Nanoelektronik Technische Fakultt Christian-Albrechts ... Technische Fakultt Christian-Albrechts-Universitt ... circuit element, IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory 18 ... Electronic circuit

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  • 1

    HermannKohlstedt

    NanoelektronikTechnische Fakultt

    Christian-Albrechts-Universitt zu Kiel

    MemristiveDevicesinAnalogNeuromorphicCircuits

    NanoNetwork Workshop_Bergen_June 2013

  • 2

    V = 1000 cm3

    ab

    c

    Achip 1 cm2

    N 2 104 chips

    Ptotal 106 W 1 MW (!)

    Ntransistors 2 104 1010 2 1014

    PMOSFET 5 nW

    ABrain replaced by ComputerChips

    approx.numberofsynapses

    Pbrain 25 W

    Psynapse 250 fW

  • 3

    Contents

    Introduction

    Neurobiology Afew Milestones

    NeuromorphicElectronics

    Two examples:Pavlov`sDogandanAmoeba

    AmemresistiveFlashcell

    Summary

  • 4

    Computer - Brain

    Computer: Arithmetic operation

    Brain: Pattern Recognition / Associative Memory

    2376492 = 1541,5875

    Vacation:

    Computing Gap

    Introduction

  • 5

    DendriteSynapse

    AxonSoma

    Neuronsforinformationprocessing

    AnalogVLSIandNeuralSystemsCarverMead,AddisonWesley1989,p.44

    M.Mahowald,R.Rodney Douglas,Asiliconneuron,Nature1991

    BibleofanalogVLSIforNeuralCircuits: AsurveyofBioInspiredandotheralternativeArchitecturesD.Hammertrom in:Nanotechnology,Vol.4,Ch.10,p.252Wiley,2008,ed.byR.Waser

    Dataspikes

    Introduction

    Review:G.Indiveri etal.Neuromorphicsiliconneuroncircuits,frontiersinNeuroscience5,article73(2011).

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    Pulseduration:3,5ms(inelectronics:60ns)

    Signalspeed alongtheaxon:100m/s(inelectroncis 2.4x108 m/s)

    Spikes theinformationunitsIntroduction

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    Neurobiology Afew Milestones

    InSearch ofMemory,EricR.Kandel,W.W.Norton&Company,NewYork2006.S.R.Cajal ,LafinestructuredesCentres Nerveux,Proc.R.Soc.London(B)1894,55,444

    SantiagoRamnyCajal

    Inotherwords:Hesuggestalreadythatsomethinglikeasynapticcleftmustexist!(in1890!!)

    Cajal:Learning means,that the synaptic interconnection are not fixed.They adjust incorrespondence tothe input signals from the environment.

  • 8

    Donald O. Hebb.

    The memoryinbrains is distributed overthe whole system but certain regions store differentaspects!

    Neurobiology Afew Milestones

    Hebbs learning rule:When anAxon ofcell Aexcites cell Bandrepeatedly or persistently takes part init's firing,some growthprocess ofmetabolic changes take place inone or both cells.Thus,that's efficiency is increased!

    "Cellsthat firetogether,wiretogether."

    D.O.Hebb ,TheOrganizationofBehavior,JohnWiley,NewYork1949.

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    Neurobiology Afew Milestones

    T.V.P.BlissandT.Lmo,LongLastingPotentiationofSynapticTransmissionintheDentateAreaoftheanaesthetizedRabbitFollowingStimulationofthePerforant Path, J.Physiol.232,331(1973).

    FromMoleculestoNetworks,Ed.JohnH.Byran andJamesL.Roberts,AcademicPress2009:J.H.Byren etal.,LearningandMemoryBasicMechanisms:,Chap19p.541

    Hippocampal BrainSlice

    LongTermDepression(LTD)LongTermPotentiation(LTP)

  • 10

    WhatmeanslearninginbiologicalSystems?

    ThreeLevels

    1BehaviorPsychology

    ImplicitlearningExplicitlearning

    2Networks

    Architecture

    3NerveCellsBiochemistry

    Automaticinquality:habituation,sensitization,classicalconditioning

    Consciousordeclarative:Recallpeople,places,facts,andeventsetc.

  • 11

    InSearchofMemoryEricR.KandelW.W.NortonCompany2006

    AreductionisticPrinciple

    AplysiaCalifornia:aSnail

    TobridgetheGapbetweenBehaviorandCellBiology

    E.R.Kandel,Science294,1030(2001).

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    InSearch ofMemory,EricR.Kandel,W.W.Norton&Company,NewYork2006.

    AreductionisticPrinciple

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    L.O.Chua,Memristor themissingcircuitelement,IEEETrans.CircuitTheory18,507 (1971).Seealso:materialstodayDec.2011MemorymattersandMRSBulletin,Resistiveswitchingphenomenainthinfilms,Feb.2012

    LeonChua`s Memristor

    I

    V

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    WhichmemristiveDeviceshouldIuse?

    NanoionicsR.Waser,R.Dittmann,G.Staikov ,K.SzotAdv.Mater.2009

    FerroelectricTunnelJunctionsAndr Chanthbouala,etal.NatureNanotechnology2012

    Youhavethechoice afewExamples

    Ionics andTunnelBarriersD.S.Jeongetal.SolidState Electronics63,1(2011)

    TiOxide

    SpinTransferTorqueDevices

    MgO

    P.Krzysteczko etal.,Adv.Mater.2012

    NanoinonicsD.B.Strukov,G.S.Snider,D.R.Stewart,R.S.Williams,Nature2008,453,80.

    Reviews:DooSeok Jeongetal.Rep.Prog.Phys.75(2012)S.D.HaandS.Ramanathan,JAP110(2011)

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    MemristiveDevicesforNeuromorphicSystems

    SungHyun Joetal.,Nano Lett. 10,12971301(2010).

    synaptic plasticity: spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP)

    Memristive devicesasartifical synapses

    T.Ohno etal.,NatureMaterials10,591595(2011).

    precondition oflearning: long term potentiation

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    ImageNo.0030628ImageNo.0030628Credit:Credit:TheGrangerCollection,TheGrangerCollection,NYCNYC Allrightsreserved.Allrightsreserved.

    Pavlov`sDog:ClassicalConditioning

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    Experimenttounderstandimplicitlearninginbiologicalsystems.

    before conditioning

    after conditioning

    IVANPETROVICHPAVLOV(1905)

    ExperimentalPsychologyandPsychopathologyinAnimals,Vol.1p.4760,IvanP.Pavlov,LecturesonConditionedReflexes,InternationalPub.,NewYork1928

    Pavlov`sDog:ClassicalConditioningAssociativeLearning

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    Voltage dividercomprizing amemristivedevice

    Electricalcircuitlayout:singlememristivedeviceimplementedinananaloguecircuitry

    Adder Comparator

    +

    -

    +

    -

    Reference set-point: Threshold Vcth

    RM VM

    OP1

    OP2R1

    Alertness Vout

    Unconditional stimulus (UCS)

    Conditional stimulus (CS)

    Neuralmediatingcircuitforassociativelearning

    Vcth

    Vmth

    M.Ziegler,etal.,AdvancedFunctional Materials,22,2744(2012)/ExperimentalO.Bichler etal.NeuralComputation25,549(2013)/ExperimentalY.V.Pershin andM.Di Ventra,NeuralNetworks23(2010)/Emulator

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    circuit with threshold voltages for the comparator and mem device

    Vbell < Vcth & Vfood> VcthVbell + Vfood > Vpmth (before conditioning) & Vbell > Vcth (after conditioning)

    Implicit learning

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    Pt/SiO2/Ge0.3Se0.7/Cu memristive device in voltage divider

    synaptic potentiation via transition LRS to HRS

    effective threshold voltage of the device

    Device requirements

    -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6

    -0.5

    0.0

    0.5C

    urre

    nt (m

    A)

    Voltage (V)

    0.47 k

    Vnmth

    = -0.18V

    Vpmth

    = 0.33V1

    2

    3

    4

    R. Soni et al., J. Appl Phys. 110, 054509 (2011).

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    Learningbehaviorinbiologicalsystems

    Unicellularorganism,abletosolvemazes

    Interestingcandidatetostudybasiccognitivefunctions

    T.Ueda,HokkaidoUniversity

    Amoeba: Physarumpolycephalum

    Anticipation toenviormental changes for periodic repetition

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    AmoebaAnticipatePeriodicEventsT.Saigusa,A.Tero,T.Nakagaki,Y.Kuramoto,Phys.Rev.Lett,100,018101(2008)

    Temperature

    favorable

    unfavorable

    Humidity

    Biologicalexperiment:

    anticipatedevents

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    R=1 L=2H C=1F

    resonantcircuit

    R L

    C

    AmemristivecircuitmodeltomimicanamoebaY.V.Pershin,S.LaFontaineandM.Di Ventra,Phys.Rev.E80,021926,2009.

    Simulation:ElectronicEmulatormemristivedevice

    Problemsforexperimentalimplementation:

    Circuitparameter

    Usingarealmemristivedevice

  • 24Y.V.Pershin andM.Di Ventra,Adv.Phys.60(2011)andreferencestherein

    Periodicinputpatternneededforlearning

    Amoebaeanticipation

    Simulation

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    Electroniccircuit

    R =100 L =100mH

    C =50nF

    R =10k

    memristivedevice

    I Outputcurrent

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    Highoffresistance foranidealLCcircuit

    Changetoonstaterequiresathresholdvoltage

    HighResetvoltageinrespectto setvoltage

    Requirementsforthememristivedevice

    TiO2x

    Al

    Ag

    1.

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    Experimentalimplementation:M.Ziegler,etal.AnelectronicimplementationofamoebaanticipationAppliedPhysicsA(2013)

    anticipated events

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    AmoebaanticipationPeriodicEventsT.Saigusa,A.Tero,T.Nakagaki,Y.Kuramoto,Phys.Rev.Lett,100,018101(2008)

    Betteranticipationtoenvironmentalchangesforperiodicrepetition

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    Response (A

    )

    Amoebaanticipation

    Non-periodicpattern

    Periodicpattern at resonancefrequency

    Vin (V)

    Vin (V)

  • 30

    WhichmemristiveDeviceshouldIuse?

    NanoionicsR.Waser,R.Dittmann,G.Staikov ,K.SzotAdv.Mater.2009

    FerroelectricTunnelJunctionsAndr Chanthbouala,etal.NatureNanotechnology2012

    Youhavethechoice afewExamples

    D.S.Jeongetal.SolidState Electronics63,1(2011)

    TiOxide

    SpinTransferTorqueDevices

    MgO

    P.Krzysteczko etal.,Adv.Mater.2012

    NanoinonicsD.B.Strukov,G.S.Snider,D.R.Stewart,R.S.Williams,Nature2008,453,80.

    Reviews:DooSeok Jeongetal.Rep.Prog.Phys.75(2012)S.D.HaandS.Ramanathan,JAP110(2011)

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    FloatingGateTransistorasMemristiveDevice?

    MemristiveoperationmodeofasingleEEPROM cell

    Reductiontoatwoterminaldevice:simultaneousread/write

    H.C.CardandW.R.Moore,ElectronicLetters 25,805(1989).C.Diorio,P.Hasler,B.A.Mimich,andC.A.Mead,IEEETrans.onElec.Dev. 43,1972(1996).

    Whatabout:

    Threeterminaldevices:WriteReadErase

  • 32

    AtwoterminalMemFlashcell

    M.Ziegler,etal.,ApplPhys.Lett. 101,263504(2012).

    Reductiontoatwoterminaldevice:simultaneousread/write

  • 33

    MemFlash

  • 34

    Memristivedeviceswithimprovedperforman

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