Multivariate classification of wines from sevenpan
analytical variable gives little information on the
membership of the group we want to characterise, so
applied previously to wine classication.1114
splitting 300kg of grapes of each clone into three lots.
Fermentation was conducted in 100l stainless steel
phite was added at the beginning of fermentation
taken and frozen immediately at 24 C until ana-lysed.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture J Sci Food Agric 80:497501 (2000)(Received 14 June 1999; revised version received 29 September 199EXPERIMENTALSeven clones from Monastrell grapes were cultivated
in south-east Spain. Vines were planted at 3m1.5mspacing and trained to a two-wire trellis, with the lower
Mineral element determinationAtomic absorption spectrometry with a Phillips PU
9400 instrument was used for the determination of
9; accepted 4 November 1999)
*Correspondence to: Encarna Gomez-Plaza, Unidad de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Faculated de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Campusde Espinardo, E-30071 Murcia, SpainE-mail: email@example.com# 2he main aim of this investigation was to compare
colour characteristics, organic acids and mineral
ents among wines from different clones of
nastrell grapes and to obtain a multivariate
hematical method which allows us to differentiate
ng wines from different clones.
(50mgkg1 grapes). Maceration was done inpresence of skins, and when alcoholic fermentat
was nished, three rackings were made at 7, 14 and
days after the nal pressing of the grapes. Wi
underwent spontaneous malolactic fermentation a
then cold stabilisation (4 C, 1month). Samples wthe use of multivariate statistical methods is necessary.
These types of mathematical treatments have been
tanks where the temperature was controlled at 25 C.
No selected yeasts were added. Potassium metabisul-Abstract: The enological characteristics of differ
The wines obtained from different clones were s
mination of organic acids, colour characteristics
found among clones. To check if these analytical p
multivariate statistical analysis was done. Clu
correctly samples belonging to the same clone.
# 2000 Society of Chemical Industry
Keywords: red wine; colour characteristics; mineral e
INTRODUCTIONDifferent clones from one grape variety can differ in
their productive characteristics and their ability to
produce wines with different organoleptic characteris-
Monastrell is the second largest red grape variety in
Spain. Owing to its economic importance, a clonal and
disease-free selection of this variety has been accom-
plished2 and now the enological characteristics of the
different selected clones are being studied. To charac-
terise wines, it is necessary to analyse various par-
ameters. The characterisation of wines by means of
their chemical composition has been extensively used
to differentiate among varieties37 and geographical
origin.810 Owing to the large number of parameters
that can characterise a wine, individually, eachclones of Monastrell graEncarna Gomez-Plaza,* Roco Gil-MunozCentro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Agroalimentario, Consejeria deAlberca, Murcia, Spain000 Society of Chemical Industry. J Sci Food Agric 00225142/2esd Adrian Martnez-Cutillasio Ambiente, Agricultura y Agua, Ctra La Alberca s/n, E-30150 La
clones of Monastrell grapes have been studied.
cted to chemical analyses, including the deter-
mineral elements. Signicant differences were
meters could correctly classify the wine samples,
and principal component analysis classied
nts; organic acids
wire at about 0.4m and the upper wire at about 0.8m
from the ground. Vines were trained to a bilateral
cordon on the lower wire and spur-pruned to six two-
node spurs per vine. Supplemental irrigation was
provided by a drip system. The trial was established in
spring of 1990 as a planting of certied rootings of
1103 Paulsen (Vitis berlandieri Vitis rupestris).Rooting was eld-budded to Monastrell clones in
early spring of 1991. The trial was designed as a
randomised complete block with 10 vine experimental
units and three replicates. Grapes from the different
clones were harvested the same day and their charac-
teristics are shown in Table 1.
Vinications were carried out in an Experimental
Winery located in Jumilla (Murcia, Spain). Three
replicates of the vinication of each clone were done by000/$17.50 497
mineral elements. Iron was measured without any
sample dilution at 248nm using an air/acetylene ame.
Calcium and magnesium were measured as the
absorptions at 422.7 and 285.2nm respectively after
a sample dilution of 1:25. Sodium and potassium were
measured as the emissions at 589 and 766nm
respectively after a 1:25 dilution of the samples.
Quantication was done, preparing calibration curves
for each mineral element.
Colour determinationAbsorbance measurements were done on a Hitachi
was eliminated using ultrasound and vacuum.
tem equipped with an a ION 300 polymeric column
(Interaction Chemicals Inc; 300mm7.8mm) and aUV-vis detector was used. The mobile phase was
0.005N sulphuric acid at a ow rate of 0.5mlmin1,and the column temperature was 65 C. Organic acids
were detected at 210nm.
To isolate the organic acids from the wine, 1ml of
wine was passed thought a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge
(Lida, Wisconsin, USA). The cartridge was activated
by passing 3ml of methanol and 5ml of water. The
organic acids were then eluted with 2ml of 0.08N
sulphuric acid; 20ml were injected on the HPLC.
Statistical data treatment
Table 1. Physicochemical characteristics of grapes from different clonesstandard deviation (n=3)
21 373 263 35 188 118 231
Soluble solids ( Beaume) 11.520.81a 11.300.52a 11.920.51a 11.930.37a 12.020.80a 11.790.31a 12.000.61aBerry weight (g) 2.220.17c 1.880.09ab 2.120.17bc 1.930.18ab 1.820.38bc 1.970.13abc 1.960.24abcYield (kg per vine) 7.971.09a 7.891.00a 9.051.05ab 9.360.71b 9.411.00b 8.800.20ab 9.420.78bTitratable acidity (mgl1) 5.020.37ab 5.530.51bcd 5.210.39abc 5.990.32d 5.710.38cd 4.930.55a 5.360.50abcdDifferent superscript letters within the same row denote signicant differences at P
also used to achieve a better characterisation of wine
colour. L* (lightness) was signicantly lower in clone373 (the one with the highest colour density), while the
Table 4. Colour characteristics of wines from seven clones of Monastrell grapesstandard deviation (n=3)
35 188 118 231
c 5.650.41a 7.480.23c 7.410.36c 7.190.69bc0.690.00a 0.660.02a 0.680.02a 0.670.03a
26.792.12c 21.702.01abc 21.081.21abc 18.591.69ab51.912.18c 51.770.92c 47.740.81b 42.711.69a35.040.78a 44.771.85c 41.152.85bc 34.502.68a
s at P
the cluster analysis. Wines from clones 231, 373, 21,
263 and 35 are correctly grouped and separated from
with principal component analysis showed that clones
Figure 2. Chemical and colour parameter loadings for first and secondprincipal components (percentage of variance explained on each principalcomponent).
E Gomez-Plaza, R Gil-Munoz, A Martnez-Cutillaseach other. Clones 188 and 118 overlap, so they must
be very similar regarding their chemical composition,
as also shown in their proximity in the cluster analysis.
If we compare the distribution of the variables in the
same plane (Fig 2), it is clear that tartaric and succinic
acids and L* and a* are the parameters that make thehighest contribution to the localisation of clones 118,
188 and 35, while clone 231 is highly inuenced by
colour density as well as clone 373.
CONCLUSIONMultivariate statistical techniques applied to the
colour characteristics and organic acid and mineral
element concentrations in wines from seven different
clones allowed classication of the samples into seven
consistent groups. The results of the analysis of
organic acids, colour and mineral elements togetherbe observed, while tartaric, succinic and citric acids
and iron and sodium possessed greater loadings on
Fig 3 shows the distribution of the different clones in
the plane dened by the rst two principal compo-
nents. We can see that with this statistical analysis a
clustering of the clones was achieved, and this group-
ing is consistent with the classication obtained fromchromatic parameters. Food Chem 60:103108 (1997).
15 Sudraud P, Interpretation des courbes d'absortion des vins
rouges. An Technol Agric 7:203208 (1958).
Figure 3. Wine factor scores for first and second principal components(percentage of variance explained on each principal component).
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17 Arroyo MC, Determinacion del contenido en cationes de los
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characteristics and a high content of tartaric acid.
These results for wine composition, together with the
high yield of these vines, make them the most
interesting clones for the elaboration of Monastrell
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