Myanmar aquaculture and - Food and Agriculture ... Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) in Langkawi,

  • View
    0

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Myanmar aquaculture and - Food and Agriculture ... Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) in...

  • Myanmar aquaculture and

    inland fisheries

  • i

    FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

    REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

    Bangkok, 2003

    Myanmar aquaculture and

    inland fisheries

    RAP Publication 2003/18

  • ii

    © FAO & NACA 2003

    The designation and presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion

    whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), or of the Network

    of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area

    of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries.

    All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or

    other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders

    provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for sale or other

    commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such

    permission should be addressed to the Aquaculture Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan

    Mansion, 39 Phra Atit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand or to the Director General, Network of Aquaculture Centres

    in Asia-Pacific (NACA), Surawasdi Building, Department of Fisheries, Kasetsart University Campus, Ladyao,

    Jatujak, Bangkok, 10900.

    For copies write to: Aquaculture Officer

    FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

    Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Atit Road

    Bangkok 10200

    THAILAND

    Tel: (+66) 2 697 4000

    Fax: (+66) 2 697 4445

    E-mail: simon.fungesmith@fao.org

  • iii

    Contents Page

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................. v

    BACKGROUND TO THE MISSION ............................................................................................................ 1

    International mission team members ...................................................................................................... 1

    Myanmar fisheries sector .......................................................................................................................... 1

    MYANMAR – MISSION REPORT ON INLAND AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES ................................. 3

    Myanmar – aquaculture and inland fisheries .......................................................................................... 5

    Inland fisheries and aquaculture resources ............................................................................................ 5

    The role of inland fisheries and aquaculture in people’s livelihoods in Myanmar ................................... 6

    Participation in capture fisheries ............................................................................................................. 6

    Gender aspects....................................................................................................................................... 6

    Securing food .......................................................................................................................................... 7

    Fish consumption .................................................................................................................................... 7

    Identifying the poor ................................................................................................................................. 8

    Understanding peoples livelihoods ......................................................................................................... 9

    Leasable fisheries ...................................................................................................................................... 10

    Auction process, duration of lease and renewal ..................................................................................... 10

    Fishery management .............................................................................................................................. 10

    Thaung Tha Man – Mandalay ................................................................................................................. 12

    Mandalay town ........................................................................................................................................ 12

    South Mandalay ...................................................................................................................................... 13

    Inle Lake ................................................................................................................................................. 13

    Open fisheries and rice field resources ................................................................................................... 14

    Enhancement of freshwater leasable fisheries/culture-based fisheries .................................................. 16

    Reservoirs ............................................................................................................................................... 17

    Freshwater aquaculture ............................................................................................................................. 18

    Land use for aquaculture ........................................................................................................................ 18

    Rice-fish culture ...................................................................................................................................... 19

    Pond aquaculture .................................................................................................................................... 19

    Freshwater species cultured in Myanmar ............................................................................................... 20

    Stocking and harvesting.......................................................................................................................... 20

    Government hatcheries........................................................................................................................... 20

    Private hatcheries ................................................................................................................................... 21

    Feeds and feeding .................................................................................................................................. 21

    Marketing .................................................................................................................................................... 22

    Inle Lake fishery and marketing .............................................................................................................. 22

    Institutions and their roles ........................................................................................................................ 22

    The role of the Department of Fisheries (DoF) ....................................................................................... 22

    The role of Myanmar Fisheries Federation (MFF) .................................................................................. 26

    Inland fisheries and aquaculture: conclusions and recommendations .............................................. 27

    Information and statistics and appropriate valuation of fisheries resources ........................................... 27

    Aquaculture and aquatic resources in rural development ....................................................................... 27

    Institutions, communications and networking ......................................................................................... 27

    Research................................................................................................................................................. 28

    MYANMAR – MISSION REPORT ON COASTAL AQUACULTURE ........................................................... 29

    Myanmar – coastal aquaculture ................................................................................................................ 31

    Coastal aquaculture in Myanmar ............................................................................................................ 31

    Coastal habitats and resources .............................................................................................................. 31

    Brief history and status of coastal aquaculture ....................................................................................... 32

    Sub-sector analysis ................................................................................................................................... 32

    Shrimp farming........................................................................................................................................ 32

    Crab farming ........................................................................................................................................... 38

    Marine and brackishwater fish culture (groupers and seabass) ............................................................. 39

    Other species ............................................................