Musical Elements in Paganini’s “24 Caprices” An exploration of the compositional elements used in Paganini’s “24 Caprices” and their influence on Brahms, Sarasate, and Sibelius in their works. Subject: Music Name: Henry Liu Exam Session: May 2011 Word Count: 3988

Musical Elements in Paganini’s “24 Caprices”

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An exploration of the compositional elements used in Paganini’s “24 Caprices” and their influence on Brahms, Sarasate, and Sibelius in their works.

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Page 1: Musical Elements in Paganini’s “24 Caprices”

Musical Elements in Paganini’s “24 Caprices”

An exploration of the compositional elements used in Paganini’s “24 Caprices” and their influence on Brahms, Sarasate, and Sibelius in their works.

Subject: Music

Name: Henry Liu

Exam Session: May 2011

Word Count: 3988

Page 2: Musical Elements in Paganini’s “24 Caprices”


Musical elements in Paganini’s “24 Caprices”: An exploration of the compositional elements used in Paganini’s “24 Caprices” and their influence on Brahms, Sarasate, and Sibelius in their works.

The purpose of this essay is to explore the possibility that Brahms, Sarasate, and Sibelius were composers whose works were influenced by the compositional elements Paganini incorporated in his compilation of caprices. In doing so, it is important to recognize the different virtuosic techniques that bring out his musical elements. This includes his extensive application of intervals; thirds, sixths, and tenths by using “double-stopped” notes, prolonging passages of both up and down bow staccato to emphasize expansion of range, pushing the limits of chromatic harmonies, and adding dozens of pizzicato notes at fast tempos with the left hand continuously.

This essay focuses on one, or two famous works each by Brahms, Sarasate, and Sibelius. By inquiring external sources, I discovered that others have realized the impact of Paganini’s caprices and their influence on other composers. As a result, I selected works from my violin performance repertoire and analyzed them in terms of the elements used that were closely related to Paganini. By extracting certain measures of his caprices that contain musical elements established by his brilliance, and comparing them with the works of the aforementioned selected composers, I took into consideration the similarities of the extracts through tempo markings, rhythm, chord progressions, harmonic intervals of notes, junction of the melodic movements, and the range of the passages.

By providing supporting evidence of Paganini’s influence on Brahms, Sarasate, and Sibelius, I have drawn the conclusion that they display, in their works, several of the innovative compositional elements that Paganini established in his “24 Caprices”.

Word Count: 284


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The Virtuosic Technique of Paganini.............................................................4

Johannes Brahms...........................................................................................4

Pablo de Sarasate...........................................................................................8

Jean Sibelius.................................................................................................12


Bibliography .................................................................................................16


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When asked for a definition of the term “caprice” in a musical context, one can say it is a lively piece of music short and free in form1. However, Nicolo Paganini (27, October 1782 - 27, May, 1840), one of the most renowned violin virtuosi of his time, ensured that his “24 Caprices” could not be mastered with any level of freedom and ease. Each of the etudes can be viewed as masterpieces that explore innovative compositional elements that push beyond the teachings of the traditional schools of violin methodology. By incorporating almost every technical deception that he could conceive in the entire compilation, Paganini presented the solo violinist with a journey of a lifetime and requirement of undivided dedication to grasp the level of mastery the “24 Caprices” require.

Who has been influenced by Paganini and his “24 Caprices”? What musical elements have they incorporated into their works? How has their music been affected by such elements? In an attempt to answer these questions, I have compiled an exhaustive list of works by various composers for the violin and looked to multiple sources to see if others have answered these questions. The New Grove Encyclopedia of Music includes in the section of Nicolo Paganini, “…but drew the attention of other Romanic composers, notably Liszt, to the significance of virtuosity as an element in art”2. Franz Liszt was immensely influenced by Paganini’s works, particularly by the “24 Caprices”. When Liszt first heard Paganini perform in 1831, he was amazed, and thus he was determined to become the “Paganini of the piano”3. The influence led Liszt to compose a set of etudes named after Paganini himself, where six of the etudes were Paganini’s own melodies expanded into grander and more elegant works for both the violin and piano. Even Liszt’s famous “La Campanella” was inspired by the last movement of Paganini’s second violin concerto, using the same recurring theme and harmonic treatments.

However, Paganini’s influence extended beyond the works of Liszt. By exploring the works of three other notable composers that have not been examined by external sources, an exploration focused on the influence of Paganini’s compositional elements can further enhanced. These composers include Johannes Brahms, Pablo de Sarasate, and Jean Sibelius.

Through this investigation, I will attempt to explore how Paganini’s use of musical elements, expressed by his ingenious virtuosic techniques, reoccur throughout his caprices and how these elements have also been seen in the works of the composers that lived in his time, or after. In other words, exploring the possibility that his caprices pushed the boundaries of technical and emotional performance practice in an artistic manner to such extent that it can be said they unlocked the doors to the Romantic Era.

1 “Caprice.” Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd. ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989. Print.2 The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Volume 14. MacMillian Publishers Limited. London3 http://musicality.wikia.com/wiki/Franz_Liszt


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The Virtuosic Technique of Paganini

By virtuosic technique, I am referring to the technical skills required to execute the innovative compositional elements that Paganini used in his caprices. He wrote and performed astounding whole passages with elements never seen before or expanded to such depth and complexity by extensively applying intervals of thirds, sixths, and tenths in “double-stopped” notes, prolonging passages of both up and down bow staccato, using the devilish fingered octave scales, adding dozens of pizzicato notes at fast tempos with the left hand, and composing the infamous double harmonics, all encompassed within dramatic and expressive layers of colorful tone with ranges reaching to four octaves or more.

“It was in extending the range of his instrument, in demonstrating what surprising results could be obtained by a combination of natural talent and hard work-in short, in showing new paths for the development of instrumental virtuosity, that Paganini’s greatest merit lay”4. I believe that Jeffrey Pulver in 1970 was indicating, through these words, the numerous unparalleled use of musical elements revealed in Paganini’s works remain as the ultimate test for a virtuoso violinist as they demand techniques that are ingenious expansions of playing styles already discovered, but to much greater extents and difficulty. Paganini’s compositional elements appear in combinations that have been closely studied and perhaps even regarded as the turning point to the advancement of virtuosic violin technique and musical inspiration.

Johannes Brahms

Born in 1833, seven years prior to Paganini’s death, this German composer is often noted as one of the greatest composers in the Romanic Period, along with the likes of Chopin, Schubert and Liszt. The overlap of their lives opens the possibility that Paganini’s works, after his death, was noted and studied by Brahms. Although works for the violin was not his primary focus, Brahms did however, compose concertos and chamber works featuring solo violin. The work we will explore in the attempt to reveal the possible influence of Paganini’s compositional elements found in the “24 Caprices” is his “Concerto in D major”, Opus 77 (International Music Company Edition).

The Brahms “Violin Concerto in D major” was a three-movement work composed in 1878 for solo violin and orchestra, and dedicated to a close friend of Brahms’, Joseph Joachim. The significance their friendships for the purposes of this investigation must be considered as it could answer several questions regarding this exploration. My interview with Jonathan Der (M.Mus), who studied the School of Galamian Technique and the style of Paganini at the Jacobs School of Music during his years at Indiana University, led to an explanation of the link between Brahms, Joachim and Paganini. In the interview, he mentioned that Joachim edited the violin part to Brahms’ concerto, and Paganini and

4 Pulver, Jeffrey. Paganini The Romantic Virtuoso. New York. Da Capo Press, 1970. p. 315


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his compositional elements heavily influenced Joachim. Therefore, the possibility of Joachim incorporating Paganini’s elements through the virtuosic techniques into Brahms’ violin concerto is quite plausible. It is also common fact for many who study Paganini and his works to know that his compositions showed technical solutions, which, over the years, have been incorporated into a majority of the successful violin concertos.

Image 15: Measures 163-167 displaying the continuous use of the triple stop chords.

We first see an evident application of a compositional style used by Paganini from measure 164 onwards (refer to Image 1) of the Brahms “Concerto in D major”, the triple stop chord. The triple stop chord is often used in violin solo pieces to add expansive overtones to specific notes on the virtuoso instrument. Paganini was not the first to incorporate the triple stop chord. However until the appearance of his caprices, no composer put these chords to practice in such a fashion that they repeated them multiple times exercising incredible swift articulations of the bow.

Image 26: Excerpt from Caprice No. 22, showing the triple stops and its expansive use.

In Paganini’s “Caprice #22” (refer to Image 2) the same style of triple stop usage can be noticed. Due to the nature of the frequencies emitted from the instrument when certain pitches are played together, the general richness of the overtones increase. When executed correctly, the need for a piano to provide accompaniment can be optional as the tones are now also by the violin and independence is achieved for the virtuoso violinist by completing the triads. Notice the top voice of each triad for both examples given. The chords progress harmonically in more or less of a stepwise motion, while the top voice is sustained, allowing for the harmony to be highlighted on the violin. With the addition of a piano part, even more tonal features can be expressed for the listener.

The “Caprice No. 22” is only one example. Throughout the entire compilation, triple stops appear in groups of several measures. From this comparison, a possibility exists that Brahms may have noticed the valuable use of this compositional element by

5 Brahms Concerto in D major. International Music Company Edition. Edited by Joseph Joachim 6 24 Caprices. Paganini. Opus 1. International Music Company. No. 10017


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Paganini and found it appropriate to include into his own work, and perhaps also with the input of Joseph Joachim.

In his “Caprice No. 24” Variation 11 (refer to Image 3), Paganini marks the end of his legendary work of musical art with 12 consecutive measures of arpeggios. However, these were not just the customary arpeggios from the baroque and classical eras that composers such as Bach would place in his violin sonatas, these were arpeggios that reached new dimensions, expanding its range over three octaves in one phrase, going in both up and down directions at unmatched tempos.

Image 36: Paganini's Caprice No. 24 Finale with expanded arpeggios.

When playing through the Brahms “Violin Concerto in D Major” by sight-reading, I would pause at the arpeggios used because of the technical difficulty and the need to verify correct intonation due to its high register (refer to Image 4). It was then that I realized the distinct similarities between the arpeggios I was struggling to play and the ones I analyzed in Paganini’s “Caprice No. 24” (Image 3). Both were played across all four strings for over three octaves in both directions. In the Baroque and Romantic Era, arpeggiated runs were used more conservatively for the sole purpose of prolonging the effect of chord. An example of this is seen in measure 179 of Bach’s “Sonata No. 3 in C major” (see Image 5). Notice how the arpeggio that serves the same purpose as Paganini’s near the end of the composition is only structured upon one octave, and remains at the same tempo as the preceding phrases whereas Paganini’s arpeggios are expansive in range and fast in tempo.

Image 45: Brahms Concerto in D measure 377-378 three-octave arpeggio

6624 Caprices. Paganini. Opus 1. International Music Company. No. 10017



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Image 57: Bach Sonata No. 3 in C Major (Baroque). Measure 176-179; displaying progression to arpeggio.

Another compositional element Paganini frequently applied to many of his caprices is the use of successive dyadic harmonies that require a performer to play a double stop (see Image 6). Many composers that lived long before he was born were already using double stops. The technique required to play these notes demands the violinist to play two notes simultaneously while keeping correct intonation, resulting in more than twice the difficulty to execute, as a millimeter’s difference on a violin fingerboard could potentially be a semitone gap.

Image 66:Paganini's Caprice No. 22; Double stop usage.

Similar to the triple stops, Paganini brought the use of dyadic harmonies through “double stopping” to a new degree. He expanded its usage by writing them in intervals of thirds, developing into sixths, and eventually tenths. By doing so, he allowed for the continuous flow of multiple tones to be expressed by the virtuoso violinist and this flow created the possibility that even the use of multiple stops could build conjunct movements in the structure of each caprice’s harmony. The option as to the colors of the tones each player wanted their instrument to project could also be controlled in new ways.

Image 75: Brahms Concerto in D major measures 557-565; Double stops

7 Bach Sonata No. 3 in C Major, S. 1005. International Music Company No. 252566 24 Caprices. Paganini. Opus 1. International Music Company. No. 1001755 Brahms Concerto in D major. International Music Company Edition. Edited by Joseph Joachim


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Looking at Image 7, it is evident that Brahms favored the use of double stops in his “Violin Concerto in D Major” and it may have been, to certain extents, the influence of Paganini’s caprices on Brahms. The interesting part lies in his usage of the musical element. Like Paganini, double stops appearing thirds, sixths and tenths occur throughout the passage. However, Brahms expands the same technique even further by the use of parallel motions. The descending double stops build the phrases in an ascending manner by increasing the intervals of the several stops with each phrase. This enlarges the range that Brahms wishes to explore in his concerto, as well as builds the climax of the melody with intensity and rich tones for the outcome of a satisfying and powerful resolution, a style Brahms is often known for.

Pablo de Sarasate

Sarasate (1844-1908) was known, and still is, as the great composer and Spanish violinist of the Romantic Period. Although there exists a possibility that the influences of Paganini’s caprices can be seen in his music, their lives never physically crossed paths as Paganini passed away four years prior to Sarasate’s birth. Gil Shaham in the video broadcast series “Live from Lincoln Center” discusses Nicolo Paganini and Pablo de Sarasate and their music. Shaham mentions in the webcast that “Nicolo Paganini changed the world of violin forever…and Sarasate was in many ways the heir to Paganini8. As he explains the similarities between the Caprice Basque by Sarasate and Paganini’s 24th caprice, he also states “In the Caprice Basque, he pays homage to Paganini.” When I play any of Sarasate’s violin compositions, they stand out to be showpieces that exhibit irreproachable techniques. It was for the same reason that I decided to explore into Sarasate’s best-known works aside from the “Caprice Basque” mentioned by Gil Shaham in the webcast. By doing so, I made an attempt to produce the relation I was looking for between the compositional elements used by Romantic composers such as Sarasate, and by Paganini.

The first piece I analyzed is one of Sarasate’s most renowned compositions for violin and orchestra, “Zigeunerweisen” (Gypsy Airs Opus 20). Composed in 1878, it has been recorded multiple times by the likes of Itzhak Perlman, Isaac Stern, Jascha Heifetz and Sarasate himself. When approaching the piece by isolating sections into areas for technical practice, one can see the apparent use of pizzicato, mainly left hand pizzicato (indicated by a small “+” above the note). This technique used in “Zigeunerweisen” is an exact duplicate of the technique seen in the ninth variation of Paganini’s Caprice No. 24 (see Image 8), where both show the change the timbre of the notes as they sound quite different compared the effects of staccato bowing or right-hand pizzicato.

8 http://www.lincolncenter.org/videos/lflc/paganini.htm


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Image 86: Paganini Caprice No. 24 Var. 9- Left hand pizzicato marked with a cross above the note.

Before Paganini, pizzicatos were mostly played with the bow hand and did not occur often throughout any piece. The first known use of pizzicato was by Claudio Monteverdi in 1638, and by Mozart in 1756 where both composers instruct the player to use the index finger of their right hand to pluck the string while having the bow in hand8. However, Paganini introduced the pizzicato in a revolutionary way, where the tempo at which notes are plucked and played increases substantially. This results in new possibilities for the violin music to contain natural sounds, as well as artificial percussive embellishments, changing the overall timbre of the composition. When looking at measure 132 in “Zigeunerweisen”, the left-hand pizzicati reveals itself not only for that measure, but for the following five measures as well (refer to Image 9). The extent of its usage is nearly identical to that of Paganini’s.

Image 99: Measure 132-137 of Sarasate's Zigeunerweisen; displaying left-hand pizzicato.

Although there is an evident relation between the two excerpts previously compared, more supporting evidence led me to believe that there indeed exists a strong influence between the two composers. By examining the “Carmen Fantasy” (Opus 25) written by Sarasate in 1883, one can notice yet another similarity between Paganini’s “Caprice No. 24” (Image 8) and a pizzicato section from Sarasate’s “Carmen Fantasy” for the violin (see Image 10). The rapid alternation of “arco” and “pizz” at such a high speed is, again, identical to the ninth variation of Paganini’s 24th caprice. By these comparisons, I would assume that these two excerpts of Sarasate’s compositions are supportive evidence of a very plausible influence of musical elements, through the pizzicato technique, between Paganini’s 24th caprice and Sarasate’s music.

66 24 Caprices. Paganini. Opus 1. International Music Company. No. 1001788 http://www.theviolinsite.com/pizzicato.html99 Zigeunerweisen. Pablo de Sarasate. International Music Company. Opus 20, No. 1


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Image 101010: Excerpt from Sarasate’s Carmen Fantasy: displaying the left hand pizzicato technique.

Although Paganini already expanded the pizzicato to new levels, Sarasate widened the scope of its use with his own contributions to the left and pizzicato technique. In his “Carmen Fantasy”, not only does he apply the technique almost in an uniform manner as Paganini as seen previously in Image 10, he embraces the idea of both the double stop and the left-hand pizzicato and combines the two to form double stop pizzicatos executed by the left hand only (refer to Image 11). The level of mastery required in order to successfully perform the technique is one of the greatest challenges for a violinist.

Image 111010: Sarasate's Carmen Fantasy: excerpt displaying double stop pizzicato.

When looking at other compositional elements brought out by virtuosic techniques in Sarasate’s music, I noticed his use of the up-bow staccato, because it is a technique I have yet to fully master. It is not specified as a technique on the score, however, the nature of playing the notes in that manner at such a high tempo leads all violinists to a unanimous decision that what they see is, in fact, up-bow staccato. In Paganini’s “Caprice No. 7” (see Image 12), he introduces the up-bow staccato in a way that no known composer prior to his work has composed for performance purposes.

Image 126: Paganini's Caprice No.7; displaying up and down bow staccato strokes.

Not only does he fit over an octave worth of notes per staccato run, he writes them in both up and down bow directions. The up-bow staccato is much easily mastered than

1010 Carmen Fantasy. Pablo de Sarasate. International Music Company. Opus 25. 10



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the down-bow staccato due to the fact that a violinist’s index finger can pronate the bow into the strings and use the opposing force from the string to drive the staccato. However, a down-bow staccato stroke requires supination of the bow, where no opposing force exists to drive the staccato run and that is where the difficulty lies. This technique, when mastered, can be used effectively in harmonically reshaping the music as the ranges in which the melody wishes to move can be reached in minimal time.

Revisiting Sarasate’s piece “Zigeunerweisen”, we see the up-bow staccato appear first on measure twenty-three (see Image 13). Like Paganini, Sarasate expands the range, however he pushes the boundaries to almost a full two octaves. In addition, he forces the violinists to play the stroke extremely slow in order to fit thirty notes at an exceptionally high velocity. The similarities between Paganini’s use of up-bow staccato and Sarasate’s application of the same compositional style in a more expansive manner appears to provide a musical link between the two composers.

Image 139: Sarasate's Zigeunerweisen measure 23: displaying the up-bow staccato.

It was uncommon practice in the Baroque and Classical eras for the notes on a violin to be played with a need to cross all four strings between one note and another. However, Paganini broke these barriers by effectively implementing the idea of four-string crossing in his “Caprice No. 16” (see Image 13). One aspect I found that this style of composing contributed to was the continuity of rhythm. Comparable to Beethoven’s astounding music, or any other great composer for that matter, playing around with rhythmic aberration for the convenience of the technical difficulties seems less pleasing for the listener. The human body has a tendency to accept and conform to a continuous pulse when a theme is developed. In my opinion, based on the continuity of rhythm the string crossings provide, Paganini has created an opening for new explorations of rhythmic satisfaction in violin virtuoso music.

99 Zigeunerweisen. Pablo de Sarasate. International Music Company. Opus 20, No. 1


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Image 146: Paganini Caprice No. 16; displaying the crossing of four strings.

In measure 78 of Sarasate’s “Zigeunerweisen” (see Image 15), we see that he has also applied the use of four string crossings for notes, despite the fact that it was uncommon practice. This more or less shows another possible influence Paganini’s compositional style has influenced Sarasate.

Image 159: Sarasate's Zigeunerweisen measure 78; 4 string crossings.

From the excerpts examined so far that show left-hand pizzicatos of different forms, up-bow staccatos, and alternation of notes that require the crossing of all four strings, I believe that Sarasate’s brilliant use of musical elements in his compositions have developed from the foundations set by Paganini in his caprices.

Jean Sibelius

Sibelius (1865-1957) was a Finnish composer known for his important role in the Late Romantic Period. His most famous works include his seven symphonies. Born twenty-five years after Paganini’s death, Sibelius never had the chance to meet him, let alone discuss compositional elements with Paganini. However, through an exploration into his “Concerto in D minor” for the violin and piano, I will attempt to find evidence of the influence of Paganini’s musical elements in his work.

Composed in 1903, the Sibelius violin concerto calls for a high level of technical mastery from the violin virtuoso, and for that reason, I believe there may have been possible musical elements that requires the application of techniques used in Paganini’s caprices. The first indication of possible influences, whether it be direct or indirect was the unusual use of extensive chromaticism by Sibelius. We can see in both Paganini’s “Caprice No.5” (see Image 16) and “Caprice No. 24” Variation 4 (see Image 17) that he

66 24 Caprices. Paganini. Opus 1. International Music Company.99 Zigeunerweisen. Pablo de Sarasate. International Music Company. Opus 20, No. 1


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took the chromatic runs seen in classical era music and expanded its use for solo violin. He also used it in his “Caprice No. 24” as an alternative method to increase the scope and expressions of his melody (Image 17).

Image 166: Paganini's Caprice No. 5; use of expanded chromaticism

Image 176: Paganini's Caprice No. 24 Variation 4; displaying extensive use of chromaticism

Such use of chromaticism by Paganini is a compositional element that was uncommon to composers of his time. It allowed him to intersperse the primary diatonic pitches with other pitches of the chromatic scale. With the application of these chromatic runs at such great dimensions, Paganini created effective contrast to the tonality set by his use of double and triple stops seen in the previous examples with Brahms. This musical element is considered an “elaboration or substitution of diatonic scale members”9. When playing through the Sibelius violin concerto, I also noticed an evident use of chromaticism in the first movement (see Image 18). Sibelius does not restrict himself to the same chromatic runs that Paganini uses, instead, he pushes the violinist another step further in mastering the technique by incorporating double stops into the chromatic passage. By using the chromatic double stop runs, Sibelius was able to musically abandon the modulation that would have been needed, and replace it with chromaticism.

66 24 Caprices. Paganini. Opus 1. International Music Company. No. 100176

9 Brown, Matthew. The Diatonic and Chromatic Scale in Schenker’s “Theory of Harmonic Relations”. Journal of Music Theory. Spring 1986.


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Image 1810: Sibelius Concerto in D minor; displaying the chromatic double stops.

One of the most evident similarities between Paganini’s Caprices and Sibelius’ violin concerto I noticed was the use of ricochet bowing. The ricochet bowing is completed across strings with one note per string in succession at a rapid tempo. Paganini is credited in introducing the unorthodox technique of ricochet bowing- bouncing the bow against the strings in order to play staccato notes at a high velocity11. In Paganini’s first caprice, it is used to develop the entire etude (see Image 19).

Image 196: Paganini's Caprice No. 1; introducing the ricochet bowing.

Sibelius uses the identical compositional technique in the final measures of his first movement (see Image 20). By the application of the ricochet bowing, he was able to prolong the arrival of double stop passage that leads to the cadence. The ricochet bowing makes the prolongation effective due to its nature of a fast, steady, rhythmic pattern. This pattern is built upon chords that are split to create intensity and direction in the melody.

Without Paganini’s innovative compositional elements, Sibelius may not have been able to develop such great works such as the “Violin Concerto in D minor”. The supporting evidence provided makes it unreasonable to doubt the possibility of Paganini’s influence on Sibelius and his use of musical elements that challenge the virtuosic violinist.

10 Sibelius Concerto in D Minor. Opus 47. International Music Company. No. 1001811 http://www.lifeinitaly.com/music/niccolo-paganini.asp66 24 Caprices. Paganini. Opus 1. International Music Company. No. 10017


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Nicolo Paganini and his caprices have proven to break the boundaries of standard performance practice in the Baroque and Classical eras for the violin, and introduced new approaches to expand and explore the possibilities of virtuosic playing by the means of innovative musical elements. The “24 Caprices” can be viewed as a standard to which all other solo violin music is measured in terms of technical difficulty and the rectitude of virtuosity. Instead of being shallow compositions, as many critics ignorantly accuse of Paganini’s caprices, these works of musical art should be recognized with full honors. When played with technical accuracy, rhythmic precision, and maturity, they are powerful and influential tools that open the doors to new horizons in violin music. Reflected by the examples in this paper, the compositional elements that Paganini introduced to the world of music have the potential to be resources which re-interpret masterpieces of solo violin repertoire- the great architecture of Brahms, the Spanish fire of Sarasate, and the symphonic solidity of Sibelius.


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Pulver, Jeffrey. Paganini: The Romantic Virtuoso. New York. Da Capo Press. 1970. Print.

Sadie, Stanely. “Paganini, Nicolo”. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians”.Vol. 14. London. MacMillian Publishers Limited, 1980. Print.

Brown, Matthew. The Diatonic and Chromatic Scale in Schenker’s “Theory of Harmonic Relations”. Journal of Music Theory. Vol. 30 No. 1. Spring, 1986. Print.

De Courcy, G.I.C. Paganini The Genoese. Vol. 2. Norman, Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press. 1957. Print.

Kauffman, David. Technical Twist. Vol. 108 Issue 1284. April 1997. Article. Print.

Publications (Scores):

Paganini, Nicolo. 24 Caprices Op. 1. No. 10017. New York. International Music Company. Print.

Brahms, Johannes. Concerto in D major. Edited by Joachim, Joseph. International Music Company. Print.

Bach, Johann Sebastian. Sonata No. 3 in C major. S.1005. New York. International Music Company No. 2525. Print.

Sarasate, Pablo de. Zigeunerweisen Op. 20 No. 1. New York. International Music Company. Print

Sarasate, Pablo de. Carmen Fantasy Op. 25. New York. International Music Company. Print.

Sibelius, Jean. Concerto in D minor Op. 47. No. 10018. New York. International Music Company. Print.


Earls, Jason. Nicolo Paganini: The World’s Greatest Violinist14 Jan. 2011. <http://www.lifeinitaly.com/music/niccolo-paganini.asp>

The Violin Site. Pizzicato.16 Jan. 2011. <http://www.theviolinsite.com/pizzicato.html>

Shaham, Gil. 20 Nov. 2008. Nicolo Paganini and Pablo de Sarasate.10 Jan. 2011. <http://www.lincolncenter.org/videos/lflc/paganini.htm>


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