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  • COURSE STRUCTURE AND SYLLABI

    FOR

    M.Tech.

    POWER SYSTEM & CONTROL ENGINEERING

    (ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING)

    2012-2013

    DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

    CENTURION UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT

    School of Engineering & Technology, Paralakhemundi.

    Odisha-761211, INDIA,

    Web Site: - www.cutm.ac.in

    http://www.cutm.ac.in/

  • CENTURION UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT

    DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

    Course Structure & Syllabi for M.Tech (Power System & Control Engineering)

    SEMESTER-1 SEMESTER-2

    Sub code Subject Name L-T-P Credits Sub code Subject Name L-T-P Credits

    MTPS

    1101

    Power System

    Analysis

    3-1-0 4 MTPS

    1201

    Digital Control

    Systems

    3-1-0 4

    MTPS

    1102

    Non-Linear Control

    Systems

    3-1-0 4 MTPS

    1202

    Power Quality 3-1-0 4

    MTPS

    1103

    Computer aided

    power system

    protection

    3-1-0 4 MTPS

    1203

    Power system

    Dynamics & Stability

    3-1-0 4

    Elective-1

    (any one of the following)

    3-1-0

    4

    Elective-3

    (any one of the following)

    3-1-0

    4

    PSPE

    1101

    High Voltage

    Engineering

    PSPE

    1201

    Electrical Distribution

    systems

    PSPE

    1102

    Extra High voltage

    AC Transmission

    PSPE

    1202

    Power system

    Reliability

    PSPE

    1103

    FACTS PSPE

    1203

    Advanced DSP

    Elective-2

    (any one of the following)

    3-1-0

    4

    Elective-4

    (any one of the following)

    3-1-0

    4

    PSPE

    1111

    Power System

    Transients

    PSPE

    1211

    Power system

    deregulation

    PSPE

    1112

    Advanced Power

    Electronics

    PSPE

    1212

    Real time control of

    power system

    PSPE

    1113

    Power System

    Operation &control

    PSPE

    1213

    Reactive power

    compensation

    &management

    Laboratory/Sessional Laboratory/Sessional

    PSPR

    1107

    Power systems &

    Simulation Lab

    0-0-3

    2

    PSPR

    1207

    Electrical systems &

    Simulation Lab

    0-0-3

    2

    PSPT

    1108

    Seminar(Pre-Thesis)

    0-0-3 2 PSPT

    1208

    Seminar(Pre-Thesis)

    0-0-3 2

    Semester Credits 24 Semester Credits 24

    Cumulative Credits 24 Cumulative Credits 48

  • CENTURION UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT

    DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

    Course Structure & Syllabi for M.Tech (Power System & Control Engineering)

    SEMESTER-3 SEMESTER-4

    Sub code Subject Name L-T-P Credits Sub code Subject Name L-T-P Credits

    MTPS

    2101

    Adaptive Control

    theory

    3-1-0

    4

    PSPT

    2201

    Main Project &

    Viva-Voce

    ------

    20

    Elective-5

    (any one of the following)

    PSPE

    2101

    Power apparatus &

    systems

    3-1-0

    4

    PSPE

    2102

    Power system

    Optimization

    PSPE

    2103

    Demand side energy

    management

    PSPT

    2107

    Thesis/Project(Part-1) ----- 10

    PSCV

    2108

    Comprehensive Viva ----- 2

    Semester Credits 20 Semester Credits 20

    Cumulative Credits 68 Cumulative Credits 88

  • SYLLABUS

    SEMESTER-1

    POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    MTPS 1101 L-T-P: 3-1-0

    MODULE-1 Power System Network Matrices

    Graph Theory: Definitions, Bus Incidence Matrix, Y bus formation by Direct and Singular

    Transformation Methods, Numerical Problems. Formation of Z Bus: Partial network,

    Algorithm for the Modification of Z Bus Matrix for addition element for the following cases:

    Addition of element from a new bus to reference, Addition of element from a new bus to an

    old bus, Addition of element between an old bus to reference and Addition of element

    between two old busses (Derivations and Numerical Problems). - Modification of Z Bus for

    the changes in network.

    MODULE-2

    Power flow Studies

    Necessity of Power Flow Studies Data for Power Flow Studies Derivation of Static load

    flow equations Load flow solutions using Gauss Seidel Method: Acceleration Factor, Load

    flow solution with and without P-V buses, Algorithm and Flowchart. Numerical Load flow

    Solution for Simple Power Systems (Max. 3-Buses): Determination of Bus Voltages, Injected

    Active and Reactive Powers (Sample One Iteration only) and finding Line Flows/Losses for

    the given Bus Voltages. Newton Raphson Method in Rectangular and Polar Co-Ordinates

    Form: Load Flow Solution with or Without PV Busses- Derivation of Jacobian Elements,

    Algorithm and Flowchart. Decoupled and Fast Decoupled Methods-Comparison of Different

    MethodsDC load Flow.

    MODULE-3

    Short Circuit Analysis

    Per-Unit System Representation. Per-Unit equivalent reactance network of a three phase

    Power System, Numerical Problems. Symmetrical fault Analysis: Short Circuit Current and

    MVA Calculations, Fault levels, Application of Series Reactors, Numerical Problems.

    Symmetrical Component Theory: Symmetrical Component Transformation, Positive,

    Negative and Zero sequence components: Voltages, Currents and Impedances. Sequence

    Networks: Positive, Negative and Zero sequence Networks, Numerical Problems.

    Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis: LG, LL, LLG faults with and without fault impedance,

    Numerical Problems.

    TEXT BOOKS:

    1. Computer Techniques in Power System Analysis by M.A.Pai, TMH Publications.

    2. Modern Power system Analysis by I.J.Nagrath & D.P.Kothari: Tata McGraw-Hill

    Publishing company, 2nd edition.

  • REFERENCE BOOKS:

    1. Power System Analysis by Grainger and Stevenson, Tata McGraw Hill.

    2. Power System Analysis by A.R.Bergen, Prentice Hall, Inc.

    3. Power System Analysis by Hadi Saadat TMH Edition.

    4. Power System Analysis by B.R.Gupta, Wheeler Publications.

    NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS MTPS 1102 L-T-P: 3-1-0

    MODULE-1

    STATE SPACE ANALYSIS

    State Space Representation, Solution of State Equation, State Transition Matrix, Canonical

    Forms Controllable Canonical Form, Observable Canonical Form, Jordan Canonical Form.

    CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY

    Tests for controllability and observability for continuous time systems Time varying case,

    minimum energy control, time invariant case, Principle of Duality, Controllability and

    observability form Jordan canonical form and other canonical forms.

    MODULE-2

    DESCRIBING FUNCTION ANALYSIS

    Introduction to nonlinear systems, Types of nonlinearities, describing functions, describing

    function analysis of nonlinear control systems.

    PHASE-PLANE ANALYSIS

    Introduction to phase-plane analysis, Method of Isoclines for Constructing Trajectories,

    singular points, phase-plane analysis of nonlinear control systems.

    STABILITY ANALYSIS

    Stability in the sense of Lypanov, Lypanovs stability and Lypanovs instability theorems.

    Direct method of Lypanov for the Linear and Nonlinear continuous time autonomous

    systems.

    MODULE-3

    MODAL CONTROL

    Effect of state feedback on controllability and observability, Design of State Feedback

    Control through Pole placement. Full order observer and reduced order observer.

    CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS

    Minimization of functional of single function, constrained minimization. Minimum principle.

    Control variable inequality constraints. Control and state variable inequality constraints.

    Euler Lagrangine Equation.

    OPTIMAL CONTROL

    Formulation of optimal control problem. Minimum time, Minimum energy, minimum fuel

    problems. State regulator problem. Output regulator problem. Tracking problem, Continuous-

    Time Linear Regulators.

  • TEXT BOOKS:

    1. Modern Control System Theory by M. Gopal, New Age International Publishers, 2nd

    edition,1996

    REFERENCE BOOKS:

    1. Modern Control Engineering by K. Ogata, Prentice Hall of India, 3rd edition, 1998

    2. Control Systems Engineering by I.J. Nagarath and M.Gopal, New Age International (P)

    Ltd.

    3. Digital Control and State Variable Methods by M. Gopal, Tata Mc Graw-Hill

    Companies, 1997.

    4. Systems and Control by Stainslaw H. Zak , Oxford Press, 2003.

    COMPUTER AIDED POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION

    MTPS 1103 L-T-P: 3-1-0

    Module-I Introduction To Computer Relaying: Development of computer relaying, Historical

    background, Expected benefits of computer relaying, Computer relay architecture, Analog to

    digital converter, Anti-aliasing filter, Substation computer hierarchy.

    Relaying Practices: Introduction to protection systems, Functions of a protection system,

    Protection of transmission lines, Transformer, reactor & generator protection, Bus protection,

    Performance of current & voltage transformers.

    Module-II Mathematical Basis For Protective Relaying Algorithms: Introduction, Fourier series, Other

    orthogonal expansion, Fourier transform, Use of fourier transform, Discrete fourier

    transform, Introduction to probability & random processes, Random processes, Kalman

    filtering.

    Transmission Line Relaying: Introduction, Sources of error, relaying as parameter estimation,

    Beyond parameter estimation, Symmetrical component distance relay, protection of series

    compensated lines.

    Module-III Protection Of Transformers, Machines & Buses: Introduction, Power transformer algorithms,

    Generator protection,, Motor protection, Digital bus protection.

    Hardware Organisation In Integrated Systems: The nature of hardware issues, Computers for

    relaying, The substation environment, Industry environmental standards, Countermeasures

    against EMI, Supplementary equipment, Redundancy & backup, Servicing, training &

    maintenance.

    System Relaying & Control: Introduction, Measurement of frequency & phase, Sampling

    clock synchronization, Application of Phasor measurements to state estimation, Phasor

    measurement in dynamic state estimation, Monitoring.

    Developments In New Relaying Principles: Introduction, Traveling waves on single-phase

    lines, Traveling waves on three-phase lines, Traveling waves due to faults, Directional wave

    relays, Traveling wave distance relay, Differential relaying with phasors, Traveling ` wave

    differential relays, Adaptive relaying.

    Text Book

  • 1.A.G. Phadke and J.S. Thorp, " Computer Relaying for Power Systems", John Wiley and Sons,

    1994

    HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING (Elective-1)

    MODULE-1 INTRODUCTION TO HIGH VOLTAGE TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS Electric Field Stresses, Gas / Vaccum as Insulator, Liquid Dielectrics, Solids and Composites,

    Estimation and Control of Electric Stress, Numerical methods for electric field computation,

    Surge voltages, their distribution and control, Applications of insulating materials in

    transformers, rotating machines, circuit breakers, cable power capacitors and bushings.

    BREAK DOWN IN GASEOUS AND LIQUID DIELECTRICS

    Gases as insulating media, collision process, Ionization process, Townsends criteria of

    breakdown in gases, Paschens law. Liquid as Insulator, pure and commercial liquids,

    breakdown in pure and commercial liquids.

    BREAK DOWN IN SOLID DIELECTRICS

    Intrinsic breakdown, electromechanical breakdown, thermal breakdown, breakdown of solid

    dielectrics in practice, Breakdown in composite dielectrics, solid dielectrics used in practice.

    MODULE-2

    GENERATION OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS

    Generation of High Direct Current Voltages, Generation of High alternating voltages,

    Generation of Impulse Voltages, Generation of Impulse currents, Tripping and control of

    impulse generators.

    MEASUREMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS

    Measurement of High Direct Current voltages, Measurement of High Voltages alternating

    and impulse, Measurement of High Currents-direct, alternating and Impulse, Oscilloscope for

    impulse voltage and current measurements.

    MODULE-3

    OVER VOLTAGE PHENOMENON AND INSULATION CO-ORDINATION Natural causes for over voltages Lightning phenomenon, Overvoltage due to switching

    surges, system faults and other abnormal conditions, Principles of Insulation Coordination on

    High voltage and Extra High Voltage power systems.

    NON-DISTRUCTIVE TESTING OF MATERIAL AND ELECTRICAL APPARATUS

    Measurement of D.C Resistivity, Measurement of Dielectric Constant and loss factor, Partial

    discharge measurements.

    HIGH VOLTAGE TESTING OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS

    Testing of Insulators and bushings, Testing of Isolators and circuit breakers, Testing of

    cables, Testing of Transformers, Testing of Surge Arresters, Radio Interference

    measurements.

  • TEXT BOOKS:

    1. High Voltage Engineering by M.S.Naidu and V. Kamaraju TMH Publications, 3rd Edition

    2. High Voltage Engineering: Fundamentals by E.Kuffel, W.S.Zaengl, J.Kuffel by Elsevier,

    2nd

    Edition.

    REFERENCE BOOKS:

    1. High Voltage Engineering by C.L.Wadhwa, New Age Internationals (P) Limited, 1997.

    2. High Voltage Insulation Engineering by Ravindra Arora, Wolfgang Mosch, New Age

    International (P) Limited, 1995.

    EHV AC TRANSMISSION (Elective-1)

    MODULE-1 Necessity of EHV AC transmission advantages and problemspower handling capacity and

    line losses mechanical considerations resistance of conductors properties of bundled

    conductors bundle spacing and bundle radius- Examples.

    Line and ground reactive parameters:

    Line inductance and capacitances sequence inductances and capacitances modes of

    propagation ground return - Examples

    Voltage gradients of conductors:

    Electrostatics field of sphere gap field of line changes and properties charge potential

    relations for multi-conductors surface voltage gradient on conductors distribution of

    voltage gradient on sub conductors of bundle Examples.

    MODULE-2

    Corona effects

    Power loss and audible noise (AN) corona loss formulae charge voltage diagram

    generation, characteristics - limits and measurements of AN relation between 1-phase and

    3-phase AN levels Examples.

    Radio interference (RI) - corona pulses generation, properties, limits frequency spectrum

    modes of propagation excitation function measurement of RI, RIV and excitation

    functions Examples.

    MODULE-3

    Electro static field:

    Electrostatic field: calculation of electrostatic field of EHV/AC lines effect on humans,

    animals and plants Electrostatic induction in unenergised circuit of double-circuit line

    electromagnetic interference-Examples.

    Traveling wave theory

    Traveling wave expression and solution- source of excitation- terminal conditions- open

    circuited and Short-circuited end- reflection and refraction coefficients-Lumped parameters

    of distributed lines generalized constants-No load voltage conditions and charging current.

  • Voltage control:

    Power circle diagram and its use voltage control using synchronous condensers cascade

    connection of shunt and series compensation sub synchronous resonance in series capacitor

    compensated lines static VAR compensating system. TEXT BOOKS:

    1. EHVAC Transmission Engineering by R. D. Begamudre, New Age International (p) Ltd.

    2. HVAC and DC Transmission by S. Rao

    FACTS CONTROLLERS (Elective-1) MODULE-1 Transmission interconnections, power flow in an AC System, loading capability limits,

    Power flow and Dynamic stability considerations, importance of controllable parameters.

    Opportunities for FACTS, basic types of FACTS controllers, benefits from FACTS

    controllers, Requirements and Characteristics of High Power devices Voltage and Current

    rating, losses and speed of switching, parameter trade-off of devices.

    Basic concept of Voltage source converter, Single phase full wave bridge converter, Single

    phase-leg (pole) operation, Square-wave voltage harmonics for a single phase Bridge, 3

    Phase full wave bridge converter.

    MODULE-2 Transformer connections for 12 pulse, 24 and 48 pulse operation. Three level voltage source

    converter, pulse width modulation converter, basic concept of current source converters,

    comparison of current source converters with voltage source converters.

    Objectives of shunt compensation, mid point voltage regulation for line segmentation, End of

    line voltage support to prevent voltage instability, improvement of transient stability, Power

    oscillation damping.

    Methods of controllable var generation: variable impedance type static var generators TCR

    and TSR, TSC, FC-TCR, TSC-TCR, switching converter type var generators, hybrid var

    generators.

    MODULE-3 SVC and STATCOM : The regulation and slope transfer function and dynamic performance, transient stability enhancement and power oscillation damping, operating point control and

    summary of compensation control.

    Static series compensators : Concept of series capacitive compensation, improvement of

    transient stability, power oscillation damping, functional requirements. GTO thyristor

    controlled series capacitor (GSC), thyristor switched series capacitor (TSSC), and thyristor

    controlled series capacitor (TCSC), control schemes for GSC, TSSC and TCSC.

    Reference Book:

    1. Understanding FACTS N.G.Hingorani and L.Guygi, IEEE Press. Indian Edition is available:--Standard Publications, 2001.

    2. Flexible a c transmission system (FACTS) Edited by YONG HUE SONG and

    ALLAN T JOHNS, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London.

  • POWER SYSTEMS TRANSIENTS (Elective-2) MODULE-1 INTRODUCTION TO FAST TRANSIENTS:

    Origin and nature of power system Transients, traveling waves on transmission system, the

    line equation, the shape attenuation and distortion of waves, reflection of traveling waves ,

    successive reflections, traveling waves on multi conductor systems, transition points on multi

    conductor circuits.

    LIGHTNING:

    Charge formation, mechanism of lightning stroke. Mathematical model of lightning stroke.

    MODULE-2 THEORY OF GROUNDS WIRES: Direct stoke to a tower, effect of reflection up and down the tower, the counterpoise.

    SWITCHING SURGES:

    Normal frequency effects, high charging currents, cancellation waves, recovery voltage,

    restricting phenomena. Protection of transmission systems against surge. High frequency

    oscillations and terminal transients of transformer.

    MODULE-3 INSULATION COORDINATION:

    Insulation coordination procedures (IEC) for high voltage systems: Design criteria,

    classification of over voltages, insulation design for switching, lightning and temporary over

    voltages, pollution, application of arresters for protection of lines and stations, statistical

    methods of insulation coordination, risk of failure, test prescriptions. Insulation coordination

    procedures (IEC) for low voltage systems: representative over voltages, selection of clearance

    and creepage distances, macro and micro environments, testing techniques, transient

    (switching and lightning) voltage surge suppression in industrial and commercial electrical

    installations, protection of electronic devices.

    REFERENCES 1.Allan Greenwood , Electrical Transients in power Systems , Wiley Iterscience, 1991 2.Lou Van Der Sluis, Transients in power Systems , John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2001

    3.R Rudenterg, Transient Performance of Electric power systems, Phenomenon in Lumped

    Networks, MGH, 1950

    4.R Rudenterg, Electric Stroke waves in power systems, Harvard University press,

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1968

    5.Transmission Line Reference Book, EPRI, USA, 1982.

  • ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONICS (Elective-2)

    Module-I 1- and 3- Controlled rectifiers-Average output voltages and currents for R-L. load

    performance parameters of rectifier 1- and 3- converter. DC-DC converters: Buck,

    Boost, Buck-boost converters, linear power supplies. Switch mode DC Power supplies,

    Fly back converter, Forward converter, push pull converter, half bridge and full bridge

    converter.

    Module-II Basic concepts of switch mode inverter, pulse width modulated switching scheme ,

    unipolar and bipolar Switching scheme, 1- inverters, push pull inverters, 3- inverters,

    PWM in 3- voltage source inverters. Reduction of Harmonies, square-wave pulse

    switching, programmed Harmonic elimination switching.

    Module-III Resonant pulse Converters: Classification of resonant Converters, series Resonant

    Inverter: Series Resonant inverters with unidirectional switches, series resonant inverters

    with bi-directional switches. Parallel Resonant Inverters, Zero current switching resonant

    converters, zero voltage switching resonant converters.

    Books for Reference: 1. Power electronics, Circuits, devices. Application by M.H.Rashid (PHI) 2. Power electronics, converters, applications and Design N.Mohan undeland and

    Robbins John wily and sons inc. 3. Modern Power electronics and AC Drives by B.K .Bose.

    POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL (Elective-2)

    MODULE-1 Unit commitment problem : Introductions to UCP, thermal & Hydral constraints in Unit

    commitment : Priority list scheme method, unit commitment problem solution by priority list

    scheme method,

    Unit commitment problem solutions by Dynamic programming Approach. Introduction,

    advantages of DP method over priority list scheme, Back word DP approach, forward DP

    approach algorithm and their flow charts solution UCP using Dynamic program method.

    MODULE-2 Load Frequency Control-I : Necessity of keeping frequency constant. Definition of control

    area, single area control, Block diagram representation of an isolated Power System, Steady

    State analysis, Dynamic response-Uncontrolled case.

  • Proportional plus Integral control of single area and its block diagram representation, steady

    state response, load frequency control and Economic dispatch control.

    Load Frequency Control-II : Load frequency control of 2-area system : uncontrolled case and

    controlled case, tie-time bias control.

    MODULE-3 Optimal LF control-steady state representation, performance Index and optimal parameter

    adjustment.

    Generation with limited Energy supply : Take-or-pay fuel supply contract, composite

    generation production cost function. Solution by gradient search techniques, Hard limits and

    slack variables, Fuel scheduling by linear programming.

    Interchange Evaluation and Power Pools Economy Interchange, Economy interchange

    Evaluation, Interchange Evaluation with unit commitment, Multiple Interchange contracts.

    After-the-fact production costing, Transmission Losses in transaction Evaluation, other types

    of Interchange, power pools.

    Reference Books :

    1. Electrical Energy Systems Theory - by O.I.Elgerd, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, 2

    nd edition.

    2. Power System Analysis by Hadi Saadat Tata Mc Graw Hill Publications 3. Power Generation, Operation and Control - by A.J.Wood and B.F.Wollenberg,John

    wiley & sons Inc. 1984.

    4. Modern Power System Analysis - by I.J.Nagrath & D.P.Kothari, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company ltd, 2

    nd edition.

    POWER SYSTEMS & SIMULATION LAB

    1. Fault Analysis of 3-phase Alternator

    2. Determination of Xd and Xq of 3-phase salient pole Synchronous motor

    3. IDMT (Inverse Definite Minimum Time) relay characteristics

    4. Determination of breakdown strength of oil by variable distance electrodes.

    5. Determination of transmission line parameters.

    6. Fault analysis (LL, LG, and LLL) of transmission lines.

    SIMULATION BASED (USING MATLAB OR ANY OTHER SOFTWARE) 1. To obtain steady-state, transient and sub-transient short-circuit currents in an alternator. 2. To formulate the Y-Bus matrix and perform load flow analysis. 3. To compute voltage, current, power factor, regulation and efficiency at the receiving end of a three phase Transmission line when the voltage and power at the sending end are given. Use model. 4. To perform symmetrical fault analysis in a power system. 5. To perform unsymmetrical fault analysis in a power system.

  • SEMESTER-2

    DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

    MTPS 1201 L-T-P: 3-1-0

    MODULE-1

    SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION

    Introduction, Examples of Data control systems Digital to Analog conversion and Analog

    to Digital conversion, sample and hold operations.

    THE Z TRANSFORMS

    Introduction, Linear difference equations, pulse response, Z transforms, Theorems of Z

    Transforms, the inverse Z transforms, Modified Z- Transforms

    Z-PLANE ANALYSIS OF DISCRETE-TIME CONTROL SYSTEM

    Z-Transform method for solving difference equations; Pulse transforms function, block

    diagram analysis of sampled data systems, mapping between s-plane and z-plane.

    MODULE-2 STATE SPACE ANALYSIS

    State Space Representation of discrete time systems, Pulse Transfer Function Matrix solving

    discrete time state space equations, State transition matrix and its Properties, Methods for

    Computation of State Transition Matrix, Discretization of continuous time state space

    equations

    CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY

    Concepts of Controllability and Observability, Tests for controllability and Observability.

    Duality between Controllability and Observability, Controllability and Observability

    conditions for Pulse Transfer Function

    MODULE-3

    STABILITY ANALYSIS

    Mapping between the S-Plane and the Z-Plane Primary strips and Complementary Strips

    Constant frequency loci, Constant damping ratio loci, Stability Analysis of closed loop

    systems in the Z-Plane. Jury stability test Stability Analysis by use of the Bilinear

    Transformation and Routh Stability criterion.

    DESIGN OF DISCRETE TIME CONTROL SYSTEM BY CONVENTIONAL

    METHODS Transient and steady State response Analysis Design based on the frequency response

    method Bilinear Transformation and Design procedure in the w-plane, Lead, Lag and Lead-

    Lag compensators and digital PID controllers.

    .STATE FEEDBACK CONTROLLERS AND OBSERVERS

    Design of state feedback controller through pole placement Necessary and sufficient

    conditions, Ackermans formula.

    State Observers Full order and Reduced order observers.

  • TEXT BOOKS:

    1. Discrete-Time Control systems - K. Ogata, Pearson Education/PHI, 2nd Edition

    REFERENCE BOOKS:

    1. Digital Control Systems, Kuo, Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition, 2003.

    2. Digital Control and State Variable Methods by M.Gopal, TMH

    POWER QUALITY

    MTPS 1202 L-T-P: 3-1-0

    MODULE-1

    Introduction: power quality (PQ) problem, Voltage sag, Swell , Surges, Harmonic, over

    voltages, spikes, Voltage fluctuations, Transients, interruption overview of power quality

    phenomenon , Remedies to improve power quality, power quality monitoring.

    Interruptions: Definition, Difference between failure, outage, causes and origin of

    interruptions, limits for the interruption frequency, limits for the interruption duration , costs

    of interruption, overview of Reliability , evaluation to power quality, comparison of

    observations and reliability evaluation. MODULE-2 Voltage Sag: Characterization of voltage sag, definition, causes of voltage sag, voltage sag

    magnitude, monitoring, theoretical calculation of voltage sag magnitude voltage sag

    calculation in non-radial systems, meshed systems, voltage sag duration.

    PQ considerations in Industrial Power Systems: voltage sag effects, equipment behaviour

    of power electronic loads, induction motors, synchronous motors, computers, consumer

    electronics, adjustable speed AC drives and its operation. Mitigation of AC drives,

    Adjustable speed DC drive and its operation, mitigation methods of DC drives.

    MODULE-3 Mitigation of Interruptions and Voltage Sags: Overview of mitigation methods- form fault

    to trip, reducing the number of faults, reducing the fault clearing time changing the power

    system, installing mitigation equipment, improving equipment immunity, different events and

    mitigation methods. System equipment interface- voltage source converter, series voltage

    controller, shunt controller, combined shunt and series controller.

    Power Quality and EMC Standards: Introduction to standardization, IEC Electromagnetic

    compatibility standards, European voltage characteristics standards, PQ surveys.

    Reference Book:

    1. Understanding Power Quality Problems by Math H J Bollen, IEEE Press. 2. Electrical power quality R C Dugan, M.F,M Granghar, H.W.Beaty-TMH.

  • POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS & STABILITY

    MTPS 1203 L-T-P: 3-1-0

    MODULE-1 System Dynamics: Synchronous machine model in state space form, computer representation

    for excitation and governor systems modeling of loads and induction machines.

    Stability steady state stability limit Dynamic Stability limit Dynamic stability analysis.

    MODULE-2 State space representation of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus, Time response

    Stability by Eigen value approach.

    Digital Simulation of Transient Stability: Swing equation, Machine equations

    Concept of Multi machine Stability, Multi machine Transient Stability Under Different

    Faulted Conditions. MODULE-3 Effect of governor action and exciter on power system stability. Effect of saturation, saliency

    & automatic voltage regulators on stability.

    Excitation Systems: Rotating Self-excited Exciter with direct acting Rheostatic type, voltage

    regulator Rotating main and Pilot Exciters with Indirect Acting Rheostatic Type Voltage

    Regulator.

    Rotating Main Exciter, Rotating Amplifier and Static Voltage Regulator Static excitation

    scheme Brushless excitation system.

    Reference Books: 1. Power System Stability by Kimbark Vol. I&II, III 1968, Dover Publication Inc, New

    York 1968.

    2. Power System control and stability by Anderson and Fund, Vol I, P.M.Arolerson & A.A.fouad, Galgotia Publications 3B/12, Uttari marg Rajunder Nagar, New Delhi

    110060, 1981, 1 st edition.

    3. Power System Dynamics Stability and Control by K.R.Padiyar, Second edition B.S.Publications 2002.

    4. Computer Applications to Power SystemsGlenn.W.Stagg & Ahmed. H.El.Abiad

    5. Power Systems Analysis & Stability S.S.Vadhera Khanna Publishers. 6. Power System Analysis by Hadi Saadat Tata McGraw Hill Publications 7. Power System Analysis by John J.Graniger William D.Stevenson. JR. Tata McGraw

    Hill Publications.

  • ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS (Elective-3)

    MODULE-1 General : Introduction to Distribution systems, an overview of the role of computers in

    distribution system planning-Load modeling and characteristics: definition of basic terms like

    demand factor, utilization factor, load factor, plant factor, diversity factor, coincidence factor,

    contribution factor and loss factor-Relationship between the load factor and loss factor -

    Classification of loads (Residential, Commercial, Agricultural and Industrial) and their

    characteristics. Distribution Feeders and Substations: Design consideration of Distribution

    feeders: Radial and loop types of primary feeders, voltage levels, and feeder-loading.

    MODULE-2 Design practice of the secondary distribution system. Location of Substations: Rating of a

    Distribution Substation, service area with primary feeders. Benefits derived through optimal

    location of substations. System analysis: Voltage drop and power loss calculations,

    Derivation for volt-drop and power loss in lines, manual methods of solution for radial

    networks, three-phase balanced primary lines, non-three-phase primary lines.

    Protective devices and coordination: Objectives of distribution system protection, types of

    common faults and procedure for fault calculation.

    MODULE-3 Protective Devices: Principle of operation of fuses, circuit reclosers, line sectionalizer and

    circuit breakers. Coordination of protective devices: General coordination procedure.

    Capacitive compensation for power factor control: Different types of power capacitors, shunt

    and series capacitors, effect of shunt capacitors (Fixed and switched) power factor correction,

    capacitor location. Economic justification. Procedure to determine the best capacitor location.

    Voltage control : Equipment for voltage control, effect of series capacitors, effect of

    AVB/AVR, line drop compensation. Reference Books: 1. Electric Power Distribution System Engineering by Turan Gonen, Mc.Graw-Hill Book

    Company,1986.

    2. Electric Power Distribution-by A.S.Pabla, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing

    Company, 4th

    edition, 1997.

    POWER SYSTEM RELIABILITY (Elective-3)

    MODULE-1 Basics of Probability theory & Distribution: Basic probability theory rules for combining

    probabilities of events Bernoullis trials probabilities density and distribution functions

    binomial distribution expected value and standard deviation of binomial distribution.

    Network Modelling and Reliability Analysis: Analysis of Series, Parallel, Series-Parallel

    networks complex networks decomposition method.

    Reliability functions :Reliability functions f(t), F(t), R(t), h(t) and their relationships

    exponential distribution Expected value and standard deviation of exponential distribution

  • Bath tub curve reliability analysis of series parallel networks using exponential distribution

    reliability measures MTTF, MTTR, MTBF.

    MODULE-2

    Markov Modelling : Markov chains concept of stochastic transitional probability Matrix,

    Evaluation of limiting state Probabilities. Markov processes one component repairable

    system time dependent probability evaluation using Laplace transform approach

    evaluation of limiting state probabilities using STPM two component repairable models.

    Frequency & Duration Techniques : Frequency and duration concept Evaluation of

    frequency of encountering state, mean cycle time, for one , two component repairable models

    evaluation of cumulative probability and cumulative frequency of encountering of merged

    states.

    MODULE-3 Generation System Reliability Analysis : Reliability model of a generation system

    recursive relation for unit addition and removal load modeling - Merging of generation load

    model evaluation of transition rates for merged state model cumulative Probability,

    cumulative frequency of failure evaluation LOLP, LOLE.

    Composite Systems Reliability Analysis: Decompositions method Reliability Indices

    Weather Effects on Transmission Lines.

    Distribution System and Reliability Analysis: Basic Concepts Evaluation of Basic and

    performance reliability indices of radial networks.

    Reference Books: 1. Reliability Evaluation of Engg. System R. Billinton, R.N.Allan, Plenum Press, New

    York. 2. Reliability Evaluation of Power systems R. Billinton, R.N.Allan, Pitman Advance

    Publishing Program, New York.

    3. An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability Engineering. Charles E. Ebeling, TATA Mc Graw - Hill Edition.

    ADVANCED DSP (Elective-3)

    MODULE-1 Digital Filter Structure

    Block diagram representation-Equivalent Structures-FIR and IIR digital filter Structures All

    pass Filters-tunable IIR Digital Filters-IIR tapped cascaded Lattice Structures-FIR cascaded

    Lattice structures-Parallel-Digital Sine-cosine generator-Computational complexity of digital

    filter structures.

    Digital filter design Preliminary considerations-Bilinear transformation method of IIR filter design-design of Low

    pass highpass-Bandpass, and Band stop- IIR digital filters-Spectral transformations of IIR

    filters- FIR filter design-based on Windowed Fourier series- design of FIR digital filters with

    least mean- Square-error-constrained Least-square design of FIR digital filters

  • MODULE-2 DSPalgorithm implementation

    Computation of the discrete Fourier transform- Number representation-Arithmetic

    operations-handling of overflow-Tunable digital filters-function approximation.

    Analysis of finite Word length effects

    The Quantization process and errors- Quantization of fixed -point and floating -point

    Numbers-Analysis of coefficient Quantization effects - Analysis of Arithmetic Round-off

    errors-Dynamic range scaling-signal- to- noise ratio in Low -order IIR filters-Low-Sensitivity

    Digital filters-Reduction of Product round-off errors using error feedback-Limit cycles in IIR

    digital filters- Round-off errors in FFT Algorithms.

    MODULE-3

    Power Spectrum Estimation

    Estimation of spectra from Finite Duration Observations signals Non-parametric methods

    for power spectrum Estimation parametric method for power spectrum Estimation-

    Estimation of spectral form-Finite duration observation of signals-Non-parametric methods

    for power spectrum estimation-Walsh methods-Blackman & torchy method.

    Reference Books: 1. Digital signal processing-sanjit K. Mitra-TMH second edition 2. Discrete Time Signal Processing Alan V.Oppenheim, Ronald W.Shafer - PHI-1996 1st

    edition-9th reprint

    3 Digital Signal Processing principles, algorithms and Applications John

    G.Proakis -PHI 3rd edition-2002

    4 Digital Signal Processing S.Salivahanan, A.Vallavaraj, C. Gnanapriya TMH - 2nd

    reprint-2001

    5 Theory and Applications of Digital Signal Proceesing-LourensR. Rebinar&Bernold

    Digital Filter Analysis and Design-Auntonian-TMH

    POWER SYSTEM DEREGULATION (Elective-4)

    MODULE-1 Need and conditions for deregulation. Introduction of Market structure, Market

    Architecture, Spot market, forward markets and settlements. Review of Concepts marginal

    cost of generation, least-cost operation, incremental cost of generation.

    Power System Operation: Old vs New

    Electricity sector structures and Ownership /management, the forms of Ownership and

    management. Different structure model like Monopoly model, Purchasing agency model,

    wholesale competition model, Retail competition model.

    MODULE-2 Framework and methods for the analysis of Bilateral and pool markets, LMP based markets,

    auction models and price formation, price based unit commitment, country practices.

  • Transmission network and market power. Power wheeling transactions and marginal costing,

    transmission costing. Congestion management methods- market splitting, counter-trading;

    Effect of congestion on LMPs- country practices MODULE-3 Ancillary Services and System Security in Deregulation. Classifications and definitions,

    AS management in various markets- country practices. Technical, economic, & regulatory

    issues involved in the deregulation of the power industry.

    Reference Books: 1. Power System Economics: Designing markets for electricity - S. Stoft 2. Power generation, operation and control, -J. Wood and B. F. Wollenberg

    3. Operation of restructured power systems - K. Bhattacharya, M.H.J. Bollen and J.E.

    Daalder

    4. Market operations in electric power systems - M. Shahidehpour, H. Yamin and Z. Li

    5. Fundamentals of power system economics - S. Kirschen and G. Strbac

    6. Optimization principles: Practical Applications to the Operation and Markets

    of the Electric Power Industry - N. S. Rau

    7. Competition and Choice in Electricity - Sally Hunt and Graham Shuttleworth

    REAL TIME CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS (Elective-4) MODULE-1 State Estimation : Different types of State Estimations, Theory of WLS state estimation,

    sequential and non-sequential methods to process measurements.

    Bad data Observability, Bad data detection, identification and elimination.

    Security and Contingency Evaluation : Security concept, Security Analysis and monitoring,

    Contingency Analysis for Generator and line outages by iterative linear power flow method,

    Fast Decoupled model, and network sensitivity methods.

    MODULE-2 Computer Control of Power Systems : Need for real time and computer control of power

    systems, operating states of a power system,

    SCADA - Supervisory control and Data Acquisition systems implementation considerations,

    energy control centres, software requirements for implementing the above functions.

    MODULE-3 Voltage Stability : What is voltage stability, voltage collapse, and voltage security, relation of

    voltage stability to rotor angle stability.

    Voltage stability analysis Introduction to voltage stability analysis `P-V curves and `Q-V

    curves, voltage stability in mature power systems, long-term voltage stability, power flow

    analysis for voltage stability, voltage stability static indices and Research Areas

  • Application of AI and ANN in Power System : Basic concepts and definitions, algorithms for

    load flow, short term load forecasting, fault diagnosis and state estimation.

    Reference Books : 1. John J.Grainger and William D.Stevenson, Jr. : Power System Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1994, International Edition

    1. Allen J.Wood and Bruce F.Wollenberg : Power Generation operation and control, John Wiley & Sons, 1984

    2. R.N.Dhar : Computer Aided Power Systems Operation and Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill, 1982

    3. L.P.Singh : Advanced Power System Analysis and Dynamics, Wiley Eastern Ltd. 1986

    4. Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and Control -, McGraw Hill, 1994 5. P.D.Wasserman : `Neural Computing : Theory and Practice Van Nostrand -

    Feinhold, New York.

    REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION AND MANAGEMENT

    (Elective-4)

    MODULE-1 Load Compensation Objectives and specifications reactive power characteristics inductive and capacitive

    approximate biasing Load compensator as a voltage regulator phase balancing and power

    factor correction of unsymmetrical loads- examples.

    Steady state reactive power compensation in transmission system:

    Uncompensated line types of compensation Passive shunt and series and dynamic shunt

    compensation examples

    Transient state reactive power compensation in transmission systems: Characteristic time periods passive shunt compensation static compensations- series

    capacitor compensation compensation using synchronous condensers examples

    MODULE-2

    Reactive power coordination: Objective Mathematical modeling Operation planning transmission benefits Basic

    concepts of quality of power supply disturbances- steady state variations effects of under

    voltages frequency Harmonics, radio frequency and electromagnetic interferences

    Demand side management: Load patterns basic methods load shaping power tariffs- KVAR based tariffs penalties for

    voltage flickers and Harmonic voltage levels

    MODULE-3

    Distribution side Reactive power Management:

    System losses loss reduction methods examples Reactive power planning objectives

    Economics Planning capacitor placement retrofitting of capacitor banks

    User side reactive power management: KVAR requirements for domestic appliances Purpose of using capacitors selection of

    capacitors deciding factors types of available capacitor, characteristics and Limitations

  • Reactive power management in electric traction systems and are furnaces:

    Typical layout of traction systems reactive power control requirements distribution

    transformers- Electric arc furnaces basic operations- furnaces transformer filter

    requirements remedial measures power factor of an arc furnace

    Reference Books: 1. Reactive power control in Electric power systems by T.J.E.Miller, John Wiley and sons, 1982 (Units I to IV)

    2. Reactive power Management by D.M.Tagare,Tata McGraw Hill,2004.(Units V toVIII

    ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS SIMULATION LAB

    (Any TEN Experiments of the following to be done)

    1. Obtain frequency response of a given system by using various methods:

    (a)General method of finding the frequency domain specifications.

    (b) Polar plot

    (c) Bode plot

    Also obtain the Gain margin and Phase margin.

    2. Determine stability of a given dynamical system using following methods.

    a) Root locus

    b) Bode plot

    c) Nyquist plot

    d) Lypanov stability criteria

    3. Transform a given dynamical system from I/O model to state variable model and vice

    versa.

    4. Conduct a power flow study on a given power system.

    5. Conduct a power flow study on a given power system network using Gauss-Seidel iterative

    method.

    6. Develop a Simulink model for a single area load frequency problem and simulate the same.

    7. Develop a Simulink model for a two-area load frequency problem and simulate the same.

    8. Design a PID controller for two-area power system and simulate the same.

    9. PSPICE Simulation of Single phase full converter using RLE loads.

    10. PSPICE Simulation of Three phase full converter using RLE loads.

    11. PSPICE Simulation of Single phase AC Voltage controller using RL load.

    12. PSPICE Simulation of Three phase inverter with PWM controller.

    13. PSPICE Simulation of Resonant Pulse commutation Circuit.

    14. PSPICE Simulation of Impulse Commutation Circuit.

  • SEMESTER-3

    ADAPTIVE & CONTROL THEORY

    MTPS 2101 L-T-P: 3-1-0

    Module-I Introduction and overview of Systems Identification, Adaptive Control and applications. Parameter Estimation: Least Square, Generalized and Recursive Least Square, Estimator properties including error bounds and convergence, MES, ML and MAP estimators, Nonlinear Least Squares. Model Structures and Predictors. Module-II Recursive Identification of Linear dynamic systems: RLS, ELS, IV, RML, Stochastic Approximation, Extended Kalman Filter, generalized prediction error framework and its application to ARMA and state models, convergence analysis, Time varying parameters. Nonlinear System Identification. ; Adaptive schemes. Adaptive control theory. Applications. Situations when constant Gain feedback is insufficient. ; Robust control. ; The adaptive control problem. ; The model following problem. MRAS based on stability theory. Model following when the full state is measurable. Module-III Direct MRAS for general linear systems. Prior knowledge in MRAS. MRAS for partially known systems. Use of robust estimation methods in MRAS. ; The basic idea. Indirect self-tuning regulators. Direct Self-tuning regulators. Linear Quadratic STR. Adaptive Predictive control. Prior knowledge in STR.; Linear-in-the-parameters model. Least squares estimation. Experimental conditions. Recursive estimators. Extended least squares. Robust estimation methods (dead zone, projection).Implementation issues. ; Nonlinear System Identification Techniques Text Books:

    1. K.J. Astrom and B. Wittenmark, Adaptive Control, Addison, Pearson 2006. 2. L. Ljung, System Identification Theory for the user, Prentice-Hall, 2007.

    Reference Books:

    1. K.S. Narendra and A.M. Annaswamy, Stable Adaptive Systems, Prentice-Hall, 1989.

    2. Landau and Zito, Digital Control Systems: Design, Identification and Implementation, Springer, 2006

  • POWER APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS (Elective-5) MODULE-1

    Synchronous Machines: The basis of General Theory and Generalized Equation of A.C

    machines, Equation in terms of phases variable parks transformation, Various reference

    frames, Derivation of two-axis equation, Torque equation, Field and damper windings,

    Equivalent circuits, Operational impedances and frequency response loci, Modified equation

    with more accurate coupling between field and damper windings.

    Selected topics on prime mover and energy supply systems: Governors for hydraulic and

    steam turbines, Transient droop, speed governing system.

    MODULE-2 Synchronous Generator short circuit and system faults: Symmetrical short circuit of

    unloaded generator, Analysis of short circuit oscillograms, short circuit of loaded

    synchronous generator, Unsymmetrical short of synchronous generator, system fault

    calculation, Sudden load changes, Equivalent circuit under transient condition, Constant flux

    linkage theorem, Simplified Phasor diagram for transient changes.

    Selected topics on excitation systems: Modelling of excitation system components, exciter

    (D.C and A.C), Amplifier, Stabilizing circuit

    MODULE-3 Induction machines: Generator equation of the induction motor (equation), Application of

    equation in primary and secondary reference frames and complex form of equation, Short

    circuit and fault current due to the induction motor, fault calculation.

    Transformers: Transient phenomena in transformer and transformer protection: General

    characteristics of over voltage and current inrush, Transient over voltage characteristics tics,

    Ferro resonant over voltage, protection against surges and insulation co-ordination.

    TEXT BOOKS:

    1. The Generalized theory of electrical machines (Chapters: 1,2,34,5,8 and 11 by

    B.Adkins and R.H. Hiiley.

    2. Principle, Operation and Design of power Transformer By S.B Vasciitnsky.

    3. The J & P transformer Book (Chapter: 22&23) By S. Austen Stigant and A.C Franklin.

    4. Power System Stability & Control ( Chapters: 8&9) By P.Kundur, McGraw Hill-1994.

  • POWER SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION (Elective-5)

    MODULE-1

    Introduction to optimization and classical optimization techniques

    Linear Programming: Standard form, geometry of LPP, Simplex Method pf solving LPP,

    revised simplex method, duality, decomposition principle, and transportation problem.

    Non-Linear Problem (NLP): one dimensional method, Elimination methods,

    Interpolation methods

    Non-Linear Programming (NLP): Unconstrained optimization techniques-Direct search

    and Descent methods, constrained optimization techniques, direct and indirect methods

    MODULE-2 Dynamic Programming: Multistage decision processes, concept of sub-optimization and

    principle of optimality, conversion of final value problem into an initial value problem.

    CPM and PERT

    Genetic Algorithm: Introduction to genetic Algorithm, working principle, coding of

    variables, fitness function. GA operators; Similarities and differences between Gas and

    Traditional methods; Unconstrained and constrained optimization using Genetic Algorithm,

    real coded gas, Advanced Gas, global optimization using GA.

    MODULE-3

    Applications to Power system: Economic Load Dispatch in thermal and Hydro-thermal

    system using GA and classical optimization techniques, Unit commitment problem, reactive

    power optimization. Optimal power flow, LPP and NLP techniques to optimal flow

    problems.

    References: 1. "Optimization - Theory and Applications", S.S.Rao, Wiley-Eastern Limited

    2. "Introduction of Linear and Non-Linear Programming ", David G. Luenberger, Wesley

    Publishing Company

    3. "Computational methods in Optimization ", Polak, Academic Press

    4. "Optimization Theory with Applications" Pierre D.A., Wiley Publications

    5. "Optimization for Engineering Design: Algorithms and Examples", Kalyanmoy deb, PHI

    Publication

    6. "Genetic Algorithm in Search Optimization and Machine Learning ", D.E. Goldberg,

    Addision-Wesley Publication, 1989

    7. "Advanced Power System Analysis and Dynamics " L.P. Singh, Wiley Eastern Limited.

    8. "Power System Analysis ", Hadi Saadat, TMH Publication.

    9. " Electrical Energy System : An Introduction ". Olle I.Elewgerd, TMH Publication, New

    Delhi.

  • DEMAND SIDE ENERGY MANAGEMENT (Elective-5) MODULE-1 Energy Audit: Definitions-Need-concepts-Types of energy audit; Energy index cost index

    pie Charts Sankey diagrams.

    Energy Economics: Introduction-Cost benefit risk analysis-Payback period-Straight line

    depreciation-Sinking fund depreciationReducing balance depreciation-Net present value

    method-Internal rate of return method-Profitability index for benefit cost ratio.

    Energy Conservation in Electric utilities and Industry: Electrical load management: Energy

    and load management devices-Conservation strategies; conservation in electric utilities and

    industry: Introduction-Energy conservation in utilities by improving load factor-Utility

    voltage regulation-Energy conservation in Industries-Power factor improvement.

    MODULE-2

    Energyefficient electric motors (EEMs): Energy efficient motors-construction and technical

    features-case studies of EEMs with respect to cost effectiveness-performance characteristics;

    Economics of EEMs and system life cycle-direct savings and payback analysis-efficiency

    factor or efficiency evaluation factor

    Electric Lighting: Introduction-Need for an energy management program-Building analysis-

    Modification of existing systems-Replacement of existing systems-priorities:

    Illumination requirement: Task lighting requirements-lighting levels-system modifications-

    non illumination modifications-lighting for non-task areas-reflectance-space geometry;

    System elements.

    MODULE-3 Light sources - characteristics of families of lamps-lamp substitution in existing systems-

    selection of higher efficiency lamps for a new system-Luminaries-ballasts-energy

    conservation in lighting. White light LED and conducting Polymers.

    Space Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning (HVAC) and Water Heating: Introduction-

    Heating of buildings-Transfer of Heat-Space heating methods-Ventilation and air-

    conditioning-Insulation-Cooling load-Electric water heating systems-Energy conservation

    methods.

    Co-generation and storage: Combined cycle cogeneration-energy storage: pumped hydro

    schemes-compressed air energy storage (CAES)-storage batteries-superconducting magnetic

    energy storage (SMES)

    References: 1.Energy management Hand book by Wayne C.Turner,John wiley and sons publications

    2.Electric Energy Utilization and Conservation by S C Tripathy,Tata McGraw

    hill publiching company ltd.New Delhi

    3.Energy efficient electric motors selection and application by John C.Andreas

    4.Hand book on Energy Audit and Management by Amit kumar Tyagi,published

    by TERI(Tata energy research Institute)

    5.Energy management by Paul W.O Callaghan McGraw hill book company

    6.Energy conversion systems by Rakosh Das Begamudre New age international publishers