Multipath Routing Optimization in Wireless Mesh 2018-07-23¢  Multipath Routing Optimization in Wireless

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  • Multipath Routing Optimization in Wireless Mesh Networks


    Faiza Iqbal



    Dr. Muhammad Younus Javed

    NUST College of E&ME

    Dr. Anjum Naveed


    A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

    of Doctor of Philosophy of Science in Computer Software Engineering



    NUST College oF Electrical and Mechanical Engineering,

    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST),

    Islamabad, Pakistan.

    (May 2015)

  • Approval

    It is certified that the contents and form of the thesis entitled “Multipath

    Routing Optimization in Wireless Mesh Networks” submitted by

    Faiza Iqbal have been found satisfactory for the requirement of the degree.

    Advisor: Dr. Muhammad Younus Javed



    Committee Member 1: Dr. Khalid Iqbal



    Committee Member 2: Dr. Saad Rehman



    Committee Member 3: Dr. Hasan Islam (External)




  • Certificate of Originality

    I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and to the best of my

    knowledge it contains no materials previously published or written by another

    person, nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the

    award of any degree or diploma at NUST CEME or at any other educational

    institute, except where due acknowledgement has been made in the thesis.

    Any contribution made to the research by others, with whom I have worked

    at NUST CEME or elsewhere, is explicitly acknowledged in the thesis.

    I also declare that the intellectual content of this thesis is the product

    of my own work, except for the assistance from others in the project’s de-

    sign and conception or in style, presentation and linguistics which has been


    Author Name: Faiza Iqbal



  • Acknowledgment

    First and Foremost, praises to Almighty Allah for enabling me to undertake

    and complete this task. Without His help, it would have been impossible for

    me to achieve this milestone.

    I am highly thankful to my supervisor, Brig. Dr. Muhammad Younus

    Javed, for his continuous guidance and valuable suggestions, especially for

    the provision of all kinds of facilities throughout my thesis work. I am deeply

    beholden to my co-supervisor, Dr. Anjum Naveed, this thesis would not have

    been possible without his expert guidance and constant motivational support.

    I would like to thank my GEC members, Dr. Khalid Iqbal, Dr. Hasan Islam

    and Dr. Saad Rehman for their valuable time and comments on my thesis. I

    would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Shoab A. Khan and Dr. Muazzam

    A. Khan for their valuable suggestions. I am grateful to HEC and NUST for

    providing me research funding through HEC indigenous scholarship scheme.

    I am greatly thankful to SEECS Baltoras and CERN lab members, Kashif

    Sattar, M. Zeeshan, Umar Ahmad, Madiha Wahid, Aliya Awais for their help

    and valuable discussions. I would like to thank everyone who have helped me

    in any way towards the successful completion of this thesis. Special thanks

    to my EME hostel mates and friends Nosheen, Tahira, Sameera, Saeeda,

    Ume-Hani, Maham, Lubna, Samra and to all those who have motivated me

    during struggling days.

    I am highly indebted to my parents, sisters and brothers for their tremen-

    dous moral support and uncountable prayers throughout my studies. I dedi-

    cate this achievement to my father, Muhammad Iqbal, who encouraged and

    motivated me until his last breath. I am eternally grateful to my husband for

    his support and encouregment. And finally a special mention to Abdullah,

    you are an amazing kid.

  • Author’s Publications

    • F. Iqbal, M. Y. Javed and M. J. Iqbal, Performance Analysis of Single and Multipath Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks, in Proceedings of

    7th International Conference on Computing and Convergance Technol-

    ogy (ICCCT), December 2012, pp-55-59. [1]

    • F. Iqbal, M. Y. Javed and A. Naveed, Interference-aware Multipath Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks, EURASIP Journal of Wireless

    Communication and Networking, 2014, 2014:140, impact factor:0.80. [2]

    • F. Iqbal, M. Y. Javed and M. J. Iqbal, Diversity based Review of Multipath Routing Metrics of Wireless Mesh Networks, in proceeding

    of IEEE INMIC, December 2014, pp-320-325 [3]

    • F. Iqbal, M. Y. Javed and A. Naveed, Wireless Interference Models: An Analytical View. Journal paper, work in progress.

    • F. Iqbal, M. Y. Javed and A. Naveed, Interference Mitigation us- ing Capacity Adjusted Multipath Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks.

    Journal paper, work in progress.

  • Abstract

    Multipath routing provides load balancing and fault tolerance by employing

    multiple paths to destination. The inherent mesh infrastructure of IEEE

    802.11 based wireless mesh networks provide added support to construct mul-

    tiple robust paths. However, based on geometric locations of wireless nodes,

    neighbourhood interference and channel contention, create challenges for mul-

    tipath routing schemes. A large body of research has been carried out to

    maximize aggregate end-to-end throughput using multipath routing; however,

    interference has not been accurately modelled in majority of the work. Based

    on the relative location of transmitters and receivers, interfering links can be

    categorized as coordinated and non-coordinated. Compared to coordinated in-

    terference, information asymmetric non-coordinated interference introduces

    bottleneck links and significantly reduces the aggregate throughput. The im-

    pact of this interference is even observed on links several hops away. The

    objective of this thesis is to improve network throughput by exploiting redun-

    dant mesh infrastructure of wireless mesh network using multipath routing

    which mitigates non-coordinated interference with priority.

    We propose Interference Avoidance based Multipath Routing Linear Program-

    ming (IAMR-LP) optimization model with an objective to maximize end-to-

    end throughput by using multiple available paths, considering coordinated and

    non-coordinated interference. It employs topology control to avoid bottleneck

    links which are suffering from severe non-coordinated interference. The model

    aims at selecting a subset of quality paths for each flow so that the aggregate

    end-to-end throughput is maximized. Selection of paths is constrained by per

    link capacity and interference at each link. The simulation throughput is 89%

    of the throughput achieved using numerical solution which shows the effective-

    ness of the model. Based upon the results of this model as baseline, we pro-


  • vi

    pose an Adaptive Multipath Routing Approach with Topology Control (AM-

    RTC) that develops a multipath routing strategy to achieve better end-to-end

    throughput by purging badly affected non-coordinated links during path con-

    struction procedure. Extensive simulation-based evaluation shows that AM-

    RTC outperforms the existing schemes in improving the network throughput,

    by upto a factor of 1.68. Next, we propose Interference Mitigation based

    Multipath Routing Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (IMMR-MINLP)

    model which avoids the link elimination approach of AMRTC and adjusts the

    flow rates of links to reduce the impact of multilevel non-coordinated interfer-

    ence. The numerical solution to the optimization problem generates multiple

    paths for flows, resulting in optimal network throughput for a given network

    and input traffic load. The generated paths of the numerical solution are then

    fed in OPNET to simulate respective network instances. The evaluations of

    simulation with IMMR-MINLP model shows the effectiveness of the model

    which achieves upto 91% of the optimal aggregate network throughput. The

    comparison of the fairness index of IMMR-MINLP with existing schemes

    show its effectiveness in fair distribution of throughput among multiple flows.

    Finally, the performance improvement of IMMR-MINLP model is compared

    with LMX:M3F, MRAC, and ETT in terms of packet loss ratio, end-to-end

    delay and link utilization.

  • Table of Contents

    1 Introduction 1

    1.1 Wireless Mesh Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    1.1.1 WMN Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    1.1.2 Characteristics of WMN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1.2 Wireless Interference: Research Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    1.3 Routing in WMN: Issues and Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    1.3.1 Research Challenges of Multipath Routing . . . . . . . 11

    1.4 Research Contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    1.5 Thesis Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    2 Literature Review 15

    2.1 Interference in Wireless Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    2.1.1 Interference Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16