Multilingualism for all: European Language Policy & Frisian Language Planning

Embed Size (px)


Multilingualism for all: European Language Policy & Frisian Language Planning. Language Vitality – Multilingualism and Language Planning September 17, 2012 Alex RIEMERSMA Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Multilingualism for all: European Language Policy & Frisian Language Planning

  • Multilingualism for all: European Language Policy & Frisian Language Planning

    Language Vitality Multilingualism and Language Planning September 17, 2012

    Alex RIEMERSMAMercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language

  • Overview of presentation

    - Linguistic Diversity- Scope of European Language Policies- Language Vitality- Frisian in Education- Language Policies & Planning

  • Linguistic DiversityGlobe: 6,000 Languages (in oral use)600 700 Languages with basic infrastructure: Orthography, Dictionary, Grammar Book 475 Languages with complete Bible translation + 1,240 languages with New Testament + 823 languages with (small) part of Bible

  • Linguistic DiversityUnited Nations (195 member states): 6 working languagesCouncil of Europe (47 member states): 6 working languages > numerous minority languagesEuropean Union (27 member states): 23 official languages > 60 Regional and Minority Languages > 175 Immigrant Languages

  • Kaart fan NOS

  • Language versus DialectLinguistic Distance in terms of: vocabulary, phonology, morphology, syntaxLanguage infrastructure such as: legislation, provisions, organisationLanguage planning: Corpus planning Status planning Planning of Transmission / Education

  • Unesco Language Vitality (2003)

  • What makes Frisian / Valenciana vital language ?

  • Language Vitality PlanningBalance of community language will and infrastructure / programmes on: Corpus planning / standardisationStatus planning / legislationLanguage transmission / learning

  • Fryske Akademy 1938

  • Wurdboek - Dictionary

  • Fryske Akademy / LinguisticsLanguage DatabasesScientific Dictionary Frysk Dutch Standardisation: orthography and grammarFrysk-Frysk dictionary = Frisian monolingual dictionarySurvey on Frisian language

  • Frisian Language VitalityLanguage command of all 640.00 inhabitants province of Frysln:94 % Understanding74 % Speaking65 % Reading26 % Writing -------------------------------------------------54 % Frisian Mother tongue (350.000)

  • Frisian in Education Pre-school: > 100 Frisian medium & bilingual provisionsPrimary school: obligatory subject > 100 schools use clil > 43 trilingual schools: integrated Dutch, Frisian & EnglishSecondary education: obligatory subject; optional exam subject

  • Frisian in Education Secondary education: obligatory subject optional exam subject concept of multilingual clilTeacher training (pabo): additional special courses (7 ECTS; 9 ECTS)Teacher training (secondary): regular bachelor & master training

  • Frisian in Education Development from transitional bilingualism > full bilingualism, biliteracy (Fishman)Results: awareness and language attitude equal command Dutch much better command Frisian self confidence in English

  • EU Language PoliciesEU shall respect Linguistic Diversity:all languages are equal and equally treated23 official languages, but in fact 3, 2 or 1 working languageEducation: Mother tongue + two, but in fact national language + one

  • EU Language PolicyEU programs in favour of English Principle of subsidiarity is in favour of national languagesProcess of mainstreaming prevents EU Language Policy & discourages vitality of RMLs & IMLs

  • RML + IML citizens in EU> 10% of EU population = 45 50 million plurilingual people Present in all member states = Multilingual societies >>> Co-responsibility for language planningof EU/Coe, national and regional level

  • Charter for Regional and Minority Languages (CoE / 1998)25 ratifications (< 47 CoE member states)13 ratifications (< 27 EU member states) Key words: To protect and to promotePart II: General objectives: Non-discrimination right on language transmission

  • Charter for Regional and Minority Languages (CoE / 1998)Part III: Menu-system of undertakings in the Domains: education (pre-school higher education) justice / public services / media / culture / economic and social life / cross border exchanges

  • EU Language PolicyEU shall respect linguistic diversity European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages of the Council of Europe (1998) used as entry exam for new EU member states (2004; 2007)

  • Unesco Language Vitality (2003)

  • Language Vitality factors (6)Intergenerational transmissionAbsolute number of speakersProportion of speakers within total populationTrends in existing domainsResponse to new domains & mediaMaterials for Education and Literacy

  • Language Vitality factors (3)Governmental and Institutional Language Attitudes & Politics Community Members Attitudes towards their own languagesDocumentation (& corpus planning)

  • Degrees of Endangerment5: safe The language is used by all ages, from children up. 4: unsafe The language is used by some children in all domains; it is used by all children in limited domains. 3: definitively endangered The language is used mostly by the parental generation and up.2: severely endangered The language is used mostly by the grandparental generation and up. 1: critically endangered The language is used mostly by very few speakers, of great-grandparental generation. 0: extinct There exists no speaker.

  • Language Vitality PlanningBalance of community language will and infrastructure / programmes on: Corpus planning / standardisationStatus planning / legislationLanguage transmission / learning

  • EU Parliament Resolutions1981 Arf > EBLUL 1982 20061983 Jaak Vandenmeulenbroecke) > earmarked budget line 1,2 million1987 Willy Kuijpers > Mercator project (1987-2006) 3 partners (80 % funding)2004 Michael Ebner > EU Agency on Linguistic Diversity (failed)

  • EU Commission Actions Budget line for EBLUL 1982 2006;Budget line for Mercator project (1987-2006) 3 partnersAction Programme (2004-2006) 2001: European Year of Languages2005: Feasibility Study > Networks

  • EU Commission Actions 2007: High Level Group Multilingualism + on line consultation2008: EU Communication2008: Amin Maalouf Report A Rewarding Challenge (adoptive language)2011: Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism

  • EU funded Networks 2008-2011: Network to Promote Linguistic Diversity (NPLD): 11 regional authorities & 16 NGOs2009-2011: Mercator Network2009-2011: RML2future2010-2012: European Network of Universities on Multilingualism (EUNoM)

  • Coherent EU Language PolicyLegal base / treaty partner to European Charter for RML Vitality & empowerment of all languagesCo-responsibility in stead of subsidiarity Incentive to inclusiveness of RML / IMLPartnership to permanent networks of stakeholders for regular strategic review

  • EU fitting ProgrammesLinguistic Diversity as a priorityCo-operation between EU and the Council of Europe & ECML (= European Centre for Modern Languages in Graz)National EU Agencies to raise awareness and assist endangered language communities to apply

  • Research AgendaEurobarometer on Languages to include: Mother tongue + father tongueMultilingual education: continuity & common standards Media >>> Social mediaPlurilingual Literacy

  • Application of CoE instrumentsCommon European Framework of Reference (CEFR): - can do statements for L1, L2, Lf - parallel assessments of L1, L2, LfEuropean Language Portfolio: - electronic - plurilingual approach

  • Common Standards Education Mercator Analysis & Recommendations (2007): - Informed choice & access - Educational goals - Teaching time (subject & medium) - Teaching materials - Teacher training - Inspectorate

  • Plurilingual Teacher TrainingSubject & mediumContinuity of teaching & learningSchool as centres of excellencePlurilingual language pedagogyMinor (30 ECTS) in bachelorMaster (60 ECTS) on Multilingualism and multilingual education

  • Eskerrik asko Mange Takk Diolch TankewolTrugarez Grazia Graciis Dankscheen Merc plan Kiitos Dz'akuju so Ksznm Hvala MultumescMerci

    *In 2002 and 2003, UNESCO asked an international group of linguists to develop a framework for determining the vitality of a language in order to assist in policy development, identification of needs and appropriate safeguarding measures. This Ad Hoc Expert Group on Endangered Languages elaborated a landmark concept paper entitled Language Vitality and Endangerment, which established the following nine criteria No single factor is sufficient to assess the state of a communitys language. However, taken together, these nine factors can determine the viability of a language, its function in society and the type of measures required for its maintenance or revitalization.

    Of these nine criteria for the conference theme of today three are relevant. Next slideI would like to ask your attention for a couple of good examples in each of these three sectors of language planning.But first of all I want to touch upon the oposition between the traditional approach of language planning versus the reality of language use by younger people. Traditional theories on language planning and promotion activities and capaigns are focused on one language (with some dialectal varieties permitted) which is determined the mother tongue or birth language of the target group.However, for youngsters living in the modern world without real distances in time and space, which can be characterised by a surplus of mobility and contact possibilities there is no real opoosition between the mother tongue and other languages. Students of mine are equally fluent in Frisian, Dutch