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Mutations and DNA Technology. What is a mutation? A mutation is a change in DNA Two types of mutations are gene mutations and chromosome mutations

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Mutations and DNA Technology Slide 2 What is a mutation? A mutation is a change in DNA Two types of mutations are gene mutations and chromosome mutations. Slide 3 Gene mutations A POINT MUTATION is a mutation that affects one nucleotide or one base. Sometimes your cell catches it when proofreading. What will happen? The wrong amino acid may be put into place. Example: sickle cell anemia YOU ARE FAT >>>> YOU ARE CAT ATA TAG CCA >>>>> AAA TAG CCA Slide 4 A FRAMESHIFT mutation involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide or base. This causes a shift in the whole sequence. This usually causes something bad to happen. THE CAT ATE THE RAT. >> THC ATA TET HER AT ATT CCA TAG >>>> ATC CAT AG Every amino acid put in will be wrong. Slide 5 Chromosomal mutations Occurs during meiosis. The resulting gamete will have the wrong number of chromosomes. These tend to increase as parents get older. Slide 6 Down Syndrome Slide 7 Turner syndrome Slide 8 There is only one X chromosome on the 23 rd pair. This is a female. (1/2500) She is underdeveloped. She is short. 47 May have webbed neck, low hairline on back of head, drooping eyelids, lower set ears, edema of hands and feet. Usually sterile. Slide 9 What about a person with only one Y chromosome? (lacks an X) He will not live. Why? Slide 10 Klinefelters Slide 11 Male 1/500-1/1000 males Tall Reduced fertility Less muscle control and coordination Less facial hair and broader hips Language and reading difficulty Slide 12 Slide 13 XYY syndrome Tall male May not have any phenotypic differences Was associated with criminal or antisocial behavior. Slide 14 Trisomy Can be any chromosome. Usually cause extreme effects in people and animals. Plants survive. Slide 15 Are all mutations bad? Some are bad. Some are harmless Some may actually be beneficial. Slide 16 Mutations in body cells affect the organism. Mutations in gametes affect the offspring. Slide 17 Mutagens A mutagen is something that causes a mutation. Industrial chemicals UV light Any radiation Drugs Chemicals Slide 18 Genetic engineering Slide 19 DNA fingerprinting Every person has their own unique DNA fingerprint. Can be used for identification. Can be used to establish paternity. Study human migration. Slide 20 Slide 21 Cloning Genetically identical copy of an organism. Can be done easily with plants. (Also occurs naturally.) Can be done with animals. Should it be done with people. Slide 22 Slide 23 the boys from brazil - rabbit cloning YouTube GCSE Science Revision - Cloning Dolly The Sheep - YouTube Slide 24 Genetic engineering Taking DNA from one organism and inserting it into the DNA of another organisms. This is called recombinant DNA. The new organism is a transgenic organism. We do this to make insulin. We take an insulin gene from a person and put it into the DNA of a bacteria. What do we get? Bacteria that produce insulin. Slide 25 We have created plants that are resistant to frost, diseases and insects. We can increase crop yields. We have developed animals for research. Slide 26 Human genome project Sequence the human genome. Find all of the genes on all of the chromosomes. Slide 27 Slide 28 Slide 29 Slide 30 Slide 31 Gene therapy Repair defective genes. Still very experimental. Should we do it?