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Chapter 7 NATIONALISTIC AND ENDEMIC TERRORISM

Nationalistic and Endemic Terrorism

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Nationalistic and Endemic Terrorism. Chapter 7. Learning Objectives: Chapter 7. Summarize the EOKA revolt on Cyprus, FLN in Algeria, and Mau Mau in Kenya. Explain the danger posed by Russia’s breakaway states. Describe the political and security issues surrounding violence in Chechnya. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Nationalistic and Endemic Terrorism

Chapter 7

NATIONALISTIC AND ENDEMIC TERRORISM

Page 2: Nationalistic and Endemic Terrorism

Summarize the EOKA revolt on Cyprus, FLN in Algeria, and Mau Mau in Kenya.

Explain the danger posed by Russia’s breakaway states.

Describe the political and security issues surrounding violence in Chechnya.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: CHAPTER 7

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Page 3: Nationalistic and Endemic Terrorism

Summarize the terrorist issues facing Turkey.

Describe ethnic tensions in China’s Xinjiang province.

Explain the rationale behind China’s policy toward Uighar separatism.

Briefly summarize Sikh separatism in India.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: CHAPTER 7

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Page 4: Nationalistic and Endemic Terrorism

Define the term endemic terrorism. Explain the relative importance of

terrorism in light of Africa’s other issues. Summarize political conditions in western

and central Africa.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: CHAPTER 7

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Russia still suffers from environmental troubles, a poor health system, and sharp declines in life expectancy. It also suffers from organized crime and

corruption.

The former Soviet Union broke into fifteen new nations in the early 1990s

BREAKAWAY STATES AND CRIME

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Five states declared their independence Nargorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Abkhazia Transnistria Chechnya

Chechnya is the only one whose claim to independence Russia has been successful in countering, but fighting continues to rage there.

BREAKAWAY STATES AND CRIME

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Guerrillas and terrorists in the Russian-controlled province of Chechnya called on nationalism in a struggle for autonomy

Although Russia has been able to assert more control in Chechnya than in other breakaway states, Chechnya has experienced savage fighting and terrorism

CHECHNYA

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Chechens seek legitimacy in the nationalistic struggle

The current dispute can be traced directly to the communist era when Joseph Stalin imposed Soviet power in the region

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russians and Chechens have fought two conventional wars for control of the area

CHECHNYA AS A NATIONALISTIC REVOLT

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Page 9: Nationalistic and Endemic Terrorism

Shamil Basayev Planned the takeover of a Moscow theatre in

2002 and Beslan school in 2004

ibn al Khattab Became known for his ruthlessness

Salman Raduyev Took more hostages than any other terrorists

CHECHNYA AS A NATIONALISTIC REVOLT

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About 50 Chechen rebels, including Black Widows, took over Moscow Theatrical Center during an evening performance

They took 700 people hostage Before Russian forces had restored order,

about 200 people were dead, many killed by the sleeping gas

CHECHNYA AS A NATIONALISTIC REVOLT

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The Uighars are ethnic Turkmen and they have lived in and governed parts of the Xinjiang province for 200 years

The Chinese have settled the area with ethnic Chinese, displacing the Uighars

China fights for Xinjiang because it has China’s largest oil and gas reserves

CHINA’S PROBLEM IN XINJIANG

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After India was partitioned in 1947, some Sikhs sought independence in Punjab

In 1984, Indian military forces entered the Sikhs’ most sacred site and engaged in a bloody battle with armed militants

By 1988, more than a hundred people per month had lost their lives

SIKH SEPARATISM IN INDIA

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Endemic terrorism Form of terrorism created by artificial divisions

of tribes, families, and ethnic groups Unique brand of terrorism

Ethnic cleansing Child armies Wars by self-appointed militias Crime and corruption Internal strife

SUB-SAHARA AFRICA

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Terrorism is only one problem among many others in Africa: AIDS Pandemic Most poverty-stricken region on earth Thousands of homeless orphans Genocide Child armies Slavery Starvation

SOURCES OF AFRICAN TERRORISM

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Oil fields in Sub-Sahara Africa are attractive to the United States: Oil has a lower concentration of sulfur, and it is

easier and cheaper to refine into gasoline Oil fields are closer to the east coast of the

United States than the Middle East Africa is increasing its oil production

OIL REGIONS

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Terrorism has not been a major issue, but should be viewed as a potential problem

U.S. foreign policy misses areas where jihadists have tremendous potential Countries like Nigeria and Liberia appear on the

strategic foreign policy radar screen Liberia presents another example of misguided

U.S. policy

OIL REGIONS

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WHO ARE THE BOKO HARAM?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8VN_7A3mNKg&feature=player_embedded

Discussion: It was stated that Boko Haram wants Sharia Law across the

country even though 50% of the country is not Muslim. What is your opinion on this demand of the Boko Haram?

The Boko Haram, it was stated, has ties to al Quaeda, does this relationship move the group into the terrorist domain? Why or why not?

What can be done by the International community to address the group? Should the International community become involved?

Is it probable that failure to address activities of the Boko Haram will provide an avenue for this group to grow becoming a threat to the West?

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Quite a bit of nationalistic terrorism came in the wake of World War II as European colonial empires began to break apart.

Cyprus and Algeria became the forerunners of urban ideological terrorism.

CHAPTER TAKE AWAYS

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Kenya served as the stage for a quasi-religious uprising, and although the Kenyans would eventually win independence, it people were brutally repressed during the Mau Mau rebellion.

CHAPTER TAKE AWAYS

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Terrorism continued to evolve in nationalistic, ethnic, and religious movements in Russia, break-away semi-autonomous states in the former Soviet Union, Turkey, China, and India.

Africa has experienced endemic terrorism due to artificial national boundaries imposed by Europeans.

While terrorism is a horrendous problem, poverty and the AIDs crisis have been the cause of most of Africa’s suffering.

CHAPTER TAKE AWAYS

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