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Nanotechnology in Bionic Research - Engineers Australia · PDF file Bionic Eye Bionic Ear: Cochlear Implant The Argus II bionic eye is currently undergoing trials in 50-75 patients

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Text of Nanotechnology in Bionic Research - Engineers Australia · PDF file Bionic Eye Bionic Ear:...

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    Nanotechnology in Bionic Research

    Dr. Simon Moulton QEII Fellow

    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science (ACES)

    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute

    University of Wollongong

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    1 mm

    1 m

    100 nm

    What Defines Nanotechnology?

    Any thing that has one dimension less than 100 nm

    Synthetic Natural

    Civil Structures Manufactured Products

    Raw Materials

    Silicon Transistors

    Colloid Particles

    Single Molecules Atoms

    Animals

    Insects

    Nerves Cells

    Bacteria Proteins

    Human Hair!

    1 m MACRO

    MICRO

    NANO

    MOLECULAR

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    Fantasy and Fact

    www.uml.edu/.../media/nanotechnology-kd-001.jpg

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    Pros and Cons • Entertainment

    – IPOD Nano

    • Medicine/Health

    – Cancer therapy

    – Sun screens

    • Unknown technology (similar to GM foods – fear of the unknown)

    • Health

    – asbestos (CNTs)

    – Cell membranes (nanoparticles)

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    Biology ElectronicsBio nics

    1791

    • Metals as Electrodes • Organic Materials

    2009

    Platinum Electrodes

    LUIGI GALVANI’S ANIMAL ELECTRICITY

    H N

    N H

    H N

    N H

    H N

    N H x

    A -

    A -

    Fibers

    PPy

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    Bionics? The University of Melbourne

    Bionic Ear 1978 The Bionic Man

    Col. Steve Austin 1973

    GCLARK FOUNDATION/NLA

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    Bionic Eye Bionic Ear: Cochlear Implant

    The Argus II bionic eye is currently undergoing trials

    in 50-75 patients in the US. The system uses a

    spectacle mounted camera that feeds visual

    information to 60 electrodes implanted in the retina.

    Cochlear implants are

    one of the oldest pieces

    of the bionic man.

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     Enhanced Performance Implantables

     Wearables for Prosthetics and Monitoring

    Bionics

    MAYBE THE BIONIC GAMES?

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    Oscar Pitorius - the “blade runner”

    Oscar Pistorius - also known as ‘Blade Runner’ - is a double leg amputee who is using specially developed artificial legs to compete in races. A world record holder in the 100, 200 and 400 meters Paralympic events, Pistorius was denied by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) his application to participate in the 2008 Summer Olympics. The IAAF argued that his prosthetic racing legs give him a clear competitive advantage. On May 16, the IAAF’s decision was overturned by the Court of Arbitration for Sport, allowing Pistorius to participate in the Olympics if he could make the minimum qualifying time.

    BIONICS IN SPORT

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    http://blog.800hightech.com/bionic-hand-iraq-war-veteran/782/

    U.S. Department of Defense Uses Futuristic Robotic Technology for a New Bionic Hand for Sgt. Juan Arredondo an Iraq War Veteran who Lost His Hand on Patrol.

    BIONICS FOR DEFENSE

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    Not just Ordinary Electromaterials….

    Mechanical Level SwitchingSwitching Surface Interactions Controlled Release of Active Molecules

    N H

    oxidation

    A- N H n

    n

    + A-

    N

    N

    N

    N

    H

    H

    H

    H

    A-

    + +

    A-

    N

    N

    N

    N

    H

    H

    H

    H

    2A-+ + e-

    - e-

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    Novel Materials – Novel Structures –

    Unforeseen Opportunities!!

     Conducting Polymer (micro) Grid  A Novel Fluid Transfer System

    Videos courtesy of Shannon Little

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    1 m

    1 mm

    1 m

    100 nm

    MACRO

    MICRO

    NANO

    MOLECULAR

    Human Hair

    Nanostructured Electro - Materials

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     External stimulation

     Response to the biological environment

    e.g. biodegradation

     swelling (phase change)

     Galvanic coupling

    (Functional batteries)

    Can we achieve temporal distribution of function?

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    Control at the Nano Level

    e- e-

    N

    N

    N

    N

    H

    H

    H

    H

    A-

    + +

    A-

    N

    N

    N

    N

    H

    H

    H

    H

    2A-+ + e-

    - e-

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     Advanced Cochlear Electrodes

    (with an Eye on the Eye)

     Nerve Regeneration

    (Peripheral and Spinal Cord)

     Muscle Regeneration

     Epilepsy Detection and Control

     Bionic Stents (Boston Scientific)

    ACES - BIONICS

    Infection Control

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    Bionic Implants - Advanced Cochlear Implant Electrode

    Safety studies commenced

    Electrochemical data obtained

    Carbon nanotube structures as implant electrodes

    Electrode-Cellular Interface, G.G. Wallace, S.E. Moulton, G.M. Clark, Science 2009, 324, 185-186.

    Nerve cell body

    Nerve fibres

    Spiral Ganglion Neurite

    Explant Nerve cell body

    Nerve fibres

    Spiral Ganglion Neurite

    Explant

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    Nanobionics – Advanced cochlear implants

    GCLARK FOUNDATION/NLA

    Organ of

    Corti

    Basal (High frequency)

    Auditory Nerve

    Fluid canals

    Apical (Low frequency)

    Mastoid

    Brain Middle

    Ear

    Cochlea (Inner Ear)

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    Organ of Corti

    Basilar membrane

    Peripheral auditory nerve fibres

    Brain

    Inner hair cell

    Outer hair cell

    Nanobionics – Advanced cochlear implants

    GCLARK FOUNDATION/NLA

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    Cochlea and Auditory Nerves

    Electrode Brain

    Nanobionics – Advanced cochlear implants

    GCLARK FOUNDATION/NLA

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    PPy/pTS PPy/pTS/NT3 PPy/pTS/NT3/BDNF

    N o

    n -s

    ti m

    u la

    te d

    El e

    ct ro

    -s ti

    m u

    la te

    d Introducing an Additional Growth Factor (BDNF)

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    Dual Neurotrophins: Synergy at Work

    Electrical stimulation

    No Electrical stimulation

    BDNF

    NT-3 Cochlear explant

    PPy/pTS/NT-3/BDNF

    NT-3/BDNF

    BrainBrain

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    SIBS

    PEDOT

    MWNT

    forest

    Ppy/pTS/NT-3

    SIBS

    PEDOT

    MWNT

    forest

    Ppy/pTS/NT-3

    SIBS = poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene)

    non-conducting, very stretchy polymer used in

    several tissue engineering applications recently

    FDA-approved as coronary stent coating

    PEDOT = Polyethylenedioxythiophene

    conducting polymer which has been used for

    several cell culturing application, but not widely

    explored as a biomaterial

    MWNT= multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    there is lots of controversy about the

    toxicity/biocompatibility of nanotubes, so the

    compatibility of tissues with this component is

    one matter that needs to be addressed

    A Nanostructured Platform (Patent Pending)

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    PPy deposited

    on tips of CNTs

    Comparison of CNT Array to Flat Film

    Nanostructured PPys for Controlled Release

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    Conductive polymer materials for controlled release

    Wet fibre spinning to produce microdimensional structure

    Spinal Cord Regeneration

    Injured Spinal Cord Repair of Lesion

    Biodegradable Fibre Constructs

    Hydrogels and

    Fibres

    Injured Spinal Cord Repair of Lesion

    Biodegradable Fibre Constructs

    Hydrogels and

    Fibres

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    spoollinear controller

    coagulation baths

    syringe and pump

    PLGA:PLA fibers

    (a)

    (c)(b)

    (a)

    spoollinear controller

    coagulation baths

    syringe and pump

    PLGA:PLA fibers

    (a)

    (c)(b)

    (a)

    Schematic Representation of Wet-spinning Fibers

    Scale bars are 100 m

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    Vapour phase PPy/pTS on glass – oxidant printed with 10pL cartridge

    Ink Jet Printing Fibre Spinning

    75:25 PLA/PLGA fibers

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    Nanofabricated Platforms

    C

    E

    G

    PPPPyy MMyyllaarr

    PPPPyy MMyyllaarr

    AAxxoonnaall

    ggrroowwtthh

    ffrroonntt

    SScchhwwaannnn cceellll

    mmiiggrraattiioonn

    ffrroonntt

    DRG

    DRG

    PPLLAA//PPLLGGAA ffiibbrreess

    PPLLAA//PPLLGGAA ffiibbrreess

    Scale bar = 50 m

    Scale bar = 500 m

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    MUSCLE REGENERATION

    Muscular Diseases

     Damage Due to Trauma

     Grow / Replace Muscle Tissue

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    1. Wet-spun PLA:PLGA fibers on

    gold-coated mylar substrate

    2. PPy polymerization of the

    exposed gold surface

    1. Myoblast proliferation (2 days) 2. Myotube differentiation (4 days)

    (a)

    (b)

    1. Wet-spun PLA:PLGA fibers on

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