n[a^mfm, £±d£¾$n Ed¢§ ¢§VdmX n[a^mfm, £±d£¾$n Ed¢§ 2018-07-02¢  n¢¥., n¢¥

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  • 23

    ggggmmmm____§VdmX … n[a^mfm, ñdê$n Ed§ §VdmX … n[a^mfm, ñdê$n Ed§ §VdmX … n[a^mfm, ñdê$n Ed§ §VdmX … n[a^mfm, ñdê$n Ed§

    {dH$mg{dH$mg{dH$mg{dH$mg àñVmdZm …àñVmdZm …àñVmdZm …àñVmdZm …

    Ama§̂ ‘| n¥Ïdr EH$ Ap½Znw§O Wr& dm¶w‘§S>cm| ‘| {~Iao AUwAmo§ Ho$

    nmañn[aH$ gpå‘bZ go dmBag Am¡a ~¡³Q>r[a¶m ~Zo {’$a AmH¥${VhrZ Ord A‘r~m&

    {’$a CgH$m {dH$mg dm¶w, Ob Am¡a ñWb na H«$‘e… ~‹T>Vm J¶m& Bgr Vah H$ar~

    Xg cmI df© nhbo {dH$mg H$s à{H«$¶m ‘| ‘Zwî¶ new OJV go AmJo {dH${gV

    hþAm& d¡km{ZH$m| H$m H$hZm h¡ dmZa go ‘mZd H$m {dH$mg hþAm& ‘mZd H$mo àmH¥${VH$

    e{³V¶m| Ho$ {déX²Y ‘| g§Kf© H$aZm n‹S>m& bJ^J 6 bmI B©. ny. go n«ma§̂ hmoZo dmbm

    H$mb nmfmU H$mb ‘mZm OmVm h¡& Bg ¶wJ ‘| Am¡Omam| Am¡a h{W¶mam| H$m à¶moJ

    H$aZm ewê$ {H$¶m Wm& Bgr Vah ‘Zwî¶ ‘mÌ Ho$ ApñVËd H$m àmW{‘H$ AmYma l‘

    ahm h¡& Bgr go ‘Zwî¶ Zo AnZo H$mo Aݶ newAm| go AcJ H$a {X¶m Am¡a àH¥${V na

    AnZm H$m¶© H$m¡ec {XImH$a AnZm ê$n ~XcVm ahm& ‘Zwî¶ gm‘y{hH$ ê$n go ahZo

    bJm& CgH$m l‘ ~‹T>Vm J¶m CgH$m qMVZ Am¡a {dMma ^r CÝZV hmoVo aho& Bg

    àH$ma ‘Zwî¶ VrZ AdñWmAm| go {dH${gV hmoVm ahm& O§JbrnZ go ~~©aVm H$s Amoa

    dh gä¶Vm H$s AdñWm ‘| ~‹T>Vm ahm&

    nwam-nmfmU¶wJ ‘| bmoJm| Zo Yrao-Yrao VWm H«$‘e… AnZo h{W¶mam| H$mo

    gwYmam& Zd-nmfmU¶wJ ‘| nËWa Ho$ h{W¶mam| H$mo nm{be H$aZo H$s H$bm ^r hñVJV

    H$a br& Bg ¶wJ ‘| ‘mZd H$m OrdZ-¶mnZ {eH$ma Am¡a ImX²¶ g§J«h go hmoVm Wm&

    gmW hr CÝhm|Zo AmË‘ajm Ho$ {cE Vra-H$‘mZ H$m Cn¶moJ ^r grIm& ¶h ImoO

    X²{dVr` AÜ`m`X²{dVr` AÜ`m`X²{dVr` AÜ`m`X²{dVr` AÜ`m`

  • 24

    A˶§V ‘hÎdnyU© Wr& ‘Zwî¶ Zo {MH$Zr {‘Q²>Q>r Am¡a bH$‹S>r go$ ~aVZ ~Zm¶o& nyam-

    nmfmU¶wJ Ho$ A§V Am¡a Zd-ßmmfmU¶wJ Ho$ nhbo ‘Zwî¶ newnmbZ H$s Amoa AmH¥$ï>>

    hþAm& Bgo h‘ ‘ܶ-nmfmU¶wJ ^r H$h gH$Vo h¢&Bgr Vah gm‘wXm{¶H$ AdñWm go

    {KgmB©, nm{be Am¡a Vra H$‘mZm| go Am{X‘ ‘Zwî¶ AmJo ~‹T>m& Bggo nadVu ‘Zwî¶

    na ì¶mnH$ à^md n‹S>m {Oggo ì¶{³VJV g§n{Îm Ho$ OÝ‘ Ho$ H$maU gm‘m{OH$ g§~§Y,

    {dVaU Am¡a CËnmXZ Ho$ ZE Vm¡a-VarH$m|$H$s g§^mdZmE± {XIZo bJr§& nwamVËd{dX²

    H$hVo h¢ bJ^J nm±M hOma df© go ‘Zwî¶ Ho$ ~mao ‘| AnojmH¥$V CÝZV gä¶Vm H$s

    OmZH$mar {‘bVr h¡& Cg g‘¶ go ‘mZd Zo Vm§~o H$m à¶moJ {H$¶m& {Og g‘¶

    ‘Zwî¶ Zo nËWa Ho$ gmW-gmW Vm§~o Ho$ Am¡Omam| H$m Cn¶moJ H$aZm àma§^ {H$¶m Cgo

    Vm‘«nmfmU ¶wJ H$hm OmZo bJm& {Og‘| H¥${f Am¡a newnmbZ H$m {dH$mg hmoVm ahm&

    O~ VH$ gm‘wXm{¶H$ AdñWm Wr, V~ VH$ ‘Zwî¶ X²dmam ‘Zwî¶ H$m emofU H$aZm

    Ag§^d Wm&A{V[a³V CËnmXZ Ho$ {d{Z‘¶-{dVaU Ho$ H$maU ì¶{³VJV g§n{Îm H$mo

    OÝ‘ hþAm& YZr Am¡a {ZY©Z Xmo dJ© ApñVËd ‘o§ AmE& H¥${f Am¡a newnmbZ Zo

    {nV¥gÎmm H$mo ñWm{nV {H$¶m Am¡a pñ̶m| H$s pñW{V ‘| ~Xbmd Am¶m& ¶h ~Xbmd

    Zmar A{YH$mam| H$mo Zï> H$aVm ahm&

    Am{X‘ ¶wJ ‘| AkmZ Am¡a ^¶ Wm& ¶hm± VH$ AmVo-AmVo EH$ dJ© Zo Bgo

    Or{dH$m H$m ‘mܶ‘ ~Zm¶m& nmfmU ¶wJ Ho$ ~mX d¡{XH$ g§ñH¥${V àma§̂ hþB©& d¡{XH$

    g§ñH¥${V H$mo Am¶© gä¶Vm ^r H$hm OmVm h¡& Bg H$mb ‘| amOm H$m nX d§emZwJV hmo

    J¶m Am¡a Xmg àWm H$m àMbZ hmo J¶m& Bg H$mb ‘| g‘mO àma§^ ‘| VrZ dJm] ‘|

    ~§Q>m-¶moX²Ym, nwamo{hV Am¡a gm‘mݶ bmoJ& CÎmad¡{XH$ H$mb ‘| g‘mO Mma dUm] ‘|

    {d^m{OV hmo J¶m& F$½doX Ho$ Xgd| ‘§S>b ‘| d{U©V nwéf gw³V ‘| Mma dUm] H$s

    CËn{Îm H$m dU©Z {‘bVm h¡& ~«mô‘U, j{̶, d¡í¶ Am¡a eyÐ& g‘mO ‘| dñVw

    {d{Z‘¶ Ho$ gmW gmW YmVw-‘wÐm {d{Z‘¶ H$m gmYZ ~Zr& Bgr Vah H$m¶© Hw$ebVm

  • 25

    go l‘ Ho$ {d^mOZ Ho$ ’$bñdê$n Om{V H$s ì¶wËn{Îm hþB©& ¶hr§ go Xmg dJ© H$s

    ewéAmV hþB© VWm à^w dJ© ì¶wËnÞ hmoZo ‘| n¶m©ßV g‘¶ {‘bm& Bg ¶wJ ‘| {H$gmZ

    AnZr ŷ{‘ H$m ñdm‘r hmoVm Wm& ~mX ‘| ŷ{‘ H$m ñdm‘r amOm H$mo ¶m Jm§d Ho$

    {H$gr à^mdembr ì¶p³V H$mo ~ZmZo H$s H$mo{ee H$s JB© Am¡a Cgo gm‘§V H$hZo bJo&

    2.1 gm‘§V eãX H$m AW© … gm‘§V eãX H$m AW© … gm‘§V eãX H$m AW© … gm‘§V eãX H$m AW© …

    gm‘§V eãX Ho$ ~mao ‘| {d{^Þ {dX²dmZmo§ Zo AbJ-AbJ AW© ~VmE h¢& {’$a

    ^r gm‘mݶV… BgH$m AW© "dra' AWdm "¶moX²Ym' hmoVm h¡& ì¶wËn{Îm‘ybH$ Ñ{ï> go

    "g‘' CngJ© ‘| "AV' à˶¶ Ow‹S>Zo go "gm‘§V' eãX ~ZVm h¡& {OgH$m AW© h¡

    gå¶H²$ A§V…¶ñW AWm©V A§V AÀN>m h¡ Am¡a g‘ÝVñW A{Yn{V… gm‘§V AWm©V

    g‘§V H$m ñdm‘r& ‘Zwñ‘¥{V Ho$ AZwgma-""amOm Ho$ ghm¶H$ AYrZ gaXma gm‘§V

    H$hbmVo Wo, Omo CgHo$ à{V ^{³V àX{e©V H$aVo&''1 gm‘§V H$m qhXr eãX gmJa ‘§o

    AW© h¡-""{H$gr amÁ¶ H$m H$aX H$moB© ~‹‹S>>m O‘rZXma ¶m gaXma ¶m n‹S>mog Ho$ amÁ¶

    H$m Zaoe&''2 am‘eaU e‘m© H$m H$WZ h¡-""gm‘§V Ho$db EH$ Jm§d H$m ñdm‘r Wm,

    dh ^r AnZo à^w go AZw‘{V {bE {~Zm AnZr O‘rZ Xÿgam| H$mo Xo gH$Vm Wm Am¡a

    O‘rZ Ho$ gmW-gmW OmoVZodmbo h{bH$m| H$mo ^r hñVm§V[aV H$a gH$Vm Wm&''3 ^maV

    ‘o§ ^mo{JH$ eãX ^w{³V eãX go g§~§{YV h¡, {OgH$m AW© h¡ A{YH$ma nX Ho$

    AZwgma ZH$X YZ AWdm Am¡a H$moB© dñVw boZm& ŵ{³V eãX H$s VwbZm ^moJ go H$s

    Om gH$Vr h¡& am‘eaU e‘m© Zo H$hm h¡ -""^mo{JH$, ^moJn{VH$ Am¡a ^mo{JH$nmbH$

    - O¡go eãXm| go gm‘§VdmXr g§~§Ym§o H$s J§Y Vmo AmVr hr h¡&''4 JwßV gm‘«mÁ¶ go

    gm‘§V eãX H$m à¶moJ {‘bVm h¡& hf©dY©Z Ho$ g‘¶ ‘| ^y{‘ AZwXmZ nÌ ‘| gm‘§V,

    1 {dO¶Hw$‘ma AJ«dmb, ñdmV§Í¶moÎma qhXr Cnݶmgm| ‘| gm‘§Vr OrdZ, n¥.51.

    2 g§nm. í¶m‘gw§Xa Xmg, qhXr eãX gmJa, n¥. 5071.

    3 S>m°. am‘eaU e‘m©, ^maVr¶ gm‘§VdmX, n¥.108.

    4 dhr, n¥.22.

  • 26

    ‘hmamO Am¡a ‘hmgm‘§V eãXm| H$m à¶moJ Cnm{Y¶m| Ho$ ê$n ‘| {H$¶m h¡& gm‘§Vm| H$m

    Xm{¶Ëd g‘«mQ>m| H$mo dm{f©H$ H$a XoZm Am¡a CZHo$ ¶hm§ ì¶{³VJV ê$n ‘o§ CnpñWV

    ahZm Wm& nam{OV amOm gm‘§V ~Zm {bE JE Wo& Bg àH$ma-""gm‘§V g¡{ZH$ Am¡a

    àemg{ZH$ Ñ{ï>¶m| go hr Zht, ~pëH$ gm‘m{OH$ Ñ{ï> go ^r AnZo à^w go g§~§Y ahVo

    Wo&''1 am‘eaU e‘m© gm‘§V eãX Ho$ ~mao ‘| H$hVo h¡§ - ""gm‘§Vm| Ho$ {bE H$B©

    g§kmAm| H$m à¶moJ hmoVm Wm, do Bg àH$ma h¢ - ^ynmb, ^mo³Vm, ^moJr, ^m¡{JH$,

    ^mo{JOZ, ^moJn{VH$, ^mo{Jê$n, ‘hm^moJr, ~¥hX²^moJr, ~¥hX²^mo{JH$, amOm¶k,

    amOamOZH$$, amUH$, amOnwÌ,amOdëb^,R>³Hw$a,gm‘§V,‘hmgm‘§V, ‘hmgm‘§Vm{Yn{V,

    ‘hmgm‘§V-amUH$,gm‘§VH$amOm, ‘m§S>{bH$ Am¡a ‘hm‘§S>boída&''2 Bg àH$ma gm‘§V

    eãX Ho$ AW© H$mo {dX²dmZm| Zo AnZo {d{^ÝZ ‘V 춳V {H$E h¢&

    {ZîH$f©V… H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡ {H$ gm‘§V eãX amOm{YH$m[a¶m| Ho$ {bE

    Cnm{Y Ho$ ê$n ‘| ¶m {’$a g‘«mQ> Ho$ AYrZ Omo Jm§d h¢ CZ Jm±dm| go H$a dgyb

    H$aZodmbm| Ho$ {bE BñVo‘mb hmoVm h¡& gmW hr gwajm H$m ^ma g§^mbZm VWm amOm

    Ho$ {bE goZm OwQ>mZm, ¶wX²Y H$aZm VWm AnZo AYrZñW H$mo X§S> XoZm ¶h g^r H$m¶©

    gm‘§V eãX Ho$ A§VJ©V AmVo h¢&

    2.2 gm‘§VdmX H$m AW© … gm‘§VdmX H$m AW© … gm‘§VdmX H$m AW© … gm‘§VdmX H$m AW© …

    "gm‘§VdmX' eãX g§~§Yr {d{^Þ {dX²dmZm| X²dmam ñdê$n {díbofU ‘| A§Va

    Am OmVm h¡& ¶yamon ‘| gm‘§VdmX Ho$ {bE "" "â¶yS>{bÁ‘' (Feudaliasm) H$hm h¡,

    {OgH$s ì¶wËn{Îm "Fief' eãX go ‘mZr OmVr h¡& b¡{Q>Z eãX Feudum h¡, {OgH$m

    AW© OmJra h¡& Feudul H$m AW© ^y{‘ H$m Qw>H$‹S>m h¡& gZ² 1912 ‘| ãbm{X{‘¶oa

    1 S>m°. am‘eaU e‘m©, ^maVr¶ gm‘§VdmX, n¥.30.

    2 dhr, n¥.229.

  • 27

    bo{ZZ Zo gm‘§VdmX H$mo n[a^m{fV H$aVo hþE H$hm Wm {H$ O‘rZ na ‘m{bH$mZm hH$

    Am¡a gm‘§Vmo§ H$m Xmgmo§ na ‘m{bH$mZm hH$& A§J«oOr Ho$ VrZ eãX Lord, Vassal Am¡a

    Fief gm‘§VdmX H$mo àH$Q> H$aVo h¢& Lord ¶m{Z gm‘§V Vassal ¶m{Z A{Yn{V R>mHw$a

    Am¡a Fief ¶mZr OmJra&''1 gm‘§VdmX eãX H$m à¶moJ ì¶mnH$ AW© ‘o§ ‘ܶ¶wJrZ Ho$

    A§V Am¡a AmYw{ZH$ H$mb Ho$ àma§^ ‘| {H$¶m OmZo bJm& ¶h eãX bmoH${චAm¡a

    ì¶mnH$ ê$n ‘| 1750 ‘| ¶yamon ‘| {‘bVm h¡& {OgZo ^y{‘ na AnZm H$ãOm {H$¶m

    Am¡a ñd¶§ H$ï> {H$E ~J¡a CËnmXZ Ho$ ñdm‘r ~Z JE h¢& Cgo gm‘§VdmX H$hm Om

    gH$Vm h¡& "gm‘§VdmX' H$m amOnmb qhXr eãXH$moe ‘| AW© h¡-""dh emgZ

    ì¶dñWm {Og‘| amÁ¶ H$s ^y{‘ ~‹S>o-~‹S>o O‘tXmam| Ho$ A{YH$ma ‘| ahVr Wr&''2 Bgr

    Vah BÝgmB³bmonr{S>¶m {~«Q>o{ZH$m ‘| H$hm h¡-""Feodum, Feudum' OmJra ¶m ewëH$

    Faihu Jmo{WH$ h¡& O‘rZ vien new AW© ‘| EH$ ‘mܶ{‘H$ ‘mÌ Am¶m {Zé{nV H$aZo

    Ho$ {bE, g§n{Îm, gm‘mݶ n¡gm, Xÿgar eãXm§e