My Memoirs

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Memoir of Prince Lajos Windischgraetz

Text of My Memoirs

THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES a IA, ,, CALIF, MY MEMOIRS MY MEMOIRS BY PRINCE LUDWIG WINDISCHGRAETZ TRANSLATED BY CONSTANCE VESEY ' BOSTON AND NEW YORK HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 1921 36 J3 SIS THIS BOOK y~. IS DEDICATED TO THOSE WHO WILL RECONSTRUCT HUNGARY AND AUSTRIA CONTENTS vi Sy PA GH ^ FOREWORD " Peace negotiations in Switzerland, n Propaganda for Karolyi's Government, 12 Night attack, 13 *' Potato Campaign," 14 The Austro-Hungarian system, 18. BEFORE THE WAR 2I My origin, years of storm and stress, 21 Hungarian politics, 23 v Austria-Hungary and the national idea, 24 On secret service in Serbia, 26 At Sarospatak, 26 The elections of 19 10 and Tisza's policy of the strong hand, 26 Michael Karolyi, 28 Andrassy, leader of the Opposition, 31 Austria-Hungary's misguided domestic ^^ policy, 31 Our policy in the Balkans and as regards Italy, 32 I rejoin the army and take part in the Balkan War on the Bulgarian side, 34 Rout of a Turkish corps, 35 Submit report in Vienna, 36 Berchtold's policy, 37 Masaryk goes to Serbia, 38 French attempt at rapprochement, 39 My stay in Paris, 40 Negotiations with Caillaux, 41 The aimless Austro-Hungarian policy, 42 *\ Balkan policy, 42 Relations with Italy, 43 Lack of co-ordination fO between Austro-Hungarian authorities, 44 The South Slav question, 44 My brochure, Austria-Hungary's Armament Policy, 45 The domestic political situation in Hungary in the spring of 1914, 46 Tisza's duels, 47 Andrassy and Apponyi's Opposition, 48 My relations with the heir to the throne, 48 The Serajevo murder, *y funeral, 49 Effect of the assassination on Austria-Hungary's domestic policy, 50 The Serbian ultimatum, 51 The Prime Minister, Stiirgkh, and the departmental standpoint, 52 War enthusiasm in Buda Pesth, 54 Annexation policy and policy of alliance, 55 Grey's suggestion that the ultimatum should be modified, 56. AT THE FRONT 5 The advance on Serbia, 58 Forcing the Drina, 58 The fight for Sabac, 60 The advance across the Drina, 62 To Galicia, 65 Organization of the Espionage Service, 66 Conrad von Htzen- dorif, 66 The clique in the Supreme Command, 66 Advance under Terstyansky and retreat, 67 Notes in diary, 68 The grooms Viktor and Gaspar, 69 In the Operations Department, 69 With General Backmeister at Breslau, 70 Comparison between German and Hungarian soldiers, 70 The Espionage Service, 71 7 MY MEMOIRS PACK Belgrade taken, 72 Kaiser Wilhelm receives Austrian officers, 72 The German strategy, 72 Our ill-starred system, 74 The question of ceding Transylvania, 75 Visit from neutral officers, 76 Journey to Vienna, 77 Czech mutiny, 78 Aimless forcing a crossing of the Carpathians under Terstyansky, and retreat over the Carpathians, 78 Convention of Parliament and journey to Buda Pesth, 81 Andrassy, 81 Tisza's attitude, 82 Journey to Vienna, 83 The Auffenberg affair, 83 Vazsonyi, 86 With Ter- styansky at the south front, 88 The Italian declaration of war, 88 Intrigues against Terstyansky, 88 On leave in Buda Pesth, 90 With Mackensen: journey to Teschen, 91 Terstyansky's recall, 91 Taking the attack orders to the I Bulgarian Army, 91 At the Headquarters of the I Bulgarian Army, 92 German troops, 93 Lady Paget, 94 Dr. Ponten, 95 A sample of Austrian diplomacy, 95 Journeying through Albania, 97 As General Staff Officer with the IV Mountain Brigade at the south-west front, 97 Effect of the heavy artillery fire, 98 Alice Schalek, 10 1 To Buda Pesth. 101 Theabsolutistregimein Austria, 102 Austria-Hungary's foreign policy, 102 The Polish question, 103 Collapse of the front at Luck, 104 Andrassy and I in Berlin for negotiations over the Polish question, 105 The Stiirgkh terror, 106 Bethmann and Jagow in Vienna, 108 Teschen Headquarters against Tisza, 108 My memorandum to Tisza about our military and political situation, no Secret sitting of Parliament : my speech against the " system," in Effect of the speech, 114 At the Rumanian front, 116 Death of the Emperor Francis Joseph, 117 Successful night attack, 119 The Archduke Joseph Karl, 120 Election of the Coronation Knights, 121 To Vienna, 122 Meet Michael Karolyi, 123 Back at the front, 123 General Litzmann storms the Magyaros, 124 Russian Revolution, 125 Armistice proposal, 126 Negotiations with the Russian General Nekrassoff, 127. IN THE WAR CABINET 130 The new Regime, 130 Czernin Foreign Minister, 130 Esterhazy as Prime Minister, 131 Jobbery over political offices, 132 The franchise question, 132 The bloc protocol, 133 Vazsonyi, 133 The wheat supply, 135 Wekerle Prime Minister, 136 His character, 136 Ultimatum to Wekerle, 138 Audience of the Emperor Karl, 138 The South Slav question, 140 My office as Hungarian Food Minister, 141 Am presented to the Emperor at Laxenburg, 142 The Emperor on foreign policy, 143 Visit to Andrassy, 143 Taking over my new appointment, 144 Reorgan- ization of the food supply, 145 Memorandum on the food situation, 148 Requisitions, 148 Andrassy and Czernin, 149 Discussions over adding Galicia to Poland, 149 Czernin on the " bread peace," 150 Czernin's political mistakes, 151 The franchise conflict, 151 Audience of the Emperor, 153 Food situation and political situation, 155 Received with Czernin by the Emperor Karl, 157 Cabinet Council in Buda Pesth, 157 Czernin's resignation, 158 Andrassy proposed as his successor, 158 Burian appointed Foreign Minister, 159 Cabinet intention of resigning, 160 Enmity between Tisza and Karolyi, 161 Cabinet crisis and PRINCE LUDWIG WINDISCHGRAETZ 9 PAOS constitutional question, 162 Szterenyi entrusted with the formation of a Cabinet, 165 German military authorities demand offensive on the Piave, 166 Wekerle remains in office, 167 My work in the Food Office, 167 My relations with Tisza, 169 Reappointment of Wekerle's Cabinet, 170 Andrassyand his entourage, 170 Karolyi's ambition, 171 The franchise question, 172 Prime Minister Seidler, 175 My programme, 175 Question of the alliance, 178 Food difficulties in Tirol, 180 The Polish question, 181 Starving Vienna, 182 Discussion of the military position in Berlin, 183 Seidler's Cabinet, 184 The Piave offensive, 185 Karolyi's plans for the future, 186 Journey to Udine, 186 Council of War, 188 Discussions with German Headquarters about supplying food and Austria sending troops to the West front, 188 Kaiser Wilhelm on the Austro-Hungarian policy, 190 Conversations with the officers of the German Headquarters Staff, IQI Conversations in Berlin, 192 Austrian Party policy, 193 Karolyi's attitude, 194 Franchise Reform Bill accepted, 195 The question of State control of wheat, 196 Arbitrary military requisitions, 197 Conversation with the Emperor Karl about our domestic and foreign policy, 199 Julius Szilassy sent for, 205 Szilassy's programme, 207 Burian remains in office, 208 German journalists in Vienna, 209 Burian's peace note, 210 Tisza's visit to Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia, 210 Opposition in the Food Office, 210 Bolshevist propaganda, 211 Tisza consis- tently against the franchise, 212 The necessity of an entirely new policy to save the Monarchy, 213 The political chaos, 218 Feeling in Prague, 219 Attitude of the Ban of Croatia, 220 Breakdown of the German military strength, 221 Conversation with Socialists, 221 A scene with Karolyi, 222 Privy Council to consider the military situation, 223 Anxiety about Transylvania, 223 Reconciliation between Tisza, Andrassy and myself, 225 Audience of the Emperor at Reichenau, 228 Fresh conflict over the franchise question, 228 Navay sent for, 229 Talk with Tarnovsky, 230 Karolyi conspires, 231 The South Slav question, 232 Supplying German Austria with food, 232 Michael Karolyi with the Emperor Karl, 233 Manifesto proclaim- ing liquidation of the old Austria, 234 Karolyi on his policy, 235 Talk with Czernin, 235 The joint armistice proposal, 237 Navay refuses to take office, 238 Negotiations with Karolyi, 239 Political double-dealing, 240 Futile formation of a Cabinet, 242 The Hungarian crisis, 244 The Austrian crisis, 245 An English peace-feeler, 246. THE LAST DAYS 248 Sitting of the Hungarian Parliament, 248 Karolyi's Party, 250 The South Slav question, 252 Karolyi's links with the Entente, 253 Manifesto proposing an Austrian Federal State, 254 Dramatic sitting in the House of Deputies, 256 Karolyi and Tisza, 258 Secret sitting, 262 Karolyi and the Bolshevists, 263 King's birthday celebration at Debreczin, 263 Decisive state- ment to the King, 265 Beginning of the end, 267 Andrassy Minister for Foreign Affairs, 268 Andrassy and Karolyi, 269 10 MY MEMOIRS PAGE Organization of the Revolution, 273 I take leave of the Food Ministry, 275 Monster demonstration in front of Andrassy's house, 276 The veiled lady, 276 Revolution in Buda Pesth, 276 In the Hofburg, 278 My post as head of a section in the Foreign Office, 280 The separate peace note, 281 Conference with Count Wedel, 281 Difficulties in the way of forming a Cabinet, 283 Czernin on the position, 283 Telegram to the German Emperor, 284 The position on the Piave front, 284 Karolyi aspires to be Prime Minister, 285 Andrassy's speech to members of the House of Lords, 286 Karolyi's intrigues, 287 Karolyi acclaimed as a national hero, 289 The position at the front, 290 Talk with Viktor Adler, 292 Symptoms of decay everywhere, 292 The South Slav question, 293 Tisza on my policy, 294 The reserves refuse to obey, 295 Vienna's food supply, 295 Privy Council at Schnbrunn, 296 Armistice proposal, 297 Karolyi's role, 299 Agitation promoted by German Embassy, 300 Demonstration in Vienna, 302 Ministers discuss question of releasing military men from the oath, 302 The military authorities fail, 304 Outbreak of revolution, 306 Karolyi Prime Minister, 308 Karolyi's fear of the Hungarian troops, 310 Awaiting Wi