New Techno-economic Assessment of Microalgae Biodiesel 2 days ago¢  Techno-economic Assessment of Microalgae

  • View
    0

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of New Techno-economic Assessment of Microalgae Biodiesel 2 days ago¢  Techno-economic...

  • Techno-economic Assessment of

    Microalgae Biodiesel

    Hassan I. El-Shimi

    Associate Lecturer

    Chemical Engineering Department, Cairo University, Egypt

    Email: hassanshimi@eng.cu.edu.eg Phone: +2 01118087862

    Wednesday March 2nd, 2016

    The1st International Conference on

    Applied Microbiology

    entitled

    Biotechnology and Its Applications in the Field of Sustainable

    Agricultural Development

    March 1 - 3, 2016 Giza, Egypt

    mailto:hassanshimi@eng.cu.edu.eg http://www.google.com.eg/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CAcQjRw&url=http://www.symbols.com/symbol/1577&ei=rqLxVKXxMczxUr6Dg8gD&bvm=bv.87269000,d.d24&psig=AFQjCNHoysvMelD8GJmPJVkY8xoj64ZRtA&ust=1425208290033219

  •  Introduction

     Why make algae a fuel?

     Research Objectives

     Experimental Work

     Results

     Conclusions

     Acknowledgement

     References

    2 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  • Introduction

  •  Ever-increasing of energy incentives the scientists to

    search and develop renewable energy sources such

    as biofuels.

     Liquid biofuel is the unique alternative for

    transportation fuel, while solar and wind energy is

    better to utilize in electricity production.

     Algal biodiesel is a technically attractive alternative

    and renewable diesel fuel without excessive engine

    modifications.

    4 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  • Why make algae a fuel?

  •  Microalgae can be cultivated in domestic

    wastewater (1m3 of wastewater is

    required to produce 800 g of dry algae).

     Microalgae reduce emissions of a major

    greenhouse gas (1 kg of algal biomass

    requiring about 1.8 kg of CO2).

    6 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  •  Biodiesel from Algae

    doesn’t conflict with the

    food crisis.

    7 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  •  Microalgae reproduce themselves every few days.

     High oil productivity (1000-6500 gallon/acre/year)

     Oil yield exceed 10x the yield of the best oilseed crops.

    8 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  • Research Objectives

  • 10 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

    Biodiesel Production from Algae

    Direct Transesterification of

    Algal Lipids into Fatty acid

    Methyl Esters (Biodiesel)

    without Pre-extraction of Algal

    Oil.

    Extraction of Algal Oil

    using Mechanical

    Pressing followed by

    Chemical Solvent

    like Hexane.

    Transesterification of

    Algal Oil into

    Biodiesel.

    OR

  • Chemistry of Transesterification

    11

     Clean Burning Alternative fuel for diesel engines

     Produced from Domestic Renewable Resources: any fat or oil, like vegetable oil, used greases, animal fat.

     Meets health effect testing (CAA)

     Lower emissions, better lubricity

     High flash point (>170oC), Safe to store and burn

     Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic.

     Chemically, biodiesel molecules are mono-alkyl esters produced usually from triglyceride esters

  • Research Objectives

    Algal Biomass

    CO2 Emissions

    Wastewater

    Egypt Desert

    Highest Algal Biomass

    Productivity and Lipids %

    Direct Transesterification

    Feasibility Study & Algal

    Biodiesel

    Commercialization

    12 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  • Experimental work

  • Compounds %

    Proteins 61.3

    Lipids 11.05

    Minerals 6.95

    Fibers 4

    Moisture 0.5

    Carbohydrates 12.8

    Nucleic acid 2.5

    Spirulina-platensis

    Materials

    Microalgae were supplied from

    Microbiology Department, Agricultural

    Research Centre, Giza

    Chemicals

    Methanol CH3OH (99.9 % purity)

    Sulphuric acid H2SO4 as a Catalyst (98% purity) Hexane C6H14 for Decantation Distilled H2O

    All chemicals were purchased from El-Nasr

    Pharmaceutical Chemicals Co. Egypt.

    14 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  • Equipment

    15 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  • Reactor

    "Acidic

    Methanol"

    Obtain water layer:

    glycerol + catalyst

    + excess methanol

    Filtrate solution:

    Biodiesel + Glycerol

    + Catalyst +

    Methanol +

    Unreacted Oilgae Water

    Glycerol

    Biodiesel

    Microalgae

    Powder

    Algal cake

    Hydrophobic

    layer: hexane +

    biodiesel +

    unreacted

    Oilgae

    Filtration

    over sodium

    sulphate

    Evaporation

    Filtration

    Generation

    of two

    layers

    Methanol

    Evaporation

    Hexane

    Direct Transesterification

    16 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

    Alcohol/Oilgae

    (wt./wt.)

    Reaction

    Time

    Catalyst

    Concentration

    Temperature

    Agitation

    Mode

  • Biodiesel

    Crude

    Glycerol

    Filtration

    17 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  • Results

  • Component Value Unit

    Carbohydrates 12.6 %wt

    Protein 51.5 %wt

    Moisture 1.5 %wt

    Ash 7.5 %wt

    Ca 400 mg/100 g algae

    P 900 mg/100 g algae

    Fe 70 mg/100 g algae

    N 500 mg/100 g algae

    K 1475 mg/100 g algae

    Valid as a bio-fertilizer

    Algalcake

    The predominant fatty acid was the palmitic acid C16:0

    (49.58% by mole), which makes the oil a promising

    feedstock for biodiesel fuel synthesis.

    Algal Oil

    Fatty acid Spirulina Jatropha

    Mystic (C14:0) 22.67 0

    Palmitic (C16:0) 49.58 18.22

    Palmitoleic (C16:1) 2.75 1.2

    Stearic (C18:0) 5.56 5.14

    Oleic (C18:1) 2.24 28.46

    Linoleic (C18:2) 5.03 48.18

    Linoleuic(C18:3) 7.41 0

    Ecosanoic (C20:0) 1.06 0

    Eicosenoic (C20:1) 3.69 0

    Saturated 78.87 23.36

    Monounsaturated 8.68 29.66

    Polyunsaturated 12.44 48.18

    Avg. Mwt. 845 Nil

    900

    500

    1475

    The acid value and viscosity of Oilgae were too much; 37.4 mg KOH/g and 58 cp,

    respectively. Therefore the choice of acidic over alkaline catalysis for the direct

    transesterification process was justified.

    19 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  • Variables affecting the direct

    transesterification

  • 1. Effect of Alcohol/S.platensis mass ratio

    Temperature: 65oC

    Time: 8 hr

    Catalyst conc. 100% wt.

    Stirring: 650 rpm

    73.2

    81.79

    84.7 84.7

    y = 2E-07x3 - 0.0004x2 + 0.261x + 27.9

    R² = 1

    72

    74

    76

    78

    80

    82

    84

    86

    0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

    A lg

    a l

    b io

    fu e

    l c

    o n

    v e

    rs io

    n (

    % )

    Methyl alcohol/S.platensis mass ratio

    The studied range of methanol/feedstock mass ratio was: 267/1 – 667/1 that equivalent

    to 40-120 ml for each 1g algal biomass.

    No significant increase in algal biodiesel is reported above 533/1.

    The H2SO4 load was

    optimized to be 100%

    (wt/wt oil); where further

    increase had not

    improved the process

    efficiency .

    21 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  • 2. Effect of Reaction Time and Temperature

    Time, hr Yield %

    27 oC 40 oC 50 oC 65 oC

    2 1.35 25.11 38.2 43.1

    4 10.62 45.81 70.5 76.22

    8 30.22 62.3 81.54 84.7

    10 34.71 62.512 81.63 84.82

    To investigate the influence of

    reaction time (2, 4, 8 and 10 hr) and

    temperature (27, 40, 50 and 65C), a

    methanol volume of 80 ml, 100% by

    mol. catalyst conc. and continuously

    stirring the reaction at 650 rpm

    conditions were used.

    The fact that the elevated temperatures (and pressures)

    improved the initial miscibility of the reacting species,

    leading to a significant reduction in the reaction times.

    22 El Shimi, H.I. 1 st Applied Microbiology Conf. Egypt, March 2016

  • 2. Effect of Reaction Time and Temperature

    1.35

    10.62

    30.22

    34.71

    25.11

    45.81

    62.3 62.512

    38.2

    70.5

    81.54 81.63

    43.1

    76.22