new fowler-proficiency writing skills

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Text of new fowler-proficiency writing skills

4^Et NEW EDITIONSSOPHIA ZAPHIROPOULOS

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Introduction

INTRODUCTIONNew Fowler Proficiency Writing Skills I is the first part of a

t w o - p a r t c o u r s e which aims to teach t h e t e c h n i q u e s students require to attempt any of the variations among t h e six f o r m s of writing task s e t in t h e r e v i s e d Cambridge Proficiency examination. Approximately o n e third of the material in Writing Skills has been revised for this book. All the o t h e r material in this b o o k is new. Eleven of the twenty units consist of t w o facing pages, and should, under normal circumstances, be completed in a l e s s o n , with a writing task to be d o n e later in approximately o n e hour, the time allowed for it in the examination. In t h e remaining nine units of four pages, t w o lessons will normally be required. The changes in the examination The biggest change in the writing paper of the revised Cambridge Proficiency examination is that it n o w has t w o parts, as do FCE and CAE. P a r t I c o n s i s t s of a c o m p u l s o r y q u e s t i o n comprising i n s t r u c t i o n s and a t e x t or t e x t s w h i c h p r o v i d e candidates with a clear c o n t e x t . T h e r e is always m o r e than o n e point to a d d r e s s in this q u e s t i o n , and candidates should learn to identify t h e s e points and ensure that they c o v e r t h e m w h e n writing. T h e q u e s t i o n is discursive, and candidates are e x p e c t e d to w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:an article

For t h o s e c a n d i d a t e s w h o have s t u d i e d o n e o f t h e three set texts, Q u e s t i o n 5 consists of three q u e s t i o n s , o n e for each o f t h e s e t t e x t s . Candidates are required t o w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:an a a article letter report an essay a review

T h e t i m e limit (2 hours) and length of writing tasks ( 3 0 0 - 3 5 0 words), remain unchanged. T e a c h i n g w r i t i n g skills It is important for students to understand that while credit is given to Proficiency candidates for their use of s t r u c t u r e and v o c a b u l a r y , t h e s e a r e n o t t h e o n l y considerations to be taken into account; organisation and the relevance of the answer to the task are at least equally important. Different writing tasks require s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s t o d e a l w i t h t h e m , and s u c h t e c h n i q u e s can be taught effectively through m o d e l s written within the capacity of a g o o d student that can be analysed, imitated and practised. T h e s e models are supported with revision of the necessary grammatical structures and lexical items by means of accompanying exercises and the reference section and the appendix at t h e end. Doing justice to oneself in an examination T h e Proficiency examination requires a considerably m o r e sophisticated use of English than First Certificate and t h e difference b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o levels is often underestimated by students. The difference, however, is n o t s o m u c h a m a t t e r o f using m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d s t r u c t u r e s or a w i d e r range of vocabulary as of providing a n a n s w e r r e l e v a n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n , well organised in g o o d , clear sentences and paragraphs. The range of q u e s t i o n s o p e n to the e x a m i n e r is considerable, as indicated by the contents pages of this book, but learning the right technique to deal with each is half t h e battle. T h e r e f o r e , it is r e c o m m e n d e d that students pay particular attention to the tips provided throughout the book. These consist of practical advice on what to do and what not to do in a given situation and should make it possible for students w h o take it to do justice to themselves in the exam.

an essay a letter a proposal

In P a r t 2, candidates c h o o s e o n e question comprising instructions which give candidates guidance to t h e c o n t e x t . In o r d e r to be successful in Part 2, candidates should be c o m p e t e n t at narrating, analysing, h y p o t h e s i s i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , giving r e a s o n s , p e r s u a d i n g , judging p r i o r i t i e s , e v a l u a t i n g , m a k i n g recommendations, giving information and summarising. Candidates are e x p e c t e d t o w r i t e o n e of t h e following, from a c h o i c e of t h r e e :an a a article proposal report

a letter a review

Contents

UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELS

REVISION

P A G E

S E C T I O N

I : A R T I C L E S

I

2

Describing and narrating

What a difference! Close friends again

TensesUsed to and would

I

Taking sides

Who's freedom? Theirs or ours?

10

I

Balancing an argument

Computers: a dream or a nightmare?

Connectors and modifiers: balancing an argument

14

I

Providing solutions

T o o many people, not enough earth Preserving the planet for future generations

Conditionals Should, ought to and would

16

S E C T I O N

2:

L E T T E R S

5

2

Complaining

Semi formal: A resident's concerns Formal: An official complaint

18

2

Giving information

A letter of welcome to exchange students

20

2

Making suggestions

Preserving and restoring a town Improving a town

Articles Should

24

I

Giving opinions

Young people on the streets

Conditionals

26

S E C T I O N 3: E S S A Y S

Comparing

Public and private transport in the city

Connectors and modifiers

30

Responding to generalisations

Relation between national character and climate

Articles

32

Ii

I

Providing information

The importance to good health Alternative medicine

Connectors and modifiers

34

Contents

UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELS S E C T I O N 4 : P R O P O S A L S

REVISION

PAGE

12

2

Applying for funds

First aid facilities at the Five Oaks Sports Centre

38

13

Assessing choices

Spending the proceeds of a summer fair

Passive voice

42

14

Evaluating a situation

Decline in local tourism A college newspaper

Should

46

Conditionals

S E C T I O N

5:

R E V I E W S

IS

2

Reviewing a book

Not without my daughter

Tenses in 'timeless' time

50

16

2

Reviewing a film

Castaway

Tenses in 'timeless' time

52

2

Reviewing a restaurant/hotel

The Willows

Phrases in apposition Compound adjectives

54

S E C T I O N

6:

R E P O R T S

Assessing facilities

The Majestic Hotel

58

2

Assessing suitability

The Jorvik Viking Centre

Connectors and modifiers: developing an argument

60

20

2

Giving information

A college film club

62

Reference section

64

Appendix

70

CPE W r i t i n g S h e e t s

72

Articles

Describing and narrating

In this article, Martin Fraser d e s c r i b e s his return to a small t o w n in England after an a b s e n c e of 25 years. Read t h e article and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

What a difference]W h e n I w a s a b o y I u s e d to s p e n d a fortnight every s u m m e r with my aunt E l i z a b e t h in L e a b u r y , a small t o w n in t h e M i d l a n d s . B u t twenty-five years ago she r e t i r e d a n d m o v e d to t h e s e a s i d e , a n d I did n o r return until I had to go there on b u s i n e s s last w e e k . My aunt's house was on the outskirts of t h e t o w n so I often u s e d to ride o u t into t h e c o u n t r y on my bicycle. I w o u l d follow t h e L o n d o n r o a d for a m i l e o r t w o a n d t h e n b r a n c h off for a c i r c u l a r t o u r of t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g villages, eventually finding my way back by the other main road. A b o u t a mile from h o m e t h e r e w a s a small p o n d with d u c k s s w i m m i n g on it. I u s e d to s t o p t h e r e t o w a t c h t h e m a n d skim s t o n e s across the water. Beyond the p o n d was H a y w a r d ' s F a r m , with cows grazing in t h e fields, a n d t h e n I w o u l d c o m e d o w n t h e hill i n t o t h e t o w n a n d t u r n r i g h t i n t o m y a u n t ' s r o a d t o c o m p l e t e t h e circuit. T h e r e have obviously b e e n changes since I w a s a b o y b u t I w a s n o t p r e p a r e d for m a n y of t h o s e I saw last w e e k . F o r o n e thing, the motorway that passes close to the town actually goes over two of the villages I u s e d to ride t o . As y o u c o m e into L e a b u r y , y o u no l o n g e r p a s s a f a r m w i t h cows grazing in t h e fields. A vast h o u s i n g estate stretches from the m o t o r w a y to what used to be the outskirts. The centre of the town has been entirely transformed. T h e old buildings h a v e b e e n k n o c k e d d o w n a n d t h e r e is a big shopping centre with a multi-storey car p a r k b e s i d e it. T h e r e a r e n o family s h o p s in the main street now, only the s a m e offices, s t o r e s a n d f a s t - f o o d r e s t a u r a n t s you find e v e r y w h e r e . T h e old t o w n u s e d t o h a v e a c h a r a c t e r of its o w n b u t n o w it is like any o t h e r p l a c e in E n g l a n d . On t h e way back, I w