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Text of Natura 2000 Seminars - European Commission Estonia 586.6 83.8 267 Finland 8,900.0-9,000.0 74.2-75.0

  • Natura 2000 Seminars

    An initiative of the

    Natura 2000 Biogeographical Process

    Second Boreal Seminar Vilnius - Lithuania, 5 – 7 October 2016

    Annex 6 – habitat group factsheets – forest habitats

  • Natura 2000 Seminars – Boreal 2

    ECNC, CEEweb, Eurosite, Europarc, ELO, ILE SAS

    Prepared by: ILE SAS

    Authors: Luboš Halada (ILE SAS), in consultation with the ETC-BD, in particular Mora Aronsson

    and Doug Evans

    Editing: Neil McIntosh, Frank Gorissen, Jinthe Roelofs (ECNC)

    Copyright: © European Union, 2016

    Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

    Funding: European Commission as part of contract number 07.0307/2012/60517/SER/B.3.

    Disclaimer: The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the

    European Commission, nor is the European Commission responsible for any use that

    might be made of information appearing herein.

    Event: For more information on this seminar, see the Natura 2000 Communication

    Platform:

    http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/platform/events/events-

    upcoming/260_second_boreal_natura_2000_seminar_en.htm

    http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/platform/events/events-upcoming/260_second_boreal_natura_2000_seminar_en.htm http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/platform/events/events-upcoming/260_second_boreal_natura_2000_seminar_en.htm

  • Natura 2000 Seminars – Boreal 3

    ECNC, CEEweb, Eurosite, Europarc, ELO, ILE SAS

    Table of Contents

    9010 Western Taiga ...................................................................................................................... 4

    9050 Fennoscandian herb‐rich forests with Picea abies ................................................................. 9

    9060 Coniferous forests on, or connected to, glaciofluvial eskers ................................................. 13

    9080 Fennoscandian deciduous swamp woods ............................................................................ 18

    91E0 Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior ................................................. 23

    9040 Nordic subalpine/subarctic forests with Betula pubescens ssp. Czerepanovii ....................... 28

    91T0 Central European lichen Scots pine forests .......................................................................... 32

  • Natura 2000 Seminars – Boreal 4

    ECNC, CEEweb, Eurosite, Europarc, ELO, ILE SAS

    9010 Western Taiga

    x Selected for first round of Biogeographical Seminar

    Selected using “Low hanging fruit” approach

    Habitat summary

    The overall conservation status in the Boreal region is unfavourable-bad due to decreasing area and

    bad structure & functions and future prospects in all countries except Finland that reported

    unfavourable-inadequate status. Habitat 9010 is widespread in the Boreal biogeographic region,

    occurring widely in all countries, with a high proportion (49.4 %) in Sweden, followed by Finland

    (44.5%). Improving the conservation status of the habitat requires maintenance of large areas of

    habitat, diversification of the forest stand by forestry practices, leaving dead wood, and removal of

    non-native species (including tree species). The controlled burning is effective and a good

    maintenance and restoration measure, but it needs to be carefully planned and implemented.

    Habitat description

    Natural old forests or young forests, naturally developing after fire, representing climax or late

    succession stages with slight or without any human impact. Present natural old forests are only

    minor remnants of those originally occurring in Fennoscandia. Some present old natural forests are

    influenced by humans, but they maintain many characteristics of the natural forests, i.e. the

    considerable amount of dead and rotten wood, the great variation in tree age and height and species

    composition, and trees from previous generations. They are habitats with many threatened species,

    especially bryophytes, lichens, fungi, and invertebrates (mostly beetles).The role of fire is extremely

    important for this habitat. The burned forest areas have been present naturally in the Boreal region,

    now they are extremely rare because of efficient fire protection and forestry. The character of the

    forests varies with the different boreal zones and different site types. The following sub-types are

    distinguished: natural old spruce forests, natural old pine forests, natural old mixed forests, natural

    old deciduous forests, recently burnt areas, and younger forests naturally developed after fire.

  • Natura 2000 Seminars – Boreal 5

    ECNC, CEEweb, Eurosite, Europarc, ELO, ILE SAS

    Distribution in the Boreal region and coverage by Natura 2000 network

    The western taiga is widespread, occurring widely in all

    countries in the Boreal region. The largest areas are in

    Sweden (13,300 km2) and Finland (12,000 km2).

    From ca. 26,940 km2 of this habitat in the Boreal region,

    about 51% is included in Natura 2000 sites. The largest

    proportion of the national habitat area in the Natura 2000

    sites is in Estonia (83.8%) and Finland (74-75%).

    Natura 2000 sites

    Country Area

    /km2/

    Coverage

    /%/

    Number of

    sites

    Estonia 586.6 83.8 267

    Finland 8,900.0-9,000.0 74.2-75.0 972

    Lithuania 109.0 18.2 67

    Latvia 133.0 39.3 178

    Sweden 4,069.0 30.6 1,671

    BOR Region 13,797.6-13,897.6 51.2-51.6 3,155

    The table above shows size of the habitat area in Natura 2000 sites and its proportion compared to

    habitat area in the whole biogeographic region (“coverage“) as reported by MS in the 2013 Article

    17 report.

    Biogeographical conservation status assessment

    The overall assessment is unfavourable-bad due to a decreasing area and bad structure & functions

    and future prospects in all countries except Finland, that reported an unfavourable-inadequate

    status. The range is favourable in all countries, the habitat area is favourable in Estonia. Experts and

    organisations (the Forest Research Institute and a University) indicated all parameters as favourable

    for Latvia. The eventual correction of the Latvian assessment will not change the overall assessment

    for the Boreal Biogeographical region that remains unfavourable-bad.

    While the habitat area in Estonia and Lithuania corresponds approximately to the reference value,

    reference values in other countries are larger than the actual ones. The highest difference is in

    Sweden (actual area: 13,300 km2, reference 35,000 km2) and Latvia (actually 338 km2, reference value

    2,285 km2). This indicates a need for habitat restoration measures in these countries.

  • Natura 2000 Seminars – Boreal 6

    ECNC, CEEweb, Eurosite, Europarc, ELO, ILE SAS

    Legend: MS – Member State; Overall asses- Overall assessment; % MS – percentage of the surface

    area in the respective Member State compared to whole Biogeographical Region; Ref. – reference

    value; Struct & func. - structure and functions; Future prosp. – future prospect; Curr. CS – current

    conservation status; Prev. CS – previous conservation status; Nat. of ch. – nature of change; EU27:

    assessment on the level of all EU Member Countries; Concl. – conclusion; Target 1: - target 1 of the EU

    2020 Biodiversity Strategy.

    Conservation

    status FV

    Favourabl

    e U1

    Unfavourable -

    inadequate U2

    Unfavourable -

    bad XX

    Unknow

    n

    Trend 0 = stable; + = increase; - = decrease; x = unknown

    Qualifier = stable; + positive; - negative; x unknown

    Nature of

    change

    a – genuine change; b – change due to better data or improved knowledge; b2 – due to

    taxonomic review; c1 – due to different methods to measure or evaluate; c2 - due to

    different thresholds use; d - no information about nature of change; e - due to less

    accurate or absent data; nc - no change

    Target 1

    contributio

    n

    A - favourable assessments; B - improved assess.; C - deteriorated assessments; D -

    unfavourable and unknown assessments that did not change; E - assessments that

    became unknown.

    Pressures, threats and proposed measures

    The main pressures are related to the forestry management. With intensive forestry, which is carried

    out throughout this region, the main features of natural old forests disappear. Habitat

    fragmentation, air pollution, fertilisation, succession, modification of hydrological conditions, a lack

    of fires, and damage by herbivores are also reported as pressures.

    Adaptation of forest management, restoration of forests, establishment of protected areas and

    wilderness areas are the main measures proposed.

  • Natura 2000 Seminars – Boreal 7

    ECNC, CEEweb, Eurosite, Europarc, ELO, ILE SAS

    Code Pressure name EE FI LT LV SE

    A08 Fertilisation H

    B02 F