Natural Fiber GeotextilesDr Muhammad Mushtaq Mangat www.mushtaqmangat.org
Natural Fiber Geotextiles
As old as human history Ziggurat in the ancient city of Dur-Kurigatzu (now known as Agar-Quf) The Babylonians 3000 years ago constructed this ziggurat using reeds in the form of woven mats and plaited ropes as reinforcement Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China, completed circa 200BC, utilized tamarisk branches to reinforce mixtures of clay and gravel
The first use of a textile fabric structure for geotechnical engineering was in 1926, undertook a series of tests using woven cotton fabrics as a simple type of geotextile/ geomembrane, to help reduce cracking, ravelling and failures in roads construction .
Highways Department in South Carolina USA
Woven mat and plaited rope reeds used as reinforcement in the Ziggurat at Dur Kurigatzu 
Vegetable fibers contain a basic constituent, cellulose, which has the elements of an empirical formula (C6 H10 O5 )n .
They can be classed morphologically, that is
according to the part of the plant from which they are obtained. :
Bast or phloem fibres (often designated as soft fibres) are enclosed in the inner bast tissue or bark of the stem of the dicotyledonous plants, helping to hold the plant erect. the cellular and woody tissues, i.e. the plant stalks are rotted away from the fibres. Examples of the most common of these are flax, hemp and jute.
Retting is employed to free the fibers from
Leaf fibres (often designated as hard fibres) run
hawser-like within the leaves of monocotyledonous plants. of the leaves.
These fibres are part of the fibrovascular system The fibres are extracted by scraping the pulp
from the fibres with a knife either manually or mechanically. Examples of these are abaca and sisal.
Examples of these are abaca and sisal. 
Seed and fruit fibres
Seed and fruit fibres are produced by the plant, not to give structural support, but to serve as protection for the seed and fruit that are the most vulnerable parts of the plant normally attacked by predators. Examples of these are coir and cotton. With coir fiber, the coconut is de-husked then retted, enabling the fiber to be extracted.
Natural fiber production
Of the 1000 to 2000 fibre-yielding plants throughout the world, there are some 1525 plants that satisfy the criteria for commercial fibre exploitation although a number of these are only farmed on a small scale.
These main fibres are flax, hemp, jute, kenaf, nettle, ramie, roselle, sunn, urena (bast fibres)
abaca, banana, cantala,date palm, henequen, New Zealand flax, pineapple, sisal, (leaf fibre) coir, cotton and kapok (seed/fruit fibres). 
Applications for natural geotextiles
The use of geotextiles for short-term/
temporary applications to strengthen soil has a particular niche in geotechnical engineering. developed countries to combat numerous geotechnical engineering problems safely, efficiently and economically. 
Geotextiles are used extensively in
Soil is comparatively strong in compression, but very weak in tension. If a tensile inclusion (geotextile) is added to the soil and forms intimate contact with it, a composite material can be formed which has superior ngineering characteristics to soil alone.
Mud and wheat straw used as plaster
Geotextiles provide an invaluable solution to the problem of constructing embankments over soft compressible ground where water fills the pores between the soil particles under the embankment. The load from the embankment fill increases the tendency for the embankment to fail. 
A geotextile acts as a
filter by permitting the flow of liquid and gases, but preventing the passage of soil particles which can cause settlement due to loss of ground. geotextile is selected to avoid blocking, blinding and clogging.
The pore size within the
A geotextile acts as a separator by preventing the intermixing of coarse and fine soil materials whilst allowing the free flow of water across the geotextile. For instance, when a geotextile is placed between the subsoil and the granular sub-base of an unpaved road, it prevents the aggregate from being punched down into the soil during initial compaction and subsequently from the dynamic loading of vehicle axles. An example of a short-term use of a geotextile is in a temporary haul road that is formed during the construction of the permanent works, where it is only required to function for a limited amount of time before being removed. The temporary haul road is dug up and disposed of.A geotextile made from natural fibres, such as jute, coir, and so on, would be more suitable for such applications, because it would be biodegradable and hence more environmentally friendly.
A rapidly developing area for geotextiles is in the erosion control industry where they are employed for short-term effects. This usage differs from the other applications of geotextiles in that they are laid on the surface and not buried in the soil. The main aim is to control erosion whilst helping to establish vegetation which will control erosion naturally. The geotextile is then surplus to requirements and can degrade, enriching the soil. Geotextiles can reduce runoff, retain soil particles.
Pritchard, M., Sarsby, R. W., Anand, S. C., Textiles in civil engineering. Part 2 natural fibre geotextiles in Handbook of Technical Textiles A.R. Horrocks, Anand, S. C., Editor 2000, Woodhead Publishing Ltd Cambridge.