Neuron Session

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    Neural and Hormonal SystemsWill Explain Why We FEEL

    Pain

    Strong

    Sick

    Nervous

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    It all Starts with the Neuron

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    Neuron Structure

    Neurons do NOT touch each other- the

    space in between is call the synapse.

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    How a Neuron Fires

    It is an electrochemical process

    Electrical inside the neuron

    Chemical outside the neuron (inthe synapse in the form of a

    neurotransmitter). The firing is called Action Potential.

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    The All-or None Response

    The idea thateither theneuron fires orit does not- nopart way firing.

    Like a gun

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    Steps of Action Potential Dendrites receive neurotransmitter from another

    neuron across the synapse.

    Reached its threshold- then fires based on theall-or-none response.

    Opens up a portal in axon, and lets in positive ions(Sodium) which mix with negative ions (Potassium)

    that is already inside the axon (thus Neurons atrest have a slightly negative charge). The mixing of + and ions causes an electrical

    charge that opens up the next portal (letting inmore K) while closing the original portal.

    Process continues down axon to the axonterminal.

    Terminal buttons turns electrical charge intochemical (neurotransmitter) and shoots message

    to next neuron across the synapse.

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    Action Potential

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    How Neurons Communicate

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    Neurotransmitters

    Chemical messengers released by

    terminal buttons through the

    synapse.

    We should know at least 4 types

    and what they do.

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    Acetylcholine Its function is motor movement and

    maybe memory.

    Too much and you will.

    Not enough and you will.

    Lack of ACH has been linked to

    Alzheimers disease.

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    Dopamine Its function is motor movement and

    alertness.

    Lack of dopamine is

    associated with

    Parkinsons disease.

    Overabundance is

    associated with

    schizophrenia.

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    Serotonin

    Function deals with mood control.

    Lack of serotonin has

    been linked to

    depression.

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    Endorphins

    Function deals with paincontrol.

    We become addictedto endorphin causing

    feelings.

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    Agonists and Antagonists

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    Types of Neurons

    Sensory NeuronsMotor Neurons

    Inter Neurons

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    Sensory Neurons

    (Afferent Neurons) Take information from the senses

    to the brain.

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    Inter Neurons

    Take messages

    from Sensory

    Neurons to other

    parts of the brain

    or to Motor

    Neurons.

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    Motor Neurons

    (Efferent Neurons) Take information from brain to the

    rest of the body.

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    Divisions of the Nervous System

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    Sympathetic Nervous System

    Flight or Fight Response

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    A Simple Reflex

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    A Simplified Neural Network

    Neurons that learn to worktogether as a team.

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    The Endocrine System

    A system of glands that secretehormones.Similar to nervous system,

    except hormones work a lotslower than neurotransmitters.

    Neurotransmitters

    Hormones

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    The Major Endocrine Glands

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