cases will not reveal a cause of death. This is probably of the order of 2–5%. However, before the death is recorded as unascertained, it is important that appropriate ancillary investigations have been conducted. These tests include toxicology, microbiology and genetic testing where appropriate. The history and scene examination findings must be known. NEGATIVE AUTOPSY
After a properly conducted autopsy, small proportion of cases will not reveal a cause of death. This is probably of the order of 2–5%. However, before the death is recorded as unascertained, it is important that appropriate ancillary investigations have been conducted. These tests include toxicology, microbiology and genetic testing where appropriate. The history and scene examination findings must be known.
Labeled as NEGATIVE AUTOPSY
NEGATIVE AUTOPSY• DEFINITION:• The situation conducive to Negative Autopsy can be
discussed under two main heads.
• (I). Factors/Lapses/Deficiencies contributing to Negative Autopsy:
• Commencing Autopsy without proper history.• Improper external examination.• Faulty Internal examination.• Failure of Histological & Toxicological examination
• (II). Causes of Negative Autopsy:• Very short fatal period.• Trivial/Insignificant finding• Reflex coronary spasm/Intense Laryngo spasm• The condition not causing any organic change• Indicators can not be detected current available
techniques of investigation.
• IN ALL SUCH SITUATIONS WHERE THE DOCTOR FEELS THAT ALL THAT SHOULS BE DONE HAVE BEEN DONE, HE IS FULLY JUSTIFIED IN GIVING THE MEDICAL CAUSE OF DEATH AS;
Hazards of Autopsy• Every work has its own implicit hazards, so is
the Autopsy.• Much concern about these hazards due to;• A) Recognition/Awareness of risks by the staff.
• B) Increasing number of reported cases of infection among workers(medical/paramedics)
• Maintaining high standards of hygiene.• Use of Protective clothing (Autopsy dress).• Gloves (special mention).• Instruments cleaned / dis-infected. • Care of electrical points / equipment.• Handling of dissection instruments.• Proper Immunization of all staff.
Necropsy WoundCut sustained during Autopsy
• Leave the work immediately• Remove gloves• Encourage free bleeding• Wash thoroughly with soap and water• Dip in strong solution of antiseptic.• Apply clean, dry, aseptic dressing• Immunization against Tetanus• More serious then shift to Accident & Emergency
COMPOSITION OF EMBALMING FLUID
Two entirely different techniques are applied on the same body
I- INTACT BODIES:(A) Arterial Method For compact tissues
(A)Trochar & Cannula For hollow organs & cavities
II- DISSECTED BODIES
(A) Body cavities(B) Extremities
LIMITATIONSThe preservation is short lived
FORENSIC ARTEFACTAny change caused or finding introduced into the body after death that is neither Physiological nor
Pathological and is likely to lead to misinterpretation of Medico Legally significant
Ante Mortem finding.
Wrong & erroneous interpretation
1- Cause/mode/manner of death
2- A/M or P/M nature of finding
3- Misleading the Investigations leading to wrong Judgment