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New Mexico Practitioner’s
ii Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
The Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual New Mexico Department of Health
Children’s Medical Services Newborn Screening Program Brenda Romero, RN, BSN
Carla Ortiz, RN, BSN Elizabeth T. Matthews, MD
Janis Gonzales, MD
Gregory Thomas, MD Michael Wall, MD
Oregon Health Authority Public Health
Michael R. Skeels, PhD, MPH Cheryl A. Hermerath, MBA, DLM (ASCP), RM (NRM)
Leanne Rien, RN, BSN Becky J. Whittemore, MN, MPH, FNP
2nd Edition, 2011
iii Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
New Mexico medical program and follow-up team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Medical program consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Oregon State Public Health Laboratory and follow-up team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Newborn screening essentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Conditions included in the screening panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table I: Summary of conditions on the screening panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Table II: Normal values and criteria for requesting follow-up specimens . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Screening practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Who is responsible for ensuring that the screening test is performed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Parent refusal to have the infant screened . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Screening before discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Proper time for specimen collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Table III - Validity of 1st and 2nd NBS tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table IV - Age of infant at specimen collection*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Diagnostic laboratories for screening older children and/or adults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Specimen collection before transfer of infant to another facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Patient demographic information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Specimen transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Newborn screening for preterm, low birth weight or sick infants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Table V: Maternal conditions affecting the newborn screening results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table VI: Treatments used in special care baby unit and effects on newborn screening results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Table VII: Conditions of the infant affecting newborn screening tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Maternal conditions and treatments affecting NBS results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Recommendations for specimen collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Unsatisfactory specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Table of contents
iv Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Reporting of results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Web-Rad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Normal results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 “Significant” abnormal results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Other abnormals and repeats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Practitioner responsibility for documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Problems in screening practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Infants who are never tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Parents’ refusal to have the infant tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Common misconceptions of practitioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Timing of the tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Specimen inadequacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Inadequate demographic information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Problems related to specimen transport to the laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Educational services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Screening practice surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Additional education resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Birth facilities, health departments and community practitioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Fees and screening kit information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Type of kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Storage of filter paper kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Cost of diagnostic tests for confirmation of abnormal screening results . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Exemptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Newborn screening test refusal form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Table of contents (continued)
v Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Core Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Cystic Fibrosis (CF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Endocrine conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Congenital Hypothyroidism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Hemoglobin conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Sickle Cell Disease and other Hemoglobinopathies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Metabolic conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Amino Acid Conditions: Hypermethioninemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Homocystinuria (cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Phenylketonuria (Pku) and Hyperphenylalaninemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Tyrosinemia, Type I, II and Transient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Fatty Acid Oxidation (FAO) Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Organic Acid Conditions (OA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Urea Cycle Conditions (UCD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Other conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Galactosemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Biotinidase Deficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Appendix I - Incidence of disorders detected Oct 2002 to June 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Appendix II - Newborn screening for NICU/SCN infants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Table of contents (continued)
Acknowledgment: We are indebted to the screening coordinators, consultants and practitioners in each of the regional states for their assistance and advice and to Leanne Rien, RN, BSN, for the many hours dedicated to this manual.
Recommended citation: NW Regional Newborn Screening Program: New Mexico Practitioner Manual, 2nd Edition, 2011
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program1
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual New Mexico medical program and follow-up team
New Mexico Newborn Screening Program: Brenda Romero, RN, BSN State Genetics Coordinator
Carla Ortiz, RN, BSN Newborn Screening Nurse Consultant
Janis Gonzales, MD Newborn Screening Medical Director
Elizabeth Matthews, MD Medical Director, Family Health Bureau
Children’s Medical Services
505-476-8857
505-476-8858
505-476-8854
505-476-8904
2040 S Pacheco Street Santa Fe, NM 87505 505-476-8868 505-476-8896 (fax)
Metabolic Disorders: University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center Metabolic Program
505-272-4244 -or- Physician Access Line (PALS): Albuquerque: 505-272-2000 -or- Toll Free Statewide: 888-866-7257 Genetic Counselor: 505-272-5227 Pager: 505-951-0047
Endocrinologists: University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center Pediatric Endocrinology
Presbyterian Medical Group (PMG) Pediatrics Endocrinology:
505-272-6632 -or- Physician Access Line (PALS): Albuquerque: 505-272-2000
505-563-6530
505-272-4461
Pulmonary Consultants: University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center Pulmonary Pediatric Clinic
Presbyterian Physicians Office Building Pediatric Pulmonary Clinic
505-272-2345 or 505-272-5551
505-563-6377
Medical consultants are available to provide consultation for the follow-up, evaluation and acute management of infants with disorders detected in this program. Questions concerning medical aspects of the program should be directed to specialists as noted below:
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program2
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Metabolic Consultants: (biotinidase deficiency, galactosemia, organic acidemias, urea cycle, amino acid, fatty acid oxidation disorders)
Cary Harding, MD, [email protected] David Koeller, MD, [email protected] Robert Steiner, MD, [email protected] Becky J. Whittemore, MN, MPH, FNP, [email protected]
Department of Pediatrics Oregon Health & Science University, CDRC-F 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland OR 97201 503-494-7859 • 503-494-9000 (paging) 503-494-2781 (fax)
Endocrinology Consultants: (hypothyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia)
Stephen LaFranchi, MD, [email protected] Cheryl Hanna, MD, [email protected] Bruce Boston, MD, [email protected] Dan Marks, MD, PhD, [email protected] Katie Woods, MD, [email protected] Lisa Madison, MD, [email protected] Lindsay Nicol, MD, [email protected]
Department of Pediatrics Oregon Health & Science University 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, CDRC-P, Portland OR 97201 503-494-1927 • 503-494-9000 (paging) 503-494-1933 (fax)
Hemoglobinopathy Consultant: (sickle cell disease)
Gregory Thomas, MD, [email protected] Department of Pediatrics Oregon Health & Science University 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, CDRC-P, Portland OR 97239 503-494-0829 • 503-494-9000 (paging) 503-494-0714 (fax)
Pulmonary Consultants: (cystic fibrosis)
Michael Wall, MD Department of Pediatrics Oregon Health & Science University 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, CHEMO Portland, OR 97201 503-494-8023 • 503-494-9000 (paging) 503-494-8898 (fax)
Medical consultants are available to provide consultation for the follow-up, evaluation and long-term management of infants with disorders detected in this program. Questions concerning medical aspects of the program should be directed to specialists as noted below:
Medical program consultants
Laboratory Director: Michael R. Skeels, PhD, MPH Director
Oregon State Public Health Laboratory 3150 NW 229th Ave., Suite 100 Hillsboro OR 97124 503-693-4100 503-693-5602 (fax) [email protected]
Newborn Screening Laboratory Manager: Cheryl Hermerath, MBA, DLM (ASCP), RM (NRM) Newborn Screening Section Manager
Oregon State Public Health Laboratory 3150 NW 229th Ave., Suite 100 Hillsboro OR 97124 503-693-4172 503-693-5601 (fax) [email protected]
Newborn Screening Nurse Follow-up Coordinator: Leanne Rien, RN, BSN Newborn Screening Nurse Coordinator
Oregon State Public Health Laboratory 3150 NW 229th Ave., Suite 100 Hillsboro OR 97124 503-693-4173 503-693-5601 (fax) [email protected]
Oregon State Public Health Laboratory and follow-up team
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program4
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
There have been great changes in newborn screening (NBS) programs in the last five to 10 years, both in terms of how NBS
programs are viewed and the ability to screen for an increasing number of conditions.
Newborn screening is a public health system comprised of screening, follow-up, diagnosis, management, evaluation and education.1 A systems approach recognizes the complexity and the multitude of stakeholders involved in NBS programs, including affected infants, children, adults, their families, practitioners, birthing facilities, mail and courier groups, treatment centers, schools, public health officials, legislators as well as the general public and the importance of effective communication between them. It also recognizes the great responsibility NBS programs have to identify affected infants in time to prevent damage and to ensure a seamless coordination of efforts of many people to that end. It is recognized that appropriate treatment must be available to every affected infant into adulthood and that long-term follow-up of the children is necessary regardless of geographic location. Finally, a systems approach emphasizes the importance of education and evaluation for everyone involved in NBS.
There is an increasing number of conditions for which NBS tests are now available. In the late 1990s, new technology, specifically tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), was adapted for use in NBS laboratories. It became possible to screen for more than 30 conditions from one small disc of blood. Previously, one bloodspot was needed for each separate test/condition and screening programs were limited as to the number of conditions that
could be included on the screening panel. Multiplex platforms, such as MS/MS and others under development, open the possibility of screening for hundreds of conditions. Once it is technically possible, we as a society must decide whether we should screen, and if so for what conditions.
Traditionally, screening programs in the united States have been administered and carried out by individual states’ public health laboratories and/ or health divisions. Screening panels and program amenities have been determined by the population risk for disorders and the resources available to each state. As a result, some states screened for as few as four disorders, while others screened for more than 30.2 This disparity galvanized both public and private groups to demand more uniform and expanded screening panels and to ensure a “standard of care” for all infants in the united States. Most other countries have a national NBS program, rather than state/province driven programs.
Parents of children affected with conditions detectable through NBS have lobbied state and national legislatures to provide funding and authority for state screening programs to implement the new technology and expand the number of conditions included. There is increasing pressure from advocacy groups to screen for conditions that have unproven treatments or that do not meet the classical criteria outlined by the World Health Organization in the 1960s.3
In 2005 a report from the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG), commissioned by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA),
recommended that all united States screening programs include a core panel of 29 conditions.2 The National March of Dimes (MOD) organization not only supported the ACMG report, but began to issue “report cards” of state screening panels on their website.
In 2003, the Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders and Genetic Diseases in Newborns and Children (ACHDGDNC) was formed to provide guidance to reduce the morbidity and mortality from inherited disorders, particularly those identified through NBS. (www.hrsa.gov/ heritabledisorderscommittee)
The Secretary’s Committee has been effective in standardizing NBS policies and testing panels throughout the United States. In May 2010, the Committee recommended that severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) be added to the screening panels in the u.S.
In New Mexico on January2005 it was enacted by the legislature of the State of New Mexico section 1. Section 24-1-6 nmsa 1978 (being laws 1973, chapter 359, section 6, as amended) “24-1-6. Tests required for newborn infants. To allow for the expanded newborn screening testing panel,
Introduction
Newborn screening is a public health system comprised of screening, follow-up, diagnosis, management,
evaluation and education.
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program5
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
the Department of Health shall institute and carry on such laboratory services or may contract with another agency or entity to provide such services as are necessary to detect the presence of congenital diseases. The Oregon State Public Health Laboratory (OSPHL) has been awarded the competitive bid to provide the laboratory testing and tracking system.
While each of these conditions is rare, collectively they affect about one in 1,000 infants, so the chance that any single infant will be affected is remote. The cost of not detecting one of these conditions is immense, both in human suffering and financial terms, because early diagnosis and treatment can result in normal growth and development. Infants with these conditions appear normal at birth. It is only with time that the biochemical abnormality affects the infant’s health and development.4
By the time clinical symptoms appear the damage may be permanent or the infant may die, sometimes without a diagnosis having been made. However, NBS is a screening test, not a diagnostic test, and not all affected infants will be identified even with two routine screening tests, as is recommended or mandated in the majority of our regional states.
The goal of the Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program (NWRNSP), which includes Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, Alaska, Hawaii and New Mexico and military bases in California and Washington, is to identify as many affected infants as possible before damage can occur. To do so, every infant must be screened. This process
requires coordinated efforts from five groups of health care providers:
Practitioners: Responsible for collecting and handling screening specimens, for educating parents with correct and current information and for providing prompt follow-up in the event of an abnormal result.
Oregon State Public Health Laboratory (OSPHL) and follow-up team: Responsible for testing, record keeping, quality control of laboratory methods, notification of results and tracking of abnormal and unresolved results.
State Health Divisions and Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) Subspecialty Programs: Responsible for ensuring confirmatory testing of infants with abnormal results, managing confirmed cases, collecting long term follow-up (LTFU) data and educating practitioners.
New Mexico’s Newborn Screening Program and Subspecialty Programs at the University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Presbyterian Hospital and other subspecialty providers: Responsible for the management of confirmed cases, collection of long-term follow-up (LTFU) data and for education of practitioners.
New Mexico’s Newborn Screening Program: New Mexico’s screening program is responsible for State wide management of newborn screening, including program review, follow-up, tracking of results, assessment, and quality assurance, policy
development, educational brochures statewide trainings, monitoring of the contract with Oregon Public Health Laboratory and UPS courier service.
Practitioner’s responsibilities to the program are termed Newborn Screening Practice (see page 13-19).5 A practitioner is defined as the person(s) responsible for supervising the birth and/or the early neonatal care of an infant. Inadequate screening practices can greatly affect the quality of screening tests and increase the chances that an affected infant may be missed or diagnosed late.
The OSPHL and the New Mexico Newborn Screening Program follow-up team, together with regional state health agencies, have developed a quality assurance program to assist practitioners in improving their screening practices. Components of this program include ongoing education for practitioners and parents, computerized monitoring of measurable screening practices, and an examination of communication channels between practitioners, the laboratory, the follow-up team and the treatment centers.
This manual describes the conditions currently covered by the program as well as the standards and common problems for certain screening practices, and provides general program information as well as bulleted “NBS Essentials” summaries at the beginning of each chapter. We invite practitioners to contact us with any questions or concerns that may arise.
Introduction
10 important points to remember about NBS
Please use the term “Newborn Screening” or “Newborn Blood Spot Screening”. The term, “PKU test” is outdated and confusing to parents. The screening panel now includes markers for approximately 30+ separate disorders, the most recently added being cystic fibrosis.
Incidence of all the blood spot conditions is now one infant in 1000 or 45–50 new cases each year in Oregon (~1 infant/week identified).
Screen every normal infant TWICE 1st screen: 24–48 hours of age or at • discharge, whichever comes first 2nd screen: 10–14 days of age •
Screen every NICU infant THREE TIMES 1st: on admission (regardless of age) • 2nd: 48-72 hours of age • 3rd: 28 days of age or at discharge, • whichever comes first
Validity of screening specimens: 1st screen identifies 90% of all • conditions (1st & 2nd for NICu) 2nd/3rd screen identifies 10% of • all conditions
Goal of NBS- Diagnose and treat in the two weeks of life since:
~ 20 disorders can kill or maim in the • first week or two of life 10–20% of infants will be • symptomatic in the first week 5–10% may die in the first week • Infants with hypothyroidism and Pku • lose significant IQ points if thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and phenylalanine are not under control by 2 weeks of age
Maintain high index of suspicion for early presentation of emergent conditions:
Symptoms: lethargy, poor • feeding, weight loss or sudden cardiopulmonary arrest Five infants have died before 10 • days of age in our region even with NBS. None of the diagnoses were suspected despite symptoms. 1–2% of affected infants may have • false negative results Screening tests are not diagnostic • and affected infants may be missed. Practitioners should remain alert for signs of these conditions in infants and children regardless of the screening result.
Primary blood markers in emergent conditions:
Hypoketotic • hypoglycemia, sudden cardiopulmonary arrest (fatty acid oxidation disorders) Hyperammonemia • (urea cycle disorders) Acidosis • (organic acidemia) Abnormal • electrolytes and sodium (congenital adrenal hyperplasia) Reducing substances • in urine, liver dysfunction (galactosemia)
If parents refuse testing: Complete Newborn Screening Test • Refusal form and counsel parents (page 33)
Visit the New Mexico Department of Health or Oregon State Public Health Laboratory websites: www .health . state .nm/nbs or www .oregon .gov/ DHS/ph/nbs/index .shtml
Newborn screening essentials
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program7
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
New Mexico newborns are screened for all core and secondary conditions recommended by the College of Medical
Genetics and the March of Dimes.6 A description of these conditions start on page 33 and complete summaries are available on the OSPHL website: www .oregon .gov/DHS/ph/nbs/index .shtm .
CYSTIC FIBROSIS*
HEMOGLOBIN CONDITIONS: Sickle cell disease and other hemoglobinopathies* •
METABOLIC CONDITIONS: AMINO ACID CONDITIONS:
Homocystinuria* • Hyperphenylalanemia, including • phenylketonuria (PKU) Tyrosinemia* •
FATTy ACID OxIDATION CONDITIONS: Carnitine uptake defect • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase I deficiency (CPT I)* • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency (CPT II) • Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency • (MADD) Short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency • (SCAD) Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency • (MCAD)± Long chain 3 hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase • deficiency (LCHAD)*± Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase • deficiency (VLCAD)*±
ORgANIC ACID CONDITIONS: Beta-ketothiolase deficiency • (BkD)± Glutaric acidemia, Type I (GA I)* • Isobutyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency • (IBD)± Isovaleric acidemia • (IVA)* ± Malonic aciduria • Maple syrup urine disease • (MSuD)± Methylmalonic acidemias (MMA/8 types)± •
Propionic acidemia • (PA)*± 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase • deficiency (HMG)* 2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl CoA dehydrogenase • deficiency (MBHD)* 2-Methylbutyryl CoA dehydrogenase • deficiency (2MBC)* 3-Methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase deficiency (3MCC) • 3-Methylglutaconyl CoA hydratase deficiency (3MGH) • Multiple carboxylase deficiency •
UREA CyCLE CONDITIONS: Arginase deficiency • Argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASA)± • Citrullinemia± •
OTHER CONDITIONS: Biotinidase deficiency • Galactosemia± •
Conditions included in the screening panel
* The screening test will not detect 100 percent of affected infants.
± Represent emergent conditions. Infants are at risk of illness or death in the first week or two of life.
The purpose of newborn screening is to identify infants at risk that require more definitive testing. As with any laboratory test, both false negative and false positive results are possible. Screening test results are insufficient information on which to base diagnosis or treatment.
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program8
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual Table I: Summary of conditions on the screening panel
Table I summarizes the conditions on the New Mexico screening panel, including the incidence, symptoms, and treatment.
Disorders Analyte tested for Incidence in NW region Symptoms if not treated Treatment
Cystic fibrosis Immunotrypsinogen (IRT)
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)*
Addisonian crisis/salt wasting in 3/4 infants; dehydration; shock; hyperkalemia; virilization of females
Glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid (Florinef)
1:3,000 Mental retardation; other brain damage; growth delay
Thyroid hormone (L-Thyroxine)
Hemoglobin patterns 1:5,000 (1:400 in African Americans)
In sickle cell disease: death by sepsis or splenic sequestration anemia; sickling crisis
Penicillin and comprehensive care
Biotin
Galactose-restricted diet
Low protein diet, medication
Arginosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASA)*
Low protein diet, medication
Arginosuccinate synthetase deficiency (Citrullinemia)*
Low protein diet, medication
Pyridoxine; methionine restricted, cysteine supplemented diet
Hyperphenylalainemia, including phenylketonuria (PKU)
Tyrosinemias (Transient, Type I & Type II)
Succinylacetone/ Tyrosine
Medication; low phenylalanine and/or low tyrosine diet
Beta-ketothiolase deficiency (BKD) C5:1, C5OH rare, >1:300,000 Severe bouts of acidosis possibly resulting in mental retardation, death
IV support during episodes, bicarbonate supplement
(continued on next page) * Infants may have severe neonatal presentation.
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New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Disorders Analyte tested for Incidence in NW region Symptoms if not treated Treatment
Glutaric acidemia, Type I (GA I) C5DC 1:71,000 Often asymptomatic in newborn; sudden metabolic crisis damages basal ganglia
IV support during intercurrent illness, protein restriction, carnitine therapy
Isobutyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (IBD)
C4 rare, >1:300,000 None to cardiomyopathy Carnitine therapy, protein restriction, avoid fasting
Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) C5 1:90,000 Vomiting; lethargy; acidosis possibly resulting in coma, death
Protein restriction, carnitine and glycine therapy
Malonic aciduria C3DC rare, >1:300,000 Mental retardation Carnitine therapy, protein restriction
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD)*
Leucine 1:200,000 Vomiting; lethargy; acidosis possibly resulting in death
Protein restriction, avoid fasting
Methylmalonic acidemias (MMA/8 types)*
C3, C3/C2 1:50,000 Vomiting; lethargy; acidosis possibly resulting in death
Protein restriction, carnitine therapy, hydroxocobalamin therapy
Multiple Carboxylase Deficiency (MCD)
C3, C50H >1:60,000 Hypotonia, seizures, skin rash, alopecia, lactic acidosis, brain damage. Average age at presentation: birth –18 months
Biotin
Protein restriction, carnitine therapy
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase deficiency (HMG)
C5OH rare, >1:300,000 Hypoglycemia; acidosis possibly resulting in death; may be asymptomatic
Protein restriction
2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MHBD)
C5:1, C5OH rare, >1:350,000 Asymptomatic 9–14 mos. Then severe mental and motor skill loss. Hmong infants may be asymptomatic
Protein restriction
C5 rare, >1:300,000 Increased incidence among Hmong
Hypoglycemia; mental retardation; Hmong infants may be asymptomatic
None or avoid fasting.
3-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase defciency (3MCC)
C5OH 1:50,000 Most have been asymptomatic None or protein restriction; carnitine therapy if deficient
Table I (continued)
* Infants may have severe neonatal presentation.
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program10
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Disorders Analyte tested for Incidence in NW region Symptoms if not treated Treatment
3-methylglutaconyl CoA hydratase deficiency (3MGH)
C5OH rare, >1:300,000 Hypoglycemia; acidosis; may be asymptomatic Protein restriction, avoid fasting
Short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCAD)
C4 1:43,000 Most asymptomatic; hypotonia, mental retardation
Avoid fasting during periods of catabolism
Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)*
C6, C8, C10, C8/C10 1:15,000 Hypoglycemia possibly resulting in coma, death; may be asymptomatic
Avoid fasting, carnitine supplement
C14:1, C16, C16OH, C18, C18OH,
1:50,000 Hepatic dysfunction; hypoglycemia; failure to thrive
Long chain fatty acid restriction, Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) oil, carnitine, avoid fasting
Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)
C14, C14:1, C16, C16:1, C18, C18:1,
1:31,000 Hypoglycemia with or without cardiomyopathy; muscle fatigue
Avoid fasting, low fat diet with MCT oil
Carnitine uptake/transport defects C0, C16, C18 1:50,000 Hypoglycemia; cardiomyopathy Avoid fasting, low fat diet, carnitine supplement
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase I deficiency (CPT I)
C0/C16+C18 rare, >1:300,000 Increased in Hutterite and Alaska native populations
Hypoketotic hypoglycemia, brought on by fasting or intercurrent illness. Average age at presentation: birth –18 months
Avoid fasting and long chain fatty acids; MCT oil supplement
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency (CPT II)
CO, C4, C5, C6, C14, C16, C16:1, C18, C18:1
rare, >1:300,00 Muscle weakness, pain and myoglobinuria leading to renal failure in 25%. Average age at presentation: 15–30 yrs; also a severe neonatal form usually lethal with multiple congenital anomalies
Avoid fasting and severe exercise; MCT oil supplement
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) also known as Glutaric acidemia type II
C4, C5, C6, C8, C10, C14, C16, C18:1
rare, >1:300,000 Multiple congenital abnormalities; acidosis, hypoglycemia
Low fat diet, avoid fasting, not effective in severe neonatal form
Table I (continued)
Table I: Summary of conditions on the screening panel
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program11
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Table II summarizes normal laboratory values and laboratory criteria used for follow-up. Phone follow-up (with mail confirmation) is provided for significantly abnormal test results. Mail follow-up is provided for normal and mildly abnormal results. More information on these conditions is available on Oregon Department of Human Services website: www .oregon .gov/DHS/ph/nbs/expand .shtml. See additional information on MS/MS conditions in Appendix I .
Analyte Normal*** Follow-up by medical consultant/NBS nurse** Follow-up by mail
Thyroxine Upper 90% of T4 determinations T4 in lower 10% and TSH >100 µUI/mL- T4<5.0 µmg/dL, TSH normal (low birth weight infant)
TSH ≤60 µUI/mL if 0–11hrs old ≤35 µUI/mL if 12–48 hrs old ≤25 µUI/mL if >48 hrs old
>200 µUI/mL if 0–11hrs old >100 µUI/mL if 12–23 hrs old >60 µUI/mL if 24–48 hrs old >35 µUI/mL if >48 hrs old
60.1–200 µUI/mL if 0–11 hrs old 35.1–100 µUI/mL if 12–23 hrs old 35.1–60 µUI/mL if 24–48 hrs old 25.1–35 µUI/mL if >48 hrs old
17-OH-Progesterone* ≤90 ng/mL 0-10 days old, ≤40 ng/mL >10 days old, BW<2500 g ≤70 ng/mL <24 hrs old, ≤40 ng/mL 1-10 days old, ≤25 ng/mL > 10 days old, BW≥2500 g
>150 ng/mL if <24 hrs old, >120 ng/mL if 1-10 days old, >70 ng/mL >if 10 days & BW <2500 g >100 ng/mL if <24 hrs old, >60 ng/mL if 1-10 days old, >50 mg/mL if >10days & BW≥2500 g
>90-150 ng/mL if <24 hrs old, >90-120 ng/ mL if 1-10 days old, >40-70 ng/mL >if 10 days & BW <2500 g, >70-100 ng/mL if <24 hrs old, >40-60 ng/mL if 1-10 days old, >25- 50 mg/mL if >10 days & BW≥2500 g
Hemoglobin IEF/HPLC Hgb F and A Probable homozygote Probable heterozygote
Biotinidase Activity present Activity absent Partial activity
Galactosemia enzymes (Galactose, Gal-1-P04 and GALT)
Enzyme activity present No enzyme activity present AND galactose ≥20 mg/dL OR galactose <20 mg/dL if age <48 hrs
No enzyme activity present AND galactose <20 mg/dL AND age ≥48 hrs
OR Reduced enzyme activity AND galactose ≤30 mg/dL
Arginine ≤110 µM/L >180 µM/L >110 & ≤180 µM/L
ASA* ≤1.5 µM/L >1.5 µM/L
Citrulline* ≤70 µM/L 1st NBS ≤120 µM/L 2nd NBS
>70 µM/L 1st NBS >120 µM/L & ASA ≤1.5 µM/L 2nd NBS
Leucine* ≤270 µM/L & Leu/Ala≤1.6 1st NBS ≤350 µM/L & Leu/Ala≤1.6 2nd NBS
>270 µM/L & Leu/Ala>1.6 1st NBS >350 µM/L & Leu/Ala>1.6 2nd NBS
Methionine ≤80 µM/L 1st NBS ≤100 µM/L 2nd NBS
>190 µM/L on 1st or 2nd NBS >80 µM/L & <190 1st NBS >100 µM/L & <190 2nd NBS
Phenylalanine ≤190 µM/L >190 µM/L and Phe/Tyr >3.0 >190 µM/L & Phe/Tyr <3.0
Tyrosine ≤480 µM/L >480 µM/L on requested NBS in 2-3 months >480-680 µM/L - NBS within 3 weeks >680 µM/L - NBS requested in 2-3 months
(continued on next page)
Table II: Normal values and criteria for requesting follow-up specimens
* Infants may have severe neonatal presentation. **All phoned results are followed by mailed confirmation. All of these tests are screening tests. Abnormal results need full evaluation/discussion with a consultant before a diagnosis is confirmed or treatment is started. ***Normal and abnormal values are subject to change based on continuing statistical evaluation.
Analyte Normal*** Follow-up by medical consultant/NBS nurse** Follow-up by mail
Succinylacetone ≤1.5 µM/L >1.5 µM/L
C0 ≥7.5 µM/L & <300 µM/L <7.5 µM/L 1st & 2nd NBS, BW >2500 g or not on parenteral nutrition
<7.5 µM/L 1st NBS, BW>2500 g or not on hyperal <7.5 µM/L 1st & 2nd NBS, BW <2500 g or on hyperal
C0/C16+18 ≤100 >100
C3* ≤7.5 µM/L & C3/C2≤0.40 >7.5 µM/L & C3/C2>0.40 >7.5 µM/L & C3/C2≤0.40
C3DC ≤0.50 µM/L >0.50 µM/L
C4 ≤1.4 µM/L >2.1 µM/L >1.4 µM/L & ≤2.1 µM/L
C5 ≤0.70 µM/L 1st NBS ≤1.10 µM/L 2nd NBS
>0.70 µM/L 1st NBS >1.10 µM/L 2nd NBS if on hyperal & 1st NBS normal
C5:1 ≤0.15 µM/L >0.15 µM/L
C5OH ≤1.50 µM/L >1.50 µM/L >1.50 µM/L & ≤2.30 µM/L
C5DC ≤0.70 µM/L, C5DC/C8≤11.5, C5DC/ C16≤1.5
>0.70 µM/L, C5DC/C8>11.5, C5DC/C16>1.5
C6, C8, C10* ≤0.80 µM/L, ≤0.70 µM/L, ≤0.70 µM/L
>0.80 µM/L, >0.70 µM/L, >0.70 µM/L
C14 ≤0.80 µM/L >0.80 µM/L if other long chain analytes elevated >0.80 µM/L only elevation
C14:1 ≤0.70 µM/L >1.00 µM/L if other long chain analytes elevated >0.60 µM/L & ≤1.0 µM/L
C16 ≤8.0 µM/L >8.0 µM/L if other long chain analytes elevated >8.0 µM/L only elevation
C16:1 ≤0.80 µM/L >0.80 µM/L if other long chain analytes elevated >0.80 µM/L only elevation
C16OH ≤0.10 µM/L >0.10 µM/L if other long chain analytes are elevated >0.10 µM/L only elevation
C18 ≤3.10 µM/L >3.10 µM/L if other long chain analytes are elevated >3.10 µM/L only elevation
C18:1 ≤4.50 µM/L >4.50 µM/L if other long chain analytes are elevated >4.50 µM/L only elevation
C18:1OH ≤0.20 µM/L >0.20 µM/L if other long chain analytes are elevated >0.20 µM/L only elevation
C18OH ≤0.10 µM/L >0.10 µM/L if other long chain analytes are elevated >0.10 µM/L only elevation
Immunotrypsingen (IRT)
>90 ng/mL 1st NBS
Table II (continued)
* Infants may have severe neonatal presentation. **All phoned results are followed by mailed confirmation. All of these tests are screening tests. Abnormal results need full evaluation/discussion with a consultant before a diagnosis is confirmed or treatment is started. ***Normal and abnormal values are subject to change based on continuing statistical evaluation.
Table II: Normal values and criteria for requesting follow-up specimens
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program13
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Definition Screening practices are the actions and decisions of practitioners regarding the collection, handling and follow-up of newborn screening specimens. Practitioners are integral to the newborn screening in that they are responsible for collection and handling of specimens for every infant in their care, parent education and prompt action on incomplete or abnormal results referred to them. In the event an infant is affected, the practitioner’s actions and decisions to ensure rapid evaluation and appropriate treatment can have lifelong implications for the infant and the family.
Who is responsible for ensuring that the screening test is performed? New Mexico’s statutes require that all hospitals or institutions having facilities, for childbirth perform or have performed screening tests for congenital diseases on all New Mexico newborn infants prior to discharge. New Mexico is a two screen state, requiring the first screen be done prior to discharge If the infant is not born in a hospital, the attending physician, nurse, nurse-midwife, midwife or responsible person is responsible for assuring that a newborn screen is collected.
Parent refusal to have the infant screened A parent may refuse screening for personal and/ or religious beliefs. Parents may be influenced by the attitude of their practitioner toward newborn screening, and the majority agree to screening if properly counseled about the importance of early detection. Infants have been harmed as a result of practitioners who have advised against screening as the “conditions were too rare,” or “we don’t
want to poke the infant,” or “the second test is not really necessary.” In the event that parents are adamantly opposed to screening, it is the responsibility of the practitioner to fully inform them about the process and all screening conditions and to obtain a signed Newborn Screening Test Refusal (informed dissent) document. This document is placed in the infant’s medical record with a copy given to the parents, and copies forwarded to both the New Mexico Newborn Screening Program
and the primary care provider. Failure to do so may result in significant practitioner and facility liability if an affected infant is not screened and subsequently harmed. Unfortunately, informed dissent does not confer protection from liability, but can limit damage in some cases. A sample statement of parental refusal is given on page 33 or the hospital’s form may be used.
Screening before discharge All birthing facilities, including birth centers in New
Mexico, are required to practice uniform discharge screening regardless of the age or feeding status. This process is done because some infants do not return for routine post-natal care and most of the tests are valid at any age. Failure to collect a specimen before discharge may result in a significant liability on both the facility and responsible practitioner if an affected infant is missed.
Proper time for specimen collection There are over 20 conditions on the screening panel that can kill or maim in the first week or two of life; however, another three to four may not show any abnormal results until the second or third week of life. Improved technology in the laboratory makes the issue of milk ingestion less important than it was in the past.
Screening practices
Disorder Percent detected - first test
Percent detected - second test
Cystic Fibrosis >95 NA
Galactosemia >99 1
Carnitine uptake 40 60
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program14
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Specimens obtained prior to 48 hours of age are valid for most of the conditions covered on the newborn screening panel. There is, however, a statistical chance that certain amino acid and endocrine disorders, urea cycle defects and FAO disorders may be missed. In the NWRNSP, 10–12 percent of those with hypothyroidism, CAH and certain disorders detected via MS/MS are found only on the second specimen as outlined in Table III.
NORMAL NEWBORNS: In New Mexico, all infants must have two specimens. For normal, non-premature infants, the first specimen should be collected before discharge, ideally between 24–48 hours, but due to the number and severity of emergency metabolic conditions and CAH it is felt an earlier specimen is preferable. A second specimen must be collected between 10–14 days of age on all infants. Infants born at home should also be screened at these times. A parental refusal form should be signed if screening is refused.
PREMATURE, LOW BIRTH WEIGHT OR SICK INFANTS: All Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) in our region are strongly urged to practice “admission screening” before any non-respiratory therapy is started. In some cases the infants may only be minutes or a few hours old. This is followed by a second specimen between 48–72 hours of age and a third specimen at 28 days or at discharge, whichever comes first. A special three- part kit is available for NICU infants. (See page 30.)
DyINg INFANTS: If an infant is likely to die, especially if there is no apparent cause for death, it is appropriate to collect a newborn screening specimen. In addition, collect a urine specimen, which should be frozen immediately. While dying infants may have abnormal amino acids as a normal response to organ failure, the blood may also provide a diagnosis of an early onset screening disorder or be a source of DNA for future diagnostic studies. In many cases, the blood spots have been the only source of DNA available for that infant and have been a valuable resource for families.
OLDER INFANTS The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that physicians know the screening status of every child in their care. Older infants and children may enter the practice without evidence of screening, or the physician may be suspicious of a screenable condition. Unfortunately, OSPHL has established standards and cutoffs for newborns and infants only up to 6 months of age. These values are not applicable nor reliable for older infants and children. OSPHL therefore, cannot accept specimens for children older than 6 months of age.
Table IV - Age of infant at specimen collection* Infant type 1st specimen 2nd specimen 3rd specimen
NORMAL INFANT (hospital, birth center and home births)
Ideal: 24-48 hours of age* Acceptable: 0-23 hours
Ideal: 10-14 days Acceptable 3-5 days if first specimens collected 0-23 hours of age.
n/a
PRETERM, LOW BIRTH WEIGHT OR SICK INFANTS
Upon admission (any age)* Before red cell transfusion Before any non-respiratory therapy is started
48–72 hours of age; if still in NICU
3rd specimen at 28 days or if discharge prior see Appendix II.
OLDER INFANTS ( >6 months)
Not needed Not needed
Four full blood spots (any age) Urine frozen ASAP
n/a n/a
*These recommendations are different than those recommended in New Mexico Administrative Rules. New Mexico Administrative Rules are in the process of revision to meet the new screening lab recommendations. Practitioners should follow the recommendations above.
**Please see page 15 for a listing of the metabolic laboratory that can provide Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) testing on older children. Also listed, are recommendations for further diagnostic testing for the other disorders on the newborn screening battery. These laboratories are listed for your convenience only. You may send your specimen to any accredited laboratory that provides the appropriate testing.
Screening practices
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program15
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
We highly recommend proceeding directly to diagnostic testing if there are signs or symptoms of a metabolic disorder present in the child (see below).*
Diagnostic laboratories for screening older children and/or adults Also listed are recommendations for further diagnostic testing for the other disorders in the newborn screening battery. These laboratories are listed for your convenience only. You may send your specimen to any accredited laboratory that provides the appropriate testing.
MS/MS TESTING (AKA ExPANDED OR • SUPPLEMENTAL NEWBORN SCREENING): Includes testing for selected amino acid, fatty acid, organic acid and urea cycle disorders. Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas 3812 Elm Street Dallas, Texas 75226 Telephone: 214-820-4533 www.baylorhealth.edu/imd
BIOTINIDASE DEFICIENCY: • Biotinidase enzyme assay Biochemical Genetics Laboratory University of Maryland, School of Medicine Division of Human Genetics BRB 11-047, 665 West Baltimore Street Baltimore, Maryland 21201 Telephone: 410-706-2810
CONgENITAL HyPOTHyROIDISM: • Serum – Free T4, TSH can be done at most local laboratories.
SICKLE CELL DISEASE: Isoelectric Focusing/High Performance Liquid Chromatography can be done at most local laboratories. Never use Sickledex. gALACTOSEMIA: • Galactose-1-Phosphate Galactose-1-Phosphate uridyl Transferase University Children’s Genetic Laboratory 116 East Broadway Glendale, CA 91205 Telephone: 818-548-0999 Fax: 818-548-1555
CONgENITAL ADRENAL HyPERPLASIA: • Serum 17-OH-Progesterone can be done at most local laboratories.
Specimen collection before transfer of infant to another facility
New Mexico Newborn Screening Program • specifies that infants who are transferred to another facility within 48 hours of birth should be tested by the receiving facility. (See timing of specimen collection on page 12.) If an NBS kit has been issued by the birth hospital to the infant, it can be sent with the infant ensuring that both facilities are notified of the results.
Patient demographic information Accurate patient information is critical for rapid follow-up in the event of abnormal results. Be sure to use the correct part of the kit: PART 1 for the first specimen and PART 2 for the second specimen, and for NICu infants, PART 3 for the third specimen. Failure to do so makes it difficult to track the infant’s results. In addition, hemoglobin and cystic fibrosis testing is done only on the first specimen.
The laboratory form should be completed with the information requested. This information is required by Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) and is part of the legal record and must be legible. Infant’s name, birth date and time, specimen collection date and time and physician’s name are particularly important. Please name the physician who will be responsible for this infant’s care after discharge, not the resident or on-call physician who may have seen the infant in the hospital. In the event of an abnormal test result, the physician and/or facility named on the card is legally obligated to locate the infant. Do not use plastic imprint cards, as they often produce unreadable information and cause compression damage to the filter paper. All demographic data should be completed before the blood is drawn to avoid contamination of the specimen. The person collecting the specimen is required to sign the form. In New Mexico, a second contact name and number is required to assist in follow-up.
Specimen transport If lives are to be saved, it is critically important that the OSPHL receives newborn screening specimens as soon as possible after collection. Ideally, specimens should be mailed or transported as soon as they are dried (2–4 hours) and no later than 24 hours after collection. Many of the conditions on the screening battery kill or maim infants in the first week of life. To prevent this, diagnosis and treatment must occur rapidly. In New Mexico, the newborn screening program uses courier services for first specimens and second specimens may be sent through regular mail unless other wise instructed. Significant degradation of hemoglobin and some analytes also occurs in specimens older than one week.
Screening practices
Northwest Regional Newborn Screening Program16
New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
New Mexico’s Newborn Screening Program has contracted with UPS to be the overnight courier for New Mexico’s shipment of first screens. Hospitals or midwives should report any issues with the UPS shipment of specimen to the Newborn Screening Program 505-476-8868.
If a courier is used, it is advisable to establish a list of specimens sent and to document the time of
specimen pickup and delivery. This simple practice protects the submitter if specimens are lost in transit.
Newborn screening for preterm, low birth weight or sick infants Newborn screening for premature, low birth weight (LBW) or sick infants can be complex and sometimes frustrating as they generate more false positive results than normal infants, are more likely to have
the screening test forgotten, and are at a greater risk of having false negative results. Maternal conditions and treatments, the infant’s immaturity and/or illness and the critical nature of their care conspire to interfere both with the collection of the specimens and interpretation of results. Some of the problems unique to these infants are outlined in Tables V–VII.6
Table V: Maternal conditions affecting the newborn screening results
Maternal conditions NBS analyte affected Results in Additional information/ duration of interference
Hyperthyroidism treated with Propylthiouracil (PTU)
Low thyroxine (T4), high TSH Transient hypothyroidism Until drug clears, typically 7–14 days
131I (radioactive iodine) treatment during pregnancy: Before 8 weeks’ gestation.
none Euthyroid (but may cause birth defects)
Will cause maternal hypothyroidism (potential effect on fetal brain development if not treated in first trimester)
131I (radioactive iodine) treatment during pregnancy: After 8 weeks’ gestation (when fetal thyroid matures and traps iodine)
Low T4, high TSH Permanent hypothyroidism Lifelong
Steroids: prednisone, betamethasonel/ dexamethasone
Low or normal 17-0HP Suppresses fetal adrenal function and causes false-negative results for CAH
Unknown - depends on class of steroid and dose; estimate 1–2 weeks
CAH Elevated 17-0HP False-positive result Unknown-estimate 3-7 days
PKU or moderate hyperphenylalaninemias uncontrolled by diet or medications
Elevated phenylalanine; although ratio of phenylalanine - to - tyrosine (Phe/Tyr) should be normal; false- positive result
Transient hyperphenylalaninemia 12–24 hours unless infant has PKU
3-MCC deficiency Elevated C50H False-positive result Unknown
Fatty liver of pregnancy or HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets)
May have elevated even chain acylcarnitines
False-positive result Unknown
Carnitine deficiency May have low carnitine levels False-positive result Unknown
Vitamin B12 deficiency Elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) False-positive result A number of days depending on nutrition provided
Screening practices
CLSI. Newborn Screening for Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Sick Newborns; Approved Guideline. CLSI document I/LA31-A. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2009.
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Table VI: Treatments used in special care baby unit and effects on newborn screening results
Treatment Effect on newborn screening results Duration of effect Parenteral Nutrition (PN) Elevation of multiple amino acids 4–24 hours after PN discontinued
Carnitine supplementation Elevations of acylcarnitines; can mask carnitine transport disorders For duration of supplementation and weeks later
Red cell transfusion and Extra Corporeal Life Support (ECLS) (pre- and postnatal transfusions)
Can mask the absence of enzymes and proteins intrinsic to the red blood cell (RBC), thereby negating results for hemoglobinopathies and galactosemia (when testing is for galactose 1 phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) enzyme activity)
120 days after last transfusion ECLS invalidates all NBS results for analyte-specific periods of time
Dopamine False-negative testing for CH, because levels of TSH are suppressed Until drug therapy is stopped
Steroids Suppressed TSH and T4; possible false-negative result for CH. May suppress 17-0HP resulting in false-negative testing for CAH
Unknown - depends on class of steroid and dose; estimate 1–2 weeks
Iodine exposure with povidone/ iodine preps
Transient hypothyroidism; lowT4, elevated TSH Once exposure to topical iodine discontinued, resolution may take 2–6 weeks (depending on dose absorbed and other factors)
Pivalic acid antibiotic therapy May cause elevated isovaleryl 2-methylbutyryl carnitine Unknown
Table VII: Conditions of the infant affecting newborn screening tests
Condition of the infant Effect on newborn screening Duration of effect Immature hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid axis
Low T4, normal TSH, infants with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) can be missed
Up to 6 weeks of age
Hypothyroxinemia of preterm birth Transient hypothyroidism, lowT4; normal TSH followed by elevated TSH
Up to 6 weeks of age
Liver enzyme immaturity Transient elevations of tyrosine, methionine, and galactose, occasionally other amino acids
A few weeks
Until recovered
Liver disease Elevated tyrosine, methionine, galactose Depression of biotinidase enzyme
Until recovered
Renal immaturity Elevated 17-0HP, amino acids Until recovered
Preterm Lower biotinidase levels inversely related to gestational age 40 weeks gestational age
Screening practices
Maternal conditions and treatments affecting NBS results
MATERNAL CONDITIONS Thyroid dysfunction: Hypothyroid mothers • on adequate replacement therapy during pregnancy deliver infants with normal thyroid function. Maternal hyperthyroidism treated with propylthiouracil (PTU) during pregnancy may result in transient hypothyroidism in the infant. Inadvertent treatment with radioactive iodine after 8 weeks gestation may result in permanent hypothyroidism in the infant. Mothers who ingest megadoses of iodine during pregnancy may have infants with hypothyroidism. Steroids: These are frequently given to mothers • during pregnancy and may suppress fetal adrenal function resulting in false negative 17- OH progesterone in the infant affected with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Fatty liver of pregnancy or HELLP syndrome • (hemolosis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets): Increased risk of fetus with fatty acid oxidation disorder or a normal fetus with transiently elevated acylcarnitines. Maternal CAH, PKU and 3-MCC deficiencies may • result in transient elevations of respective analytes in infant. Maternal carnitine deficiency: may result in low • carnitine levels in the infant. Maternal B12 deficiency: may result in elevated • propionylcarnitine (C3).
TRANSIENT HyPOTHyROxINEMIA OF PREMATURITy (THOP): The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is not functioning properly in premature infants and it is positively correlated with gestational age. In addition, sick and premature infants have a greater need for thyroxine and topical iodine skin cleansers depress T4. As a result T4 levels can be quite low for a week or more; TSH levels are usually normal. The significance of THOP on later development is still unknown due to the lack of well controlled long term outcome studies, but is thought to be somewhat benign. While a low T4 and an elevated TSH are the classic hallmarks of congenital hypothyroidism, some infants with CH have a delayed rise in their TSH, so practitioners cannot assume a premature or sick infant with a low T4 only has THOP and not CH. Serial screening specimens for T4/TSH are required until the T4 normalizes.
ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY: Antibiotics containing pivalic acid (for example: pirampicillin, pivmecillinan, cefditorempivoxil) given to mothers during labor or to newborns may cause false elevation of isovaleryl/2-methyl butyryl carnitine. Be sure to specify this antibiotic on the request slip if it has been used.
PARENTERAL NUTRITION AND CARNITINE THERAPy: These are not contraindications to screening, but samples should not be taken from the line that is used to deliver the nutrition or drugs. High levels of several amino acids can occur during parenteral nutrition and are the most common reason for “mixed elevations.” Carnitine, added to intravenous solutions or formulas,
may mask the biochemical markers for carnitine acylcarnitine translocase deficiency or carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency, type II. Screening specimens must be repeated after these therapies are discontinued. Be sure to specify these therapies on the request slip.
RED CELL TRANSFUSIONS: A specimen should be obtained before the transfusion as donor cells provide normal levels of enzymes and hemoglobins and may temporarily normalize certain metabolites. Metabolite tests (e.g., phenylalanine, carnitine, galactosemia) will become abnormal after a few days regardless of the transfusion. It may take as long as 120 days for infants to develop abnormal enzyme levels and hemoglobins after a transfusion, significantly delaying diagnosis and treatment. This is the rationale for admission screening for every NICU infant. An early screening test, before these interventions are begun, has been life saving for affected infants in the past. While only a small percentage of infants receive red cell transfusions, it has been impossible to establish policies and procedures in NICUs that ensure specimen collection before transfusion. Furthermore, even with aggressive follow up and the assistance of local physicians we are able to obtain a valid screening test on less than 40 percent of the transfused infants three months after the last transfusion. For affected infants, damage will have accrued during this time, increasing the liability to the physician, hospital, state and program.
Screening practices
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New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Transient abnormalities While NICu admission screening is strongly recommended, some premature/sick infants tested in the first few hours of life may have an increased chance of false positive results from elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and/or 17-OH- progesterone. These levels are generally elevated in the first 24 hours after birth as a reaction to stress, falling into normal range a day or two later. A recent study of infants in the NWRNSP who were tested on admission showed that an additional 4 percent of NICU infants had elevated TSH on these early specimens, but 99 percent resolved on the second test. Also, a very early specimen is not valid for many of the amino acids, such as phenylalanine or leucine, but these metabolites rise independent of transfusions and should be identified on the second test. We believe NICU admission screening improves screening for infants who will receive transfusions without creating an undue number of false positives.
Clinical signs or family history A number of clinical situations will modify the usual approach of obtaining a newborn screening specimen and waiting for the result. The following are suggested guidelines for particular situations that may arise.
When in doubt about the course of management for any of the conditions on the screening test, consultation with a specialist is advised. The directory on page 1 offers consultants by disease to assist with screening and confirmation testing.
INFANTS WHO ExHIBIT CLINICAL SIGNS AND SyMPTOMS: The newborn screening test, like any laboratory test, may have false positives and false negatives.
If signs and symptoms of one of the newborn screening conditions are clinically evident, the physician should proceed to diagnostic testing, pending the results of the screen or in spite of the results of the screen. It may be necessary to treat as if the infant has the condition. Medical consultation is available 24-hours, 7 days a week for assistance for rapid diagnosis and institution of treatment for infants suspected to have disease. Common laboratory tests available locally may help distinguish conditions. These include:
CAH: electrolytes • FAO disorders: glucose • OA disorders: arterial blood gas, add complete • metabolic panel Urea cycle disorders: ammonia, glucose. •
IF THE RESULTS OF THE NEWBORN SCREEN ARE PENDINg: For any of the screened conditions, but especially those in which the metabolite accumulation can be life threatening such as adrenal hyperplasia or many of the metabolic conditions, contact a consultant specialist for instructions on further evaluation of the patient.
IF THE NEWBORN SCREENING TEST RESULT WAS “NORMAL”: If clinical symptoms suggest one of the screened conditions despite a “normal” screening result, the physician should proceed as if the patient has the condition and immediately contact a consultant specialist for instructions on further evaluation of the patient. If the infant was found to be affected, notify the OSPHL and the New Mexico Newborn Screening Program as soon as possible.
NEWBORN SCREENING OF AN INFANT WITH AN AFFECTED SIBLING OR OTHER CLOSE RELATIVE: As many of the conditions tested for by newborn screening are genetic, it is possible that multiple members of a family may be affected. Prenatal diagnosis is possible for many of these conditions; if prenatal diagnosis determines that the infant is affected, any appropriate treatment (e.g., special diet) should be initiated immediately after birth. If prenatal diagnosis predicts an unaffected infant, practitioners should bear in mind that no prenatal diagnostic test is 100 percent accurate. Neonates who are siblings or close relatives of an affected individual have a 25 percent risk of having the condition themselves. They are, therefore, not part of the “general population” for whom newborn screening is designed. For any infant with a positive family history, providers should contact appropriate consultant specialists, ideally prenatally, or immediately at birth, to determine the proper diagnostic tests and proper timing of those tests and whether supportive therapy is needed.
SCREENING SIBLINGS OR AN INFANT OLDER THAN 6 MONTHS OF AgE: The OSPHL does not screen infants older than 6 months due to a lack of age appropriate cutoffs. Infants and children older than 6 months can be “screened” using a filter paper specimen, but it should be sent to a diagnostic laboratory with age- appropriate cutoffs. (See page 15 for information on screening older infants and children.)
Screening practices
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New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
T1. o prevent specimen contamination, do not touch any part of the filter paper circles before, during or after collection. Multiple agents can contaminate filter paper (see Unsatisfactory Specimens chart on page 22).
Identify infant and match with correct 2. screening kit. Make sure to select the correct kit part (1, 2 or 3) depending on which specimen is being collected.
Complete all demographic data before 3. proceeding to collection.
Observe universal precautions.4.
Capillary blood obtained from a heel lance 5. is the preferred specimen. Cord blood is not a satisfactory specimen as the infant’s biochemistry will not be reflected. Specimens obtained from peripheral or central lines are acceptable if they are flushed of parenteral nutrition or antibiotics. Blood from an intravenous stick is acceptable as long as it does not clot and can be applied to the filter paper directly.
It is essential to open a capillary bed to obtain 6. sufficient blood. The most effective method is to use scalpel bladed lancets manufactured specifically for heelsticks in infants. Pointed lancets are painful to the infant and make a hole rather than a small slit, greatly reducing blood flow. Under no circumstances should a lancet longer than 2.0 mm be used on infants weighing less than 2,500 grams.
As per your institution’s protocol, heat infant’s 7. foot if necessary in warm water, towel, or chemical pack. Heat source should not exceed 42 degrees centigrade and should not be left in contact with skin for a prolonged period.
Select a lance site on the infant’s heel (see 8. diagram), cleanse with alcohol and air dry. Hold infant’s limb lower than heart.
Lance the heel with the sterile scalpel bladed 9. lancet. Wipe away the first drop of blood to remove tissue fluids. Do not milk the heel. If blood flow is insufficient it is better to stop and re-lance the heel.
Allow sufficient blood to collect on the heel to 10. fill each circle by a single application of blood to the filter paper. Do not use capillary tubes or other collection devices. Apply blood only to one side of the filter paper (it doesn’t matter which side is used). Blood should soak all the way through the filter paper so that the blood spots look similar on both sides. Complete, even saturation of the entire circle is essential for accurate testing. Neatness doesn’t count.
It is important not to superimpose blood drops 11. on top of each other. Let each drop touch the paper about 1/8 inch away from each other. This may prevent layering and uneven saturation, one cause of false results.
Collect the blood in all four circles. A minimum 12. of three circles is necessary to complete the screening battery. If there are problems with sufficient blood flow, it is better to fill three circles completely than to fill four circles inadequately (see #9 above).
After circles are filled, the foot should be 13. elevated above the heart and a sterile gauze pad or cotton swab pressed against the puncture site until the bleeding stops. Bandages should be avoided as they may irritate sensitive skin.
Air dry s14. pecimens at room temperature for 2–4 hours in a horizontal position with the blood spots exposed. (A CD holder works well.) Hanging wet specimens will cause heavier red cells to migrate to the dependent end of the circle resulting in uneven saturation.
Do not expose the specimen to heat or 15. humidity at any time. Do not dry on a heater, in a microwave, with a hair dryer or in sunlight. Do not place in plastic bags, leave in a hot mailbox or in a hot car; proteins and enzymes will be destroyed. Ensure that the specimen is completely dry before mailing. In hot weather, desiccant packets may be added to reduce humidity during transit.
Do not batch specimens collected over several 16. days as infants affected with emergent disorders may die before results can be made available. Specimens can be sent in the same package, but there must be a daily mail or courier pick up for all specimens.
Insert dried specimens into an envelope (do 17. not use plastic), seal and mail within 4–12 hours of collection and no later than 24 hours after collection. Weekend and holiday specimens should be stored at room temperature and sent by overnight mail or courier at the earliest opportunity. All specimens should be sent by first class or overnight mail or by courier. Specimens should be received by the OSPHL within 12–48 hours of collection.
Recommendations for specimen collection*
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New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Specimens should be documented as sent. If by 18. courier, a packing list should be kept and the courier should sign for pick up and delivery of specimens. This step protects the hospital from liability in the event the specimen is lost in transit.
* These recommendations conform to CLSI publication LA4-A5. See page 28.
Recommendation for heel puncture site in newborns Perform punctures on the most medial or most lateral portion of the plantar surface of the heel (see diagram at right).
A full-color chart illustrating proper specimen collection, “Neonatal Screening Blood Specimen Collection and Handling Procedure,” may be obtained at no charge from Whatman, part of GE Healthcare, E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.whatman.com/NeonatalScreeningProducts.aspx
NO!
YES
YES
Newborn screening laboratories receive many specimens that are unacceptable for testing. If the specimen is improperly
collected, the accuracy of the screening test results is compromised, and the laboratory must reject
them. This incorrect procedure then requires that the submitter locate the infant and repeat the collection procedure, which delays the screening of the newborn. The following table outlines the most common errors in specimen collection.
Consult the New Mexico Newborn Screening Program for additional information and assistance with specimen collection.
Unsatisfactory specimen Possible causes
Uneven saturation: Blood spot appears layered and/or scratched or abraded. Application with a capillary tube or needled syringe.• Applying blood to both sides of the filter paper.• Touching the filter paper with fingers or gloves. (Sweat and oils from fingers or powder/• residue from gloves affect absorbency of filter paper.) Layering several blood drops on top of each other.• Hanging filter paper to dry.• Compression of the filter paper.•
Insufficient blood (QNS): Blood spots do not look the same from both sides of the filter paper.
Failing to open a large enough capillary bed resulting in insufficient blood flow from the • infant’s heel to allow complete absorbency through to the second side. Removing the filter paper before blood has completely soaked through to the second side.•
Contaminated: Blood spots appear to be contaminated. Not wiping the alcohol from the puncture site before lancing the skin.• Not wiping away the first drop of blood to collect on the heel.• Allowing the filter paper to come in contact with alcohol, formula, bodily fluids, water, • etc., before or after the blood specimen collection. Squeezing or milking the area around the puncture site may cause contamination or • dilution with tissue fluids. Using a non-isopropyl alcohol swab (betadine or non-sting skin prep swabs) may destroy • the proteins in the blood, alter absorbency or give false positive/negative results.
Blood received wet: Blood spots appear to be “wet” when received. Mailing the specimen before drying a minimum of two hours.• Placing in a plastic bag even after minimum drying time.•
Pale blood: Blood spots appear very pale or “washed out” in color. Low hematocrit in a normal newborn.• Infant is very ill or of very low birth weight.• Contamination of the filter paper before or after application of the blood.•
Specimen too old: Specimen received in the laboratory more than 14 days after collection date.
Specimen was not mailed within 24 hours after collection.•
Unsatisfactory specimens
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New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Before discharge, hospital and birth unit personnel may be designated and listed on the request slip as the physician-of-
record. In the event of an abnormal test result, the screening laboratory will refer to the physician-of- record although the infant is no longer under his or her care and may not even be known to him or her. Responsibility for follow-up remains with the physician-of-record until another practitioner actively accepts it. It is essential to list the practitioner who will be providing direct care after discharge.
Web-Rad Results for all infants born in your facility or under care in your practice can now be accessed online through the OSPHL’s website. Contact New Mexico Newborn Screening Program by phone (505-476- 8668) or e-mail to sign up and obtain a user ID and password.
Normal results Normal results are mailed daily to hospitals and to the physician-of-record. The complete test battery is usually completed in 2–10 working days after receipt by the laboratory.
“Significant” abnormal results All results considered urgent are reported to the medical consultants who will phone the submitting hospital or practitioner with recommendations for further action. Such action is followed by mail or fax confirmation.
Other abnormals and repeats Lesser abnormalities or inadequate samples are reported immediately by phone or fax to the submitting hospital and/or practitioner with a request for retesting.
It is the practitioner’s responsibility to ensure that all infants with abnormal results are retested; however all such infants are also tracked by the laboratory and/or the medical consultants until a resolution or diagnosis is confirmed.
State health agencies are notified for assistance when there are problems in obtaining repeat tests for infants with abnormal results.
Practitioner responsibility for documentation It is the responsibility of the practitioner to ensure every infant is tested and that a result is received and filed in the medical record. Practitioners should know the screening status of every infant in their care, regardless of age. Specific care should be paid to infants/children adopted from overseas as not all countries have newborn screening programs.
Specimen collection must be documented in the infant’s chart and if preferred in a separate logbook. Information should include name of infant, hospital ID number, screening kit ID number, date collected, date mailed and the name of the person who collected the specimen. When screening results are returned to the submitter they should be noted in the logbook and the report filed in the medical records. Community practitioners must also ensure that the second specimen is obtained at the appropriate time and that documentation is completed.
In the event the results of an infant’s screening tests are not received from the screening laboratory within two weeks of collection, the hospital and practitioner should assume responsibility for follow-up. If requested the New Mexico Newborn Screening Program can become involved. We recommend the following procedure:
New Mexico Newborn Screening Program at 505-478-8868 or WebRad to determine if specimen was received and to request a report to be mailed or faxed.
If the specimen was not received, it must be 1. presumed lost. Notify the infant’s private physician, local health department nurse and/or parents by phone and letter that the specimen may have been lost and that another should be obtained without delay.
Document these actions in the infant’s 2. medical record.
Request a copy of the repeated screening results 3. be sent to your facility for the medical record.
If these steps do not result in the infant being 4. screened, notify Brenda Romero, RN, BSN, 505- 476-8857 or Carla Ortiz, RN, BSN, 505-476-8858, the infant’s health care provider and consider a public health nurse referral.
Reporting of results
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New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
Infants who are never tested Mandatory state screening laws in the united States were passed in the 1960s not because parents were opposed to screening, but because hospitals and practitioners were slow to provide screening services. While screening programs are now universal in the United States, it is estimated that approximately 1–2 percent of births are not screened either because of parental refusal or practitioner oversight or omission. For every 1 percent of newborns not screened in the united States, approximately 45–50 infants will be missed each year. These infants represent a major medical and legal liability to the program and to practitioners involved in their care. The legal awards for missed cases have been as high as $30 million per case. Hospitals must develop a fail-safe system to ensure screening of every infant before discharge. In addition, community practitioners must pay special attention to older infants not born in the united States (i.e., adopted and/or migrant), infants born at home or older infants or children with symptoms of one of these conditions.
Parents’ refusal to have the infant tested See page 13 for guidelines, and page 33 for the New Mexico Waiver Form and instructions on use.
Common misconceptions of practitioners Failure to test an infant is often due to misconceptions about the program or the tests. For example:
The diseases are so rare practitioners may advise • parents not to have screening done . FACT: NBS identifies 1:1,000 infants with one of the conditions included on the screening panel. Nationally this represents 5,000 infants/year who would otherwise die or become irreversibly harmed by a late or missed diagnosis. In New Mexico, 30–45 infants are identified each year.
Practitioners may believe the first test is of no • value if obtained before 24–48 hours of age or before the infant has ingested protein or milk . FACT: 90 percent of affected infants have abnormal results on the first test regardless of age or food ingestion. The ability to identify infants relates to a combination of the severity of their genetic disorder, physiologic and environmental factors, the quality of their screening specimen and the rapidity of the entire screening system to find them before they become symptomatic. There is nothing magic about a specific age cutoff as each disorder has its own “best screening window” and they are all different. Dietary intake does make a difference in galactosemia, in that a galactosemic infant on a soy-based or other non-lactose formula would not be ingesting galactose and may have false negative results although newer laboratory assays make that less likely. Infants who are well fed may have normal acylcarnitines for fatty acid disorders. Dietary information is helpful to evaluate the significance of certain abnormal results.
Practitioners may believe the second screen • is unnecessary . FACT: Approximately 11 states mandate a second screen for every infant and virtually all states recommend it if the first screen is drawn before 24 hours of age. In Oregon and other states with repeat screens, 10 percent of all infants affected are routinely found only on the second screen.
Approximately four of the conditions on the screening panel may take a week or more to manifest themselves, long after an infant has been discharged and screened the first time. The efficacy of a second screen is controversial and under study by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Practitioners may believe the second screen is • unnecessary if the first screen is collected when the infant is 5–7 days of age . FACT: More than 20 conditions on the screening panel can kill or maim in the first week to 10 days of life. To delay screening would mean almost certain death or disability for these infants and a test at 5–7 days is too early to pick up many of the later onset disorders. A test at the end of the first week of life is better than no test, but is probably the worst time to collect it in terms of saving infant’s lives and mental capacity.
Some practitioners believe the pain of specimen • collection is so great for the infant that screening is not “worth it,” or that the infant will suffer permanent psychological damage . FACT: The pain of a heel stick can be minimized if not eliminated by using a scalpel bladed lancet device and by feeding the infant a small amount of sucrose water or breast milk before and during
Problems in screening practice
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New Mexico Practitioner’s Manual
the procedure. Many families can attest that it is far more painful to have the infant die or to spend one’s life permanently damaged because a few drops of blood were not collected at birth.
Practitioners may believe newborn screening is • “just a piece of paperwork” to be gotten out of the way . FACT: Newborn screening represents one of the most successful public health programs ever undertaken in terms of prevention and cost savings, surpassing even immunizations. It is true that most programs do not do enough to alert practitioners to their importance and value to the screening process and to the number of infants identified.
Some practitioners tell parents that newborn • screening is a test for “mental retardation.” FACT: Newborn screening tests for certain conditions that in some cases can lead to mental retardation. It is by no means a test for all sources of mental retardation and a normal screening result does not mean an infant will not be retarded due to other causes.
Many practitioners use the antiquated term “PKU • test” which implies to parents that PKU is the only condition screened for . FACT: More than 30 separate disorders (including Pku) can now be screened for in the newborn period. Pku has not been the only disorder on most screening batteries since the mid-1970s when hypothyroidism was added. Newborn screening for PKU, galactose and leucine started in Hawai`i in 1968. The correct term is newborn screening (NBS).
Timing of the tests In New Mexico in 2006, 85 percent of all first samples were obtained before 48 hours of age, and 88 percent of infants were screened twice. Most infants were initially screened between 24–48 hours of age, providing the best chance to pick up early onset disorders. Only a small number (1.57 percent) were screened at five days or later.
Specimen inadequacy For the last couple of years, unsatisfactory specimens, particularly uneven saturation, have been slightly decreasing