Natural Science In Ancient China 1. 2  Physics in Ancient China  Chemistry in Ancient China  Astronomy in Ancient China  Medicine in Ancient China.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Natural Science In Ancient China 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 2 Physics in Ancient China Chemistry in Ancient China Astronomy in Ancient China Medicine in Ancient China Natural science In Ancient China Main Fields: </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Natural science In Ancient China The Four Great Inventions are: Compass ( ) Gunpowder ( ) Papermaking ( ) Printing ( ) </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> The importance of these inventions was perhaps first discussed by the British philosopher Francis Bacon (15611626), who in 1620 wrote: "Printing, gunpowder and the compass... whence have followed innumerable changes, in so much that no empire, no sect, no star seems to have exerted greater power and influence in human affairs than these mechanical discoveries. Bacon was likely unaware of the origins of these inventions, and was not writing of the ancient Chinese inventions but rather their Western analogs. However, his writings do show the importance of these technologies to the early- modern European world. 4 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 5 Later, Karl Marx also commented that: "Gunpowder, the compass, and the printing press were the three great inventions which ushered in bourgeois society. Gunpowder blew up the knightly class, the compass discovered the world market and founded the colonies, and the printing press was the instrument of Protestantism and the regeneration of science in general; the most powerful lever for creating the intellectual prerequisites." 5 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Physics and Technology in ancient China: a) Magnetism discovery and compass invention b) Papermaking c) Printing 6 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Magnetism and compass navigator In ancient China, the earliest literary reference to magnetism lies in a 4 th century BCE book called Book of the Devil Valley Master( ): "The lodestone makes iron come or it attracts it. Chinalodestone 7 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The earliest mention of the attraction of a needle appears in a work composed between AD 20 and 100 (Louen-heng): "A lodestone attracts a needle." The ancient scientist Shen Kuo (10311095) was the first person to write of the magnetic needle compass and that it improved the accuracy of navigation by employing the astronomical concept of true north (Dream Pool Essays, AD 1088), and by the 12th century the Chinese were known to use the lodestone compass for navigation. They sculpted a directional spoon from lodestone in such a way that the handle of the spoon always pointed south.Shen Kuoastronomicaltrue northcompass 8 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Papermaking 9 paper, China, circa 100 BCE. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 5 step Papermaking : a)Fibers are suspended in water to form a slurry in a large vat b)Molding with wooden wired frame c)Drying the layers but not completely d)Pressing the layers e)Hang or lay out to dry completely 10 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Papermaking has traditionally been traced to China about AD 105, when Cai Lun, an official attached to the Imperial court during the Han Dynasty (202 BC-AD 220), created a sheet of paper using mulberry and other bast fibres along with fishnets, old rags, and hemp waste. However a recent archaeological discovery has been reported from near Dunhuang of paper with writing on it dating to 8 BC. 11 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Paper was used in China for wrapping and padding since the 2nd century BC but paper used as a writing medium only became widespread by the 3rd century. By the 6th century in China, sheets of paper were beginning to be used for toilet paper as well. During the Tang Dynasty (AD 618907) paper was folded and sewn into square bags to preserve the flavor of tea. The Song Dynasty (AD 9601279) that followed was the first government to issue paper currency. 12 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Printing 13 Natural science In Ancient China The intricate frontispiece of the Diamond Sutra from Tang Dynasty China, AD 868 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> The Chinese invention of Woodblock printing, at some point before the first dated book in 868 (the Diamond Sutra), produced the world's first print culture. Woodblock printing was better suited to Chinese characters than movable type, which the Chinese also invented, but which did not replace woodblock printing. Woodblock printing for textiles, on the other hand, preceded text printing by centuries in all cultures, and is first found in China at around 220, then Egypt in the 4th century, and reached Europe by the 14th century or before, via the Islamic world. 14 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 15 Natural science In Ancient China Chemistry in ancient China: a) Chinese Alchemi b) Gunpowder </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Chinese alchemy a part of the larger tradition of Taoism, centers on the tradition of body-spirit cultivation that developed through the Chinese understandings of medicine and the body. These Chinese traditions were developed into a system of energy practices. Chinese alchemy focuses mainly on the purification of one's spirit and body in the hopes of gaining immortality through the practice of Qigong and/or consumption and use of various inventions known as alchemical medicines or elixirs, each of which having different purposes. 16 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Alchemical medicines were valued for Chinese because of three main reasons: granting transcendence and immortality summon benevolent spirits expel demons 17 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> The alchemical practices outlined in : Waidan or 'external alchemy' and Neidan or 'internal alchemy' are intended to increase life span or produce immortality amongst the people using these methods. 18 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 19 Natural science In Ancient China Outer alchemy (Waidan): The term Waidan can be divided into two parts: -- Wai which means outside or exterior and -- Dan referring to alchemy or elixir Waidan is using an elixir often containing herbal or chemical substances found outside of the body. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Waidan can also include following certain dietary regiments including the avoidance of specific foods. Taking medicines and elixirs can be referred to outer elixir or weidan; these practices occur outside of the body until they are verified by the ingestion of medicines, herbs, and pills to bring about physical changes within the body, separate to the soul. 20 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Inner alchemy (Neidan) : The term Neidan can be divided into two parts -- Nei meaning inner and -- Dan referring to alchemy or elixir Neidan uses techniques such as: composed meditation techniques, visualization, breathing and bodily posture exercises. 21 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Neidan comprises the elixir from the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the cultivation of substances already present in the body, in particular the managing and controlling of three substances in the body known as the "Three Treasures: a) Jing b) chi c) shen 22 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> o Jing which can be translated as "life essence. A person is born with Jing and it governs the developmental growth processes in the body. Since people are born with a certain amount of Jing, it is taught that a person can increase their Jing through dietary and lifestyle practices. Jing o Ch'i which can be translated as "energy" or "vital energy". Ch'i energy results from the interaction of yin and yang. A healthy body is constantly circulating Ch'i. Ch'i o Shen can be translated as "spirit" or "mind". Shen is the energy used in mental, spiritual and creative functioning Shen 23 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> The three treasures are also associated with locations in the body where the alchemical firing process can take place, known as the three dantians: Jing or "life essence" is found in the lower dantian, which is located just below the navel. Ch'i or "vital energy: is found in the middle dantian located in the heart. Shen or "spiritual energy" is found in the upper dantian located between the eyebrows, also known as the Third eye.Third eye 24 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Conception of medicine : Medicines can be used to heal ailments on the exterior or interior of the body, to control the ageing of the body, or even to prevent death. 25 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Yin and Yang Yin-Yang is an important concept in the ideas of Chinese alchemy. The Chinese had very definitive notions of the natural world, especially involving the Five Elements, which were: Water Fire Earth Metal Wood These were commonly thought to be interchangeable with one another; each was capable of becoming another element. The concept is integral, as the belief in outer alchemy necessitates the belief in natural elements being able to change into others. The cyclical balance of the elements relates to the binary opposition of yin-yang, and so it appears quite frequently. 26 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> 27 Natural science In Ancient China Yin and Yang symbol for balance. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, good health is believed to be achieved by a balance between Yin and Yang </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 28 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Gunpowder The prevailing academic consensus is that gunpowder was discovered in the 9th century by Chinese alchemists searching for an elixir of immortality. By the time the Song Dynasty treatise in AD 1044, the various Chinese formulas for gunpowder held levels of nitrate in the range of 27% to 50%. 29 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> In AD 1280, the bomb store of the large gunpowder arsenal at Weiyang accidentally caught fire, which produced such a massive explosion that a team of Chinese inspectors at the site a week later deduced that some 100 guards had been killed instantly, with wooden beams and pillars blown sky high and landing at a distance of over 10 li (~2 mi. or ~3.2 km) away from the explosion.li 30 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> In the mid 14th century, the explosive potential of gunpowder was perfected, as the level of nitrate in gunpowder formulas had risen to a range of 12% to 91%, with at least 6 different formulas in use that are considered to have maximum explosive potential for gunpowder. By that time, the Chinese had discovered how to create explosive round shot by packing their hollow shells with this nitrate-enhanced gunpowder. 31 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Fireworks were invented in ancient China in the 12th century to scare away evil spirits, as a natural extension of the Four Great Inventions of ancient China of gunpowder. 32 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> THE END 33 Natural science In Ancient China </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 34 </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 35 </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 36 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> 37 </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> 38 </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> 39 </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> 40 </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> 41 </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> 42 </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> 43 </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 44 </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> 45 </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> 46 </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> 47 </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> 48 </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> 49 </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> 50 </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> 51 </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> 52 </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> 53 </li> </ul>