Proceedings of the 28th Annual ASTRO Meeting 89
lations are not feasible. Because the random errors are very small, computer calcula- tions are often considered as exact although large risks of error are associated with each step of the calculation.
The reduction of the overall uncertainty to the stated level of * 5 % requires a constant effort from both radiotherapists and physicists at each step of treatment planning from basic definitions to dose distribution calculations.
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 1986
The Keynote Address on Wednesday, November 5, 1986 entitled New Directions for Drug Discovery at the National Cancer Institute will be delivered by Bruce A. Chabner, M.D., Director, Division of Cancer Treatment, Building 31, Room 3A52, Bethesda, MD 20205, replacing Vincent T. DeVita. Jr.
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 6, 1986
ONCOGENES AND THE PATHOGENESIS OF HUMAN CANCER: IMPLICATIONS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Martin J. Cline, M.D., Chief, Division of Hematology/Oncology UCLA Center for Health Sciences, Los Angeles, CA 90024
Cellular oncogenes are normal genetic components of all vertebrates. They are involved in normal cellular development and proliferation. Activation of these normal genes converts them to cancer-inducing genes. Activation may occur by mutation, chromoscnnal translocation or by viral transduction. Activated oncogenes occur in a wide variety of human tumors including carcinanas, sarcomas, leukemia, lymphanas and neuroectodenal tumors. Some activated oncogenes are non-specific in their tumor association, whereas other oncogenes appear to have an association with specific types of malignancy. Sane oncogene changes correlate with tumor behavior. Understanding the role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of cancers is likely to lead to tests for cancer susceptibility, improved diagnostic tests for cancer markers and perhaps to new strategies for cancer treatment.
FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 7, 1986
SURGICAL ONCOLOGY: CLINICAL PRACTICE AND ACADEMIC PROSPECTIVES.
Frederick R. Eilber, M.D.
UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90024, U.S.A.
Surgery continues to play a very important role in the treatment of solid neoplasms. The use of this treatment modality for diagnosis, primary tumor therapy, palliative therapy, and as an adjunct to radiation and chemotherapy will be reviewed in terms of current clinical practice and prospectives for technical advances in the future. The tremendous progress in clinical practice however has not been duplicated in terms of defining surgical oncology as an academic surgical discipline. Although approximately one third of the university teaching hospitals in the United States have "Divisions of Surgical Oncology", less than ten percent have surgical oncology training programs. A review of the current and organization of surgical oncology within academic surgery departments will be presented, along with criterion for establishment of surgical oncology training programs, methods of monitoring quality and approval will be outlined.
With the increasing efficacy of multi-modality therapy, it has become evident that surgical oncology is a very important member of the multi-disciplinary scheme. To this end, it becomes extremely important to focus on the definition of the surgical oncologist, evaluation of the oncology training programs, both in terms of the clinical practice of surgery, as well as basic research techniques. It is only with the establishment of surgical oncology as an academic discipline at the major teaching hospitals on a standardized basis will the current practice of surgical oncology be unified and the future secured for the training of highly qualified clinical and research scientists to be able to continue to contribute to the national effort in the treatment of cancer on a clinical basis as well as providing basic information from research.