Click here to load reader

Neurolinguistic patterns of children with reading ... · PDF file Neurolinguistic patterns of children with reading disabilities: preliminary results Norberto Cardoso-Pereira1,2, Maria

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)

Text of Neurolinguistic patterns of children with reading ... · PDF file Neurolinguistic patterns of...

  • Neurolinguistic patterns of children with reading disabilities: preliminary results

    Norberto Cardoso-Pereira1,2, Maria Armanda Costa2, Manuela Guerreiro3

    1NeuroCog – Centro de Reabilitação da Lesão Cerebral, Portugal 2Laboratory of Psycholinguistics, Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal 3Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

    [email protected]

    Table 1 - Sample Characterization.


    Previous studies have reported the following deficits in children with learning disabilities, specifically: 1. Sequence problems (Conde-Guzón et al. 2009); 2. Difficulty processing

    temporal indexes (Crespo & Narbona, 2006); 3. Poor discrimination between rapid and simultaneously auditory stimulus (Crespo & Narbona, 2006; Nicolson & Fawcett, 2010);

    4. Reduced processing velocity in linguistic and non-linguistic activities (Crespo & Narbona, 2006); 5. Temporal perception deficit (Crespo & Narbona, 2006); 6. Verbal processing

    (Loge et al., 1990); 7. Verbal fluency errors (Carte et al., 1996); 8. Working memory, phonological and short-term verbal memory (Crespo e & Narbona, 2006; Muñoz & Carballo,

    2005; Barkley, 1997; Nicolson & Fawcett, 2010); 9. Symbolic game difficulties (Muñoz & Carballo, 2005); 10. Tactile recognition errors (Muñoz & Carballo, 2005); 11. Poor visual

    discrimination (Muñoz & Carballo, 2005); 12. Grapheme-phonemic decoding problems (Crespo & Narbona, 2006); 13. Deficits in Attention, decoding, memory and executive func-

    tion (Buiza-Navarrete et al., 2007); 14. Poor balance and motor skills (Nicolson & Fawcett, 2010).


    For both reading groups there is highly word-frequency and word-length effects. Words that were more difficult to identify received more fixations than words that were relatively

    easier to process. The length and frequency effects were observed both for the initial encounter on a word as well as for frequency of making a regression to the target word. The

    effects were largely due to more difficult words attracting multiple fixations on them. This was particularly the case with the word-length effect. In addition, word frequency also in-

    fluenced the duration of initial fixation on the target word. It was longest for low-frequency words and shortest for medium-frequency words. We were able to conclude that ADHD

    and dyslexic children share atypical eye movement patterns in the core of their reading disabilities when decoding words of different length and frequency, due to different underly-

    ing cognitive mechanisms that were not present in the control group.

    Bibliography 1. American Psychiatric Association. (2002). Manual de Diagnóstico e Estatística das Perturbações Mentais (DSM-IV-TR). Lisboa: Climepsi Editores.

    2. Artigas-Pallarés, J. (2009). Dislexia: enfermedad, trastorno o algo distinto. Rev Neurol, 48 (Supl. 2):S63-S69.

    3. Barkley, R.A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychol Bull; 121: 65-94.

    4. Buiza-Navarrete J.J., Adrián-Torres, J.A., González-Sánchez M. (2007). Marcadores neurocognitivos en el trastorno específico del lenguaje. Rev Neurol, 44: 326-33.

    5. Bruce B, Thernlund G, Nettelbladt U. (2006). ADHD and language impairment: A study of the parente questionnaire FTF (Five to Fifteen). European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 15:52–60.

    6. Carte, E.T., et al. (1996). Neuropsychological Functioning, Motor Speed, and Language Processing in Boys with and without ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24 (4): 481-498.

    7. Conde-Guzón, P.A., Conde-Guzón, M.J., Bartolomé-Albistegui, M.T., P. Quirós-Expósito. (2009). Perfiles neuropsicológicos asociados a los problemas del lenguaje oral infantil. Rev Neurol, 48:32-38.

    8. Crespo, N., Narbona, J. (2006). Subtipos de trastorno específico del desarrollo del lenguaje: perfiles clínicos en una muestra hispanohablante. Rev Neurol; 43: 193-200.

    9. de Jong, C., Van De Voorde, S., Roeyerset, H., et al. (2009). How Distinctive are ADHD and RD? Results of a Double Dissociation Study. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 37:1007–1017. 10. Flynn, J.M., Rahbar. M.H. (1994). Prevalence of reading failure in boys compared with girls. Psychol Sch, 31: 667.

    11. Holborow P.L., Berry P.S. (1986). Hyperactivity and learning difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities,19:426–431.

    12. Kohli, A., Kaur, M., Mohanty, M., Malhotra, S. (2006). Neuropsychological Functioning in Specific Learning Disorders - Reading, Writing and Mixed Groups. J. Indian Assoc. Child Adolesc. Ment. Health, 2(4): 112-115.

    13. Loge, D.V., Staton, R.D., Beatty, W.W. (1990). Performance of children with ADHD on tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry; 29: 540-5.

    14. Macintyre, C., Deponio, P. (2003). Identifying and Supporting Children with Specific Learning Difficulties: Looking beyond the label to assess the whole world. London: Routledge Falmer.

    15. Muñoz. J., Carballo, G. (2005). Alteraciones lingüísticas en el trastorno específico del lenguaje. Rev Neurol, 40 (Supl 1): S57-63.

    16. National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. (2008). Adolescent literacy and older students with learning disabilities. Retrieved from

    17. Nicolson, R.I., Fawcett, A.J. (2010). Dyslexia, Learning, and the Brain. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

    18. Oyler, J. E., Obrzut, J.E., Asbjornsen, A.E. (2012). Verbal Learning and Memory Functions in Adolescents With Reading Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(3), 184-195.

    19. Shaywitz, B.A., Shaywitz, S.E. (1996). Incapacidad de aprendizaje y trastornos de atención. In Swaiman KF, ed. Neurología pediátrica. Madrid: Mosby/Doyma.


    Learning disabilities (LD) - neurobiological condition, involving deficits in cognitive processes, and ability to learn (National Joint Committee on Learning Dis-

    abilities [NJCLD], 2008). LD of scholastic skills are characterized by significant impairments in acquisition of reading, spelling or arithmetical skills (Kohli,

    Kaur, Mohanty et al., 2006). Some subgroups of children with LD may have more difficulties with information processing speed, short-term and working

    memory, and auditory processing when compared with children of the same age (Macintyre & Deponio, 2003). There is a need to understand both the dis-

    tinctive aspects of and the considerable overlap between each specific learning disorder (SLD) as they may have different underlying mechanisms (Kohli,

    Kaur, Mohanty et al., 2006).

    Reading disabilities (RD) - common feature among LD. The main challenges children with RD face are accurate word recognition and decoding, reading flu-

    ency, and spelling (Oyler, Obrzut, Asbjornsen, 2012). Most often the co-morbidity along with this condition is Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    (ADHD) and developmental dyslexia (de Jong, Van De Voorde, Roeyers et al., 2009). While the linguistic semiology related to learning disabilities has been

    extensively studied, there are only a handful of studies till date examining neuropsychological profiles of children with reading disabilities (Conde-Guzón et

    al., 2009).

    Developmental dyslexia - unexpected, specific, and persistent failure to acquire efficient reading skills despite conventional instruction, adequate intelli-

    gence, and sociocultural opportunity (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2002). It has an estimated prevalence of 5 to 10% (Flynn & Rahbar, 1994), is

    the reading disability that most adversely affects academic performance (Artigas-Pallarés, 2009). This condition encompasses a host of deficits, and alt-

    hough massively studied, numerous doubts exist regarding the interrelationship between various cognitive functions (Nicolson & Fawcett, 2010).

    ADHD - has a 5 to 9% prevalence in children with school age (Shaywitz & Shaywitz, 1996) and in 15 to 40% of cases it appears as a comorbid condition

    with dyslexia (Holborow & Berry, 1986). Children with ADHD present non diagnosed deficits in oral language, in comprehension and in syntax formation and/

    or pragmatic rules. Interestingly, these deficits appear frequently in the absence of phonological processing deficit (Bruce, Thernlund, Nettelbladt, 2006).


    Participants - 21 children, with ages between 8 and 9 years, divided into three groups: a control group (non-dyslexic), a group with dyslexia and another with

    ADHD. All participants were submitted to a neuropsychological evaluation to assess cognitive functions such as attention, executive function, working

    memory and visuo-perceptive functioning. Reading performance was measured with linguistic instruments and eye-tracking. The three groups were matched

    on the level of scholarship. Inclusionary criteria for participants in all groups were: 1) a score of at least 85 on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 2)

    no evidence of neurological problems, 3) no uncorrected visual acuity or auditory deficits, 4) exposure to adequate instruction, 5) no serious economic prob-

    lems, and 6) Portuguese as the primary language spoken in the home.

    Apparatus - Eye movements were recorded using IVIEW XTM HI-SPEED from SensoMotoric Instruments.

    Materials - All participants read the same 4th-grade-level text from the 20

Search related