1
436 tube, but it has grave risks unless used with the greatest care. The L.C.C. report states that in every .case a dose of a pastille and a half was given, and .a second dose after the lapse of a month if the first was not sufficient ; but no word is said about the risk of giving three times the normal skin-tolerance dose within28days. Many dermatologists will have seen X ray ulcers develop months or-years after an application. For a banal affection like a wart, in which there are so many other curative means to hand, it would seem unnecessary to take any such risk. NINTH INTERNATIONAL DERMATOLOGICAL CONGRESS: BUDAPEST THIS Congress will be held in Budapest between Sept. 13th and 21st, 1935, as announced in these columns earlier in the year. The president of the congress is Louis Nekam, professor of dermatology in Budapest University. Nekam is a remarkable man, as will be gathered from the following note from a medical correspondent and friend. " Nekam," he says, " as well as physician and specialist, is a linguist, classical scholar, and artist. He takes a special pride in his descent from an Englishman, Alexander Neckam (1157-1217), and has always had an especial affection for the English. I met him for the first time during the International Dermatological Congress in Paris in 1900, and have enjoyed his friendship ever since. He has visited England in the interval and I have been his guest in Budapest and seen him in his wonderful clinic. This was in 1913 and at that time he was going to send his two sons to English public schools, but the war frustrated this intention. Nekam was sentenced to death immediately after the war, during the Bela Kun despotism, but the Rumanians relieved Budapest from Bela Kun before the edict could be carried out, and Nekam was able to con- tinue his career and filled the high office of Rector of his university two or three years ago. A delightful feature of the approaching congress has been the communications from Nekam in classical Latin, and the announcement of the themes for discussions in the same language." Many governments and important universities are sending official representatives to the congress, which will have the complete political patronage of Hungary. The Hungarian railways are giving a rebate of 50 per cent. to the members, while the Hungarian Foreign Office will grant them free visas. German, Belgian, Dutch, Austrian, Swiss, Italian, Czechoslovakian, and French railways are also granting substantial rebates on their fares. The programme is comprehensive. There are six principal -64 commissions " or sections, each presided over by a - representative of a different foreign country. Hungary .chivalrously evaded the nomination of any of their own countrymen. At the first commission, presided over by the great dermatologist Dr. Jean Darier, of Paris, the establishment of an international permanent Dermatological Association will be debated; the second commission deals with the Reform of Derma- tological Terminology (president, Prof. Rille of Leipzig); the third with the Modern Classification of Diseases of the Skin (president, Prof. Howard Fox .of New York); the fourth with the Teaching of Dermatology (president, Prof. Gougerot of Paris) ; the fifth with the Organisation of a Central Exchange for Dermatological and Venereal Exhibits and Data (president, Prof. Tommasi of Palermo); and the .sixth’with the Practice of Dermatology and Venereal Disease (president, Sir Ernest Graham-Little). Three .conferences have been arranged dealing with derma- tological disease in connexion with tuberculosis, with syphilis, and with occupational diseases. Prof. Marek, of Budapest, will preside over a discussion upon comparative dermatology, while further subjects to be dealt with in session concern physiology of the skin and the relations to internal organs, allergy in dermatology and syphilis, and dermatological disease due to filtrable viruses. A large number of individual communications are also announced. The programme of social entertainment includes a reception by the Regent, Nicholas Horthy de Nagybanya. The British secretary is Dr. A. M. H. Gray, 69, Harley-street, London, to whom inquiries should be addressed. The accepted languages of the congress are English, French, German, and Italian, and the subscription for full membership, open to any medical practitioner, is f:2 8s. English money. RELIEF OF ANIMAL SUFFERING THE last issue of the quarterly journal of the Research Defence Society contains a valuable little article with this title communicated by Sir Frederick Hobday. The essay is made up of the ninth Stephen Paget memorial lecture which was delivered at the last annual general meeting of the Research Defence Society, and it is interesting to learn from its preface that the work and interest taken by the Research Defence Society in certain testamentary dispositions ensured a sum of 25,000 accruing to the Royal Veterinary College. Of the many interesting subjects touched on by Sir Frederick, probably his descrip. tion of the electric killer attracted the most atten- tion. With this instrument, after it has been plugged in at some source of electrical supply, the animal is just touched on the side of the head and death ensues. All the smaller food animals in England are killed by it now we learn, and, although as yet in the case of sheep the process is permissive and not compulsory, some 690 county councils have agreed to alter in the regulations the word " may " into the word " shall," so that there will soon be no place where sheep are not killed save through the humane killer. The electrical killer can also be employed as an anaesthetic for operation, the animal receiving a current for a few seconds, which renders it apparently unconscious for about 2! minutes. It should be mentioned, however, that there are still some who do not feel certain of the efficacy of this process, and we may recall that in our correspondence columns last December Capt. C. W. Hume expressed grave doubt about the reality of the anaesthesia and, by consequence, the humanity of the slaughter. At various points in the lecture Sir Frederick gave examples of voracity, a subject which always excites wonder and amusement, whether the odd articles swallowed illustrate the perverted taste of the human subject or of any other animal. Cows have swallowed silk stockings, and one appears to have committed suicide in the attempt to swallow a sheet. Within the stomach and intestines of horses there have. been found stones, nails, piping, and wire to’an incredible extent, and dogs appear equally careless of conse- quence when indulging in odd diets. The adven. turous surgery of the modern veterinary expert has obviously many opportunities, and its description formed the more exciting features of Sir Frederick’s address, but he prefaced his words with remarks of the greatest political significance, and it is to be hoped that they also received attention. Agriculture he described as the backbone of civilisation, and the wealth of a country depends upon its animals. He said that in this country there are 930,000 horses,

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436

tube, but it has grave risks unless used with thegreatest care. The L.C.C. report states that in every.case a dose of a pastille and a half was given, and.a second dose after the lapse of a month if the firstwas not sufficient ; but no word is said about the riskof giving three times the normal skin-tolerance dosewithin28days. Many dermatologists will have seen X rayulcers develop months or-years after an application.For a banal affection like a wart, in which there areso many other curative means to hand, it would seemunnecessary to take any such risk.

NINTH INTERNATIONAL DERMATOLOGICAL

CONGRESS: BUDAPEST

THIS Congress will be held in Budapest betweenSept. 13th and 21st, 1935, as announced in these columnsearlier in the year. The president of the congress isLouis Nekam, professor of dermatology in BudapestUniversity. Nekam is a remarkable man, as will be

gathered from the following note from a medicalcorrespondent and friend. " Nekam," he says, " aswell as physician and specialist, is a linguist, classicalscholar, and artist. He takes a special pride in hisdescent from an Englishman, Alexander Neckam(1157-1217), and has always had an especial affectionfor the English. I met him for the first time duringthe International Dermatological Congress in Parisin 1900, and have enjoyed his friendship ever since.He has visited England in the interval and I havebeen his guest in Budapest and seen him in hiswonderful clinic. This was in 1913 and at that timehe was going to send his two sons to English publicschools, but the war frustrated this intention. Nekamwas sentenced to death immediately after the war,during the Bela Kun despotism, but the Rumaniansrelieved Budapest from Bela Kun before the edictcould be carried out, and Nekam was able to con-tinue his career and filled the high office of Rectorof his university two or three years ago. A delightfulfeature of the approaching congress has been thecommunications from Nekam in classical Latin, andthe announcement of the themes for discussions inthe same language."Many governments and important universities are

sending official representatives to the congress,which will have the complete political patronage ofHungary. The Hungarian railways are giving a

rebate of 50 per cent. to the members, while theHungarian Foreign Office will grant them free visas.German, Belgian, Dutch, Austrian, Swiss, Italian,Czechoslovakian, and French railways are also

granting substantial rebates on their fares. The

programme is comprehensive. There are six principal-64 commissions " or sections, each presided over by a- representative of a different foreign country. Hungary.chivalrously evaded the nomination of any of theirown countrymen. At the first commission, presidedover by the great dermatologist Dr. Jean Darier, ofParis, the establishment of an international permanentDermatological Association will be debated; thesecond commission deals with the Reform of Derma-

tological Terminology (president, Prof. Rille of

Leipzig); the third with the Modern Classification ofDiseases of the Skin (president, Prof. Howard Fox.of New York); the fourth with the Teaching of

Dermatology (president, Prof. Gougerot of Paris) ;the fifth with the Organisation of a Central Exchangefor Dermatological and Venereal Exhibits and Data(president, Prof. Tommasi of Palermo); and the.sixth’with the Practice of Dermatology and VenerealDisease (president, Sir Ernest Graham-Little). Three.conferences have been arranged dealing with derma-

tological disease in connexion with tuberculosis,with syphilis, and with occupational diseases. Prof.Marek, of Budapest, will preside over a discussionupon comparative dermatology, while further subjectsto be dealt with in session concern physiology of theskin and the relations to internal organs, allergy indermatology and syphilis, and dermatological diseasedue to filtrable viruses. A large number of individualcommunications are also announced.The programme of social entertainment includes a

reception by the Regent, Nicholas Horthy de

Nagybanya. The British secretary is Dr. A. M. H.Gray, 69, Harley-street, London, to whom inquiriesshould be addressed. The accepted languages of thecongress are English, French, German, and Italian,and the subscription for full membership, open toany medical practitioner, is f:2 8s. English money.

RELIEF OF ANIMAL SUFFERING

THE last issue of the quarterly journal of theResearch Defence Society contains a valuable littlearticle with this title communicated by Sir FrederickHobday. The essay is made up of the ninth StephenPaget memorial lecture which was delivered at thelast annual general meeting of the Research DefenceSociety, and it is interesting to learn from its prefacethat the work and interest taken by the ResearchDefence Society in certain testamentary dispositionsensured a sum of 25,000 accruing to the RoyalVeterinary College. Of the many interesting subjectstouched on by Sir Frederick, probably his descrip.tion of the electric killer attracted the most atten-tion. With this instrument, after it has been pluggedin at some source of electrical supply, the animal isjust touched on the side of the head and deathensues. All the smaller food animals in Englandare killed by it now we learn, and, although as yetin the case of sheep the process is permissive andnot compulsory, some 690 county councils have

agreed to alter in the regulations the word " may "

into the word " shall," so that there will soon be noplace where sheep are not killed save through thehumane killer. The electrical killer can also be

employed as an anaesthetic for operation, the animalreceiving a current for a few seconds, which rendersit apparently unconscious for about 2! minutes. Itshould be mentioned, however, that there are stillsome who do not feel certain of the efficacy of thisprocess, and we may recall that in our correspondencecolumns last December Capt. C. W. Hume expressedgrave doubt about the reality of the anaesthesiaand, by consequence, the humanity of the slaughter.At various points in the lecture Sir Frederick gaveexamples of voracity, a subject which always exciteswonder and amusement, whether the odd articlesswallowed illustrate the perverted taste of the humansubject or of any other animal. Cows have swallowedsilk stockings, and one appears to have committedsuicide in the attempt to swallow a sheet. Withinthe stomach and intestines of horses there have. beenfound stones, nails, piping, and wire to’an incredibleextent, and dogs appear equally careless of conse-

quence when indulging in odd diets. The adven.turous surgery of the modern veterinary expert hasobviously many opportunities, and its descriptionformed the more exciting features of Sir Frederick’saddress, but he prefaced his words with remarksof the greatest political significance, and it is to behoped that they also received attention. Agriculturehe described as the backbone of civilisation, andthe wealth of a country depends upon its animals.He said that in this country there are 930,000 horses,