Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

Embed Size (px)

Text of Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    1/24

    TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED FAN FOR HOME APPLICATION

    NIK LUQMANUL HAKIM BIN NIK ARIFFIN

    2003470748

    THESIS IS SUBMITTED IN FULFILLMENT OF REQUIREMENT

    FOR

    B. Sc. (HONS) DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORK ING

    (CS 225)

    FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    AND

    QUANTITATIVE SCIENCE

    MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

    SHAH ALAM

    APRIL 2006

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    2/24

    APPROVAL SHEET

    Name of Candidate : Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin

    Title of Thesis : Temperature Controlled Fan For Home Application

    Approved By :

    ________________________

    Encik J amaludin Md Yusof

    (Supervisor)

    Date : 27 April 2006

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    3/24

    DECLARATION

    I certify that this thesis and the research to which it refers are the product of my own

    work and that any ideas or quotation from the work of other people, published or

    otherwise are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referring practices of

    the discipline

    April 27, 2006 NIK LUQMANUL HAKIM BIN NIK ARIFFIN

    2003470748

    i

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    4/24

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    Alhamdulillah, praise Allah for his Almighty and Graciousness I was able tocomplete this thesis report in the dateline given.

    First and foremost, I would like to thank my respective supervisor Encik

    Jamaludin Md Yusuf for the guidance and brilliant ideas from him. Without his kindness

    to lending hand helping me, this project cant be completed as it right now. Moreover,

    thank you so much to my examiner Puan Rozita for her concern and in the same time

    inculcating in me not to give up easily about my project.

    Besides that, I would like to take this opportunity to jot down a million of

    appreciation to my lecturer Encik Yusri Dak for spending times with me giving

    explanation and provide solution for the problems that occurs during this research.

    Furthermore, other lecturer such as Prof. Madya Dr. Saadiah and Encik Adzhar

    also involved with my project by providing full support since proposal phase. Without

    their concern, maybe it is hard for me to express my thesis in good manner.

    Last but not least, thank you so much to my beloved parent and friends that gave

    me encouragement and morale support from behind.

    Thank you so much.

    ii

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    5/24

    ABSTRACT

    Over the last decade, advances in digital electronics have made computer smaller,

    cheaper and faster. Throughout this revolution as well, mobile computing environment

    such as PDA has been created and undoubtedly other advances in technology like smart

    home also play an important role towards better life in the future. This project is about

    how we can control the fan based on temperature sensor regardless of traditional

    thermostat. It is also part of smart home application where the fan will gradually increase

    the speed if the temperature in the environment is increasing. Besides that, the component

    that made up the temperature sensor is known as thermistor. A sensor is a type of

    transducer. In a broader sense, a transducer is sometimes defined as any device that

    converts energy from one form to another.There are two types of thermistor depend on

    the sign ofk. Firstly is positive temperature coefficient (PTC). PTC thermistor works by

    increasing the resistance with increasing temperature. Secondly is negative temperature

    coefficient (NTC). NTC thermistor works by decreasing the resistance with increasing

    temperature. This project will focus on NTC type of thermistor. Experiment can be

    followed to evaluate whether this circuit can save energy through the use of temperature

    sensor and thus promote efficiency. Finally, after some experiments have done, the result

    of the experimentation and finding can be concluded.

    iii

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transducerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transducer
  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    6/24

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    CHAPTER PAGE

    DECLARATION i

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii

    ABSTRACT iii

    TABLE OF CONTENT iv

    LIST OF FIGURE ix

    LIST OF TABLE x

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Problem Statement 1

    1.1.1 What is Integrated Circuit 21.1.2 What is Temperature Control 31.1.3 What is Temperature Controlled Fan 41.1.4 What is Wind Chill Factor 5

    1.2 Problem Description 51.3 Objective 71.4 Scope of Project 71.5 Project Significance 7

    iv

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    7/24

    CHAPTER 2

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 Introduction 82.2 Several fan controlled by temperature 82.3 Introduction to several basic electronic components 10

    2.3.1 Thermistor 10

    2.3.2 Potentiometer 11

    2.3.3 Capacitor 11

    2.3.4 Diode 12

    2.4 Type of temperature sensor 132.5 The different between 4 blade and 5 blade fan 132.6 Related studies regarding ceiling fan 14

    CHAPTER 3

    METHODOLOGY

    3.1 Introduction 193.2 Phase I

    System Initialization and Feasibility Study 22

    3.2.1 Non Electronic Media 223.2.2 Electronic Media 22

    v

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    8/24

    3.3 Phase II

    Project Planning and Functional Analysis 23

    3.4 Phase III

    Hardware Design 23

    3.4.1Hardware Component 23

    3.4.2Electronic Component 24

    3.5 Software 25

    3.6 Phase IVTesting and Implementation 25

    3.7 Phase VPost Implementation Evaluation 26

    3.7.1 Comparing Output 263.7.2 Gantt Chart 26

    3.8 Setting Up 273.9 Testing and Experiment 28

    3.9.1 Automatically Test 293.9.2 Manually Test 29

    3.10 Data Analysis 293.11 Conclusion 30

    vi

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    9/24

    CHAPTER 4

    ARCHITECTURE

    4.1 Introduction 31

    4.1.1 Description of model type A 324.1.2 Description of model type B 33

    4.2 Description of Architecture 34

    4.2.1 Transformer 354.3 Description of the circuit 37

    4.4 Conclusion 39

    CHAPTER 5

    RESULT AND FINDING

    5.1 Introduction 405.2 Result and Finding for Automatically Testing 40

    5.2.1 The Room Temperature 415.2.2 The Transistor Vulnerabilities 415.2.3 The Base Emitter Junction Characteristic 42

    5.3 Result and Finding for Manually Testing 425.4 Factors that Affect the Result and Finding 43

    vii

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    10/24

    CHAPTER 6

    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    6.1 Introduction 456.2 Summary of Conclusion 456.3 Recommendation 46

    REFERENCE 47

    APPENDIX

    viii

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    11/24

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 2.1 Total energy consumed by electrical appliances

    Figure 2.3.1 Thermistor symbol

    Figure 2.3.2 Potentiometer symbol

    Figure 2.3.2 Capacitor symbols

    Figure 2.3.4 Diode symbol

    Figure 2.5 a The fan spins counter clockwise

    Figure 2.5 b The fan spins clockwise

    Figure 2.5 c Energy cost in average of 10 hours usage

    Figure 2.6 Blades that are true air foils with both taper and twistFigure 3.1 a Steps in system development life cycle

    Figure 3.1 b Methodology flow

    Figure 3.8 Setting up hardware flow

    Figure 4.1.1 Temperature controlled fan model type A

    Figure 4.1.2 Temperature controlled fan model type B

    Figure 4.2 Step down transformer

    Figure 4.3 a Schematic diagram of the circuit

    Figure 4.3 b Wheatstone bridge

    Figure 5.2.3 Absence of voltage and current

    ix

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    12/24

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 5.2 Result from automatically testing

    Table 5.3 Result from manually testing

    x

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    13/24

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

    In the age of communication and information technology there are tremendous impacts

    on globalization that affect our life. Undoubtedly electricity has played an important role

    in empowering our life towards better future and prosperity. There is about 90 percent of

    Malaysians use electricity in their daily life. For instance, we use electricity for washing

    machine, electric fan, refrigerator, air conditioning and so on. In fact, most factories

    depend on electricity to generate their operation as their main source everyday.

    The increasing in cost of living especially in town has force all of us to spend

    wisely. The cost of petrol for vehicles which had rise up to 75 US dollar per gallons

    definitely burden poor people livelihood. Therefore it will be an advantage if we could

    use an energy saving appliance in our home. In this research, we are going to focus on

    electric standing fan on how we can use its capability to maximum with little bit

    modification in order to save energy.

    Furthermore, some disabled people who are paralyzed and handicapped with no

    hands find it difficult to monitor the fan speed. They have to manually change motor

    speed according to their needs and environment with the help of other people. This will

    1

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    14/24

    cause burden to them if there is nobody besides them to assist. Besides that, in Malaysia

    special purpose ICs is quite difficult to obtain and often very costly. This is because

    most of the ICs are imported from overseas.

    1.1.1 WHAT IS INTEGRATED CIRCUIT?

    According to Wikipedia.com an integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least

    two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive

    components like resistors. As of 2004, typical chips are of size 1 cm

    2

    or smaller, and

    contain millions of interconnected devices, but larger ones exist as well.

    Among the most advanced integrated circuits are the microprocessors, which

    drive everything from computers to cellular phones to digital microwave ovens. Digital

    memory chips are another family of integrated circuits that are crucially important in

    modern society.

    The integrated circuit was made possible by mid-20th-century technology

    advancements in semiconductor device fabrication and experimental discoveries that

    showed that semiconductor devices could perform the functions performed by vacuum

    tubes at the time. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors onto a small chip

    was an enormous improvement to the manual assembly of finger-sized vacuum tubes.

    2

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    15/24

    The integrated circuit's small size, reliability, fast switching speeds, low power,

    mass production capability, and ease of adding complexity quickly pushed vacuum tubes

    into obsolescence.

    Only a half century after their development was initiated, integrated circuits have

    become ubiquitous. Computers, cellular phones, and other digital appliances are now

    inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies. That is, modern computing,

    communications, manufacturing and transport systems, including the Internet, all depend

    on the existence of these circuits. Indeed, many scholars believe that the digital

    revolution brought about by integrated circuits was one of the most significant

    occurrences in the history of mankind.

    1.1.2 WHAT IS TEMPERATURE CONTROL?

    Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of

    "hot" and "cold"; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter.

    Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of

    matter. In other words, temperature is a measure of activity and the frequency of

    collisions of molecules.

    The formal properties of temperature are studied in thermodynamics. Formally,

    temperature is that property which governs the transfer of thermal energy, or heat,

    between one system and another. When two systems are at the same temperature, they are

    3

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    16/24

    in thermal equilibrium and no heat transfer will occur. When a temperature difference

    does exist, heat will tend to move from the higher-temperature system to the lower-

    temperature system, until thermal equilibrium is established. This heat transfer may occur

    via conduction, convection or radiation.

    Temperature is related to the amount of thermal energy or heat in a system. As

    more heat is added the temperature rises, similarly a decrease in temperature corresponds

    to a loss of heat from the system. On the microscopic scale this heat corresponds to the

    random motion of atoms and molecules in the system. Thus, an increase in temperature

    corresponds in an increase in the rate of movement of the atoms in the system.

    1.1.3 WHAT IS TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED FAN?

    In brief, temperature controlled fan is an alternative way to deal with the speed of the

    motor. Temperature control is a process in which the temperature of an object is

    measured and the passage of heat energy into or out of the object is adjusted to achieve a

    desired temperature.

    A thermostat is a simple example for a closed control loop. It constantly measures

    the current temperature and controls the heater's valve setting to increase or decrease the

    room temperature according the user-defined setting. A simple method switches the

    heater or cooler either completely on, or completely off, and an overshoot and undershoot

    of the controlled temperature must be expected.

    4

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    17/24

    1.1.4 WHAT IS WIND CHILL FACTOR?

    Howstuffworks.com quoted that a fan does not cool down the rooms temperature.

    However it does create wind chill effect. By blowing air around, the fan makes it easier

    for the air to evaporatesweat from your skin, which is how you eliminate body heat. The

    more evaporation, the cooler you feel.

    The wind chill factor is the temperature that a person feels because of the wind.

    For example, if a thermometer reads 35 degrees Fahrenheit outside and the wind is

    blowing at 25 miles per hour (mph), the wind chill factor causes it to feel like it is 8

    degrees F. In other words, your 98-degree body loses heat as though it is 8 degrees

    outside.

    1.2 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

    Fans are widely used in industrial and commercial applications. From shop ventilation to

    material handling to boiler applications, fans are critical for process support and human

    health. In commercial sector, electricity that is needed to operate fan motors composes a

    large portion of energy costs for space conditioning. In home application, most of us use

    fan rather than air conditioner because it is more economical.

    5

    http://science.howstuffworks.com/sweat.htmhttp://science.howstuffworks.com/therm.htmhttp://science.howstuffworks.com/therm.htmhttp://science.howstuffworks.com/sweat.htm
  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    18/24

    The air movement from the fan evaporates moisture on the skin and makes a person feel

    cooler. Note that the electric power to run the fan comes from alternator. The fan does not

    cool the room at all. What a fan does is create a wind chill effect. However, sometimes

    we forget to switch off the fan when it is cool enough. This situation presents a waste of

    energy that most of us usually dont realize.

    The fan rotational speed is typically measured in revolutions per minute (RPM).

    Fan rotational speed has a significant impact on fan performance as shown in the

    following laws:-

    Airflow (final) =Airflow (initial) [RPM final / RPM initial]

    Pressure (final) =Pressure (initial) [RPM final / RPM initial]

    Power (final) =Power (initial) [RPM final / RPM initial]

    To a large degree, temperature range determines the fan type and material selection. In

    high temperature environments, many materials lose mechanical strengths. The stress of

    rotating components increase as the fans operating speed increases.

    Consequently, for high temperature application, the fan type that requires the

    lowest operating speed for a particular service is often recommended. Room temperature

    are normally 20 F-30 F cooler than body temperature as mentioned by Chris Calwell

    and Noah Horowitz. However, because the furniture and thermostat are already at

    6

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    19/24

    roughly the same temperature as the room air, they cant feel the wind-chill. Therefore,

    when we leave the room, switch the fan and its lights off to save energy and money.

    1.3 OBJ ECTIVE

    The underlying principle or objective of this research is to:

    a) Develop a product or hardware that can control the speed of the fan based on

    temperature

    1.4 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

    The focus of this research will be on the implementation of sensor that controls the speed

    of the fan. Scopes of this research are:

    a)The project will concentrate on electric standing fan rather than other type offan such as ceiling fan

    1.5 PROJ ECT SIGNIFICANCE

    a) To monitor the environments that is not comfortable, or possible, for humans

    to monitor, especially for extended periods of time

    b) Prevents waste of energy when its not hot enough for a fan to be needed

    c) To assist people who are disabled to adjust the fan speed automatically

    7

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    20/24

    CHAPTER 2

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 INTRODUCTION

    Wikipedia.com define temperature control is a process in which the temperature of an

    object is measured and the passage of heat energy into or out of the object is adjusted to

    achieve a desired temperature. According to Tito Smailagich, given the high cost of

    electrical power, replacing a conventional on/off temperature control with a proportional

    controller can often save energy and money.

    2.2 SEVERAL FAN CONTROLLED BY TEMPERATURE

    If we refer to power supply unit or PSU, it is the most underrated part of a PC. A PC with

    a basic video card and only one hard disk drive could get by with a 300 watt PSU, but if

    another hard disk drive, a compact disc burner and a high-end video card are installed,

    one might need a higher-rated PSU for example a PSU with 400 watt capacity.

    Rolfe James stated that the PSU can also act as part of the cooling system for the

    PC, expelling hot air from the top rear of the case. Cheaper PSUs have only one fan

    which keeps the PSU cool. More expensive PSUs have another fan on the bottom of the

    8

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    21/24

    unit, drawing air up from the CPU and video card area. This type of PSUs have

    temperature-controlled fans so as to run quietly when the PC is cool and speed up when

    the system is producing a lot of heat.

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in their articles mentioned that in the

    manufacturing sector, fans use about 78.7 billion kilowatt-hours of energy each year.

    This consumption represents 15 percent of the electricity used by motors. Besides that,

    fan that are oversized for their serviced requirement do not operate at their best efficiency

    point. Oversized fans generate excess flow energy resulting in high flow noise thus

    increase stress on the fan and system.

    Ceiling fan

    Figure 2.1: Total energy consumed by electrical appliances

    9

  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    22/24

    2.3 INTRODUCTION TO SEVERAL BASIC ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS

    There are many electronic components that will be used during the development of

    temperature controlled fan circuit. There are some that we familiar with and some are

    rarely used. All components play its important role and interrelated between each other in

    completing the circuit design.

    2.3.1 THERMISTOR

    According to Wikipedia.com, thermistor is a type resistor used to measure temperature

    changes, relying in its resistance with changing temperature.

    Figure 2.3.1: Thermistor symbol

    There are two types depending on the sign ofk. Ifk is positive, the resistance increases

    with increasing temperature. This is known as positive temperature coefficient (PTC)

    thermistor. However, if the k is negative, the resistance decreases with increasing

    temperature. This is known as negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor.

    10

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Thermistor_symbol.png
  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    23/24

    2.3.2 POTENTIOMETER

    Wikipedia.com stated that the original meaning of the term potentiometer, which is still

    in use is an apparatus used to measure the potential (or voltage) in a circuit by tapping off

    a portion of a known voltage from a resistive slide wire and comparing it with the

    unknown voltage by means of a voltmeter of galvanometer. If all the three terminals are

    used, it can act as variable voltage divider.

    Figure 2.3.2: Potentiometer symbol

    The arrow represents the moving terminal, called

    thewiper

    2.3.3 CAPACITOR

    A capacitor is a device that stores energy in the electric field created between a pair of

    conductors on which electric charges of equal magnitude, but opposite sign, have been

    placed. A capacitor is occasionally referred to using the older term condenser

    (www.wikipedia.com).

    11

    http://www.wikipedia.com/http://www.wikipedia.com/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Pot-sch.gif
  • 7/28/2019 Nik Luqmanul Hakim Bin Nik Ariffin 06 24

    24/24

    Capacitor symbols

    Capacitor Polarizedcapacitors

    Variablecapacitor

    Figure 2.3.3: Capacitor symbols

    2.3.4 DIODE

    Besides that, wikipedia.com also stated that a diode is a component that restricts the

    direction of movement of charge carriers. It allows an electric current to flow in one

    direction, but essentially block the opposite direction. Rectifiers are constructed from

    diodes where it used to convert alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC).

    Figure 2.3.4: Diode symbol

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Capacitor_symbol.pnghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Diode_symbol.svghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Variable_capacitor_symbol.pnghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Polarized_capacitor_symbol_4.pnghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Polarized_capacitor_symbol_3.pnghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Polarized_capacitor_symbol_2.pnghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Polarized_capacitor_symbol.pnghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Capacitor_symbol.png