (Metaphase), or Dimensional Mgmt./Visualization. Medium means Instructor-lead (IL ), On-line (OL ), or Self-paced (SP) Software From Whom When Course Name Medium

Other CAD/CAM/CAE /PDM software you have used Please “check”! your ability/knowledge in the following…

Subject CAD modeling CAD assemblies CAD drafting CAM CAE PDM – data management PDM – system management

None � � � � � � �

Novice � � � � � � �

Intermediate � � � � � � �

Advanced � � � � � � �

Platform (operating system) Thank you for your participation and we hope your training experience will be an outstanding one.

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NX Manufacturing Fundamentals Agenda

Wednesday Morning • Lesson 1. Basic CAM Fundamentals • Lesson 2. Tools • Lesson 3. Cavity Mill and Parent Groups

Afternoon • Lesson 3. Cavity Mill and Parent Groups (continued) • Lesson 4. Operation Navigator • Lesson 5. Coordinate Systems

Thursday Morning • Lesson 6. Visualization • Workbook Project: Setting the Machining Environment, Set the MCS, Part, Blank, Check

Geometry and Mill Method, Create a Cavity Milling Operation, Visualize and Verify • Lesson 7. Planar Milling

Afternoon • Lesson 7. Planar Milling (continued) • Lesson 8. Face Milling

Friday Morning • Workbook Section 9 Assembly Completion • Lesson 9. Drilling • Lesson 10. Text Engraving • Lesson 11. Tool Path Information Output

Afternoon • Workbook Project: Face Milling, Drilling, Post Processing and Shop Documentation

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Accelerators

The following Accelerators can be listed from within an NX session by choosing Information→Custom Menubar→Accelerators.

Function Accelerator File→New... Ctrl+N File→Open... Ctrl+O File→Save Ctrl+S File→Save As... Ctrl+Shift+A File→Plot... Ctrl+P File→Execute→Grip... Ctrl+G File→Execute→Debug Grip... Ctrl+Shift+G File→Execute→NX Open... Ctrl+U Edit→Undo Ctrl+Z Edit→Cut Ctrl+X Edit→Copy Ctrl+C Edit-Paste Ctrl+V Edit→Delete... Ctrl+D or Delete Edit→Selection→Top Selection Priority - Feature F Edit→Selection→Top Selection Priority - Face G Edit→Selection→Top Selection Priority - Body B Edit→Selection→Top Selection Priority - Edge E Edit→Selection→Top Selection Priority - Component C Edit→Selection-Select All Ctrl+A Edit→Show and Hide→Show and Hide...(by type) Ctrl+W Edit→Show and Hide→Hide Ctrl+B Edit→Show and Hide→Invert Shown and Hidden Ctrl+Shift+B Edit→Show and Hide→Show... Ctrl+Shift+K Edit→Show and Hide→Show All Ctrl+Shift+U Edit→Transform... Ctrl+T Edit→Object Display... Ctrl+J View→Operation→Zoom... Ctrl+Shift+Z View→Operation→Rotate... Ctrl+R View→Operation→Section... Ctrl+H View→Layout→New... Ctrl+Shift+N View→Layout→Open... Ctrl+Shift+O View→Layout→Fit All Views Ctrl+Shift+F View→Layout→Fit Ctrl+F View→Visualization→High Quality Image... Ctrl+Shift+H View→Information Window F4 Hide or show the current dialog box F3 View→Reset Orientation Ctrl+F8 Insert→Sketch... S Insert→Design Feature→Extrude... X

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Insert→Design Feature→Revolve... R Insert→Trim→Trimmed Sheet... T Insert→Sweep→Variational Sweep... V Format→Layer Settings... Ctrl+L Format→Visible in View... Ctrl+Shift+V Format→WCS→Display W Tools→Expression... Ctrl+E Tools→Journal→Play... Alt+F8 Tools→Journal→Edit Alt+F11 Tools→Macro→Start Record... Ctrl+Shift+R Tools→Macro→Playback... Ctrl+Shift+P Tools→Macro→Step... Ctrl+Shift+S Information→Object... Ctrl+I Analysis→Curve→Refresh Curvature Graphs Ctrl+Shift+C Preferences→Object... Ctrl+Shift+J Preferences→Selection... Ctrl+Shift+T Start→Modeling... M or Ctrl+M Start→All Applications→Shape Studio... Ctrl+Alt+S Start→Drafting... Ctrl+Shift+D Start→Manufacturing... Ctrl+Alt+M Start→NX Sheet Metal... Ctrl+Alt+N Start→Assemblies A Start→Gateway... Ctrl+W Help→On Context... F1 Refresh F5 Fit Ctrl+F Zoom F6 Rotate F7 Orient View-Trimetric Home Orient View-Isometric End Orient View-Top Ctrl+Alt+T Orient View-Front Ctrl+Alt+F Orient View-Right Ctrl+Alt+R Orient View-Left Ctrl+Alt+L Snap View F8

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Evaluation – Delivery

NX 5 NMF, Course #MT11041 Dates thru

Please share your opinion in all of the following sections with a “check” in the appropriate box:

Instructor: ����

If there were 2 instructors, please evaluate the 2nd instructor with “X’s”

Instructor: ���� 1. …clearly explained the course objectives 2. …was knowledgeable about the subject 3. …answered my questions appropriately 4. … encouraged questions in class 5. …was well spoken and a good communicator 6. …was well prepared to deliver the course 7. …made good use of the training time 8. …conducted themselves professionally 9. …used examples relevant to the course and audience 10. …provided enough time to complete the exercises 11. …used review and summary to emphasize important information 12. …did all they could to help the class meet the course objectives

Comments on overall impression of instructor(s):

Overall impression of instructor(s) Poor Excellent Suggestions for improvement of course delivery:

What you liked best about the course delivery:

Class Logistics:

1. The training facilities were comfortable, clean, and provided a good learning environment

2. The computer equipment was reliable 3. The software performed properly 4. The overhead projection unit was clear and working properly 5. The registration and confirmation process was efficient

Hotels: (We try to leverage this information to better accommodate our customers)

1. Name of the hotel Best hotel I’ve stayed at

2. Was this hotel recommended during your registration process? YES NO

3. Problem? (brief description)

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Evaluation - Courseware

NX 5 NMF, Course #MT11041 :

Please share your opinion for all of the following sections with a “check” in the appropriate box

Material:

1. The training material supported the course and lesson objectives 2. The training material contained all topics needed to complete the projects 3. The training material provided clear and descriptive directions 4. The training material was easy to read and understand 5. The course flowed in a logical and meaningful manner 6. How appropriate was the length of the course relative to the material? Too short Too long Just right

Comments on Course and Material:

Overall impression of course Poor Excellent

Student:

1. I met the prerequisites for the class (I had the skills I needed) 2. My objectives were consistent with the course objectives 3. I will be able to use the skills I have learned on my job 4. My expectations for this course were met 5. I am confident that with practice I will become proficient

Name (optional): Location/room

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Please “check” this box if you would like to receive more information on our other courses and services. (Your name is required at the bottom of this form)

Thank you for your business. We hope to continue to provide your training

and personal development for the future.

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