COURSE STRUCTURE AND SYLLABI
POWER SYSTEM & CONTROL ENGINEERING
(ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
CENTURION UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT
School of Engineering & Technology, Paralakhemundi.
Web Site: - www.cutm.ac.in
CENTURION UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Course Structure & Syllabi for M.Tech (Power System &
Sub code Subject Name L-T-P Credits Sub code Subject Name L-T-P
3-1-0 4 MTPS
3-1-0 4 MTPS
Power Quality 3-1-0 4
3-1-0 4 MTPS
Dynamics & Stability
(any one of the following)
(any one of the following)
Extra High voltage
(any one of the following)
(any one of the following)
Real time control of
Power systems &
Electrical systems &
0-0-3 2 PSPT
Semester Credits 24 Semester Credits 24
Cumulative Credits 24 Cumulative Credits 48
CENTURION UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Course Structure & Syllabi for M.Tech (Power System &
Sub code Subject Name L-T-P Credits Sub code Subject Name L-T-P
Main Project &
(any one of the following)
Power apparatus &
Demand side energy
Thesis/Project(Part-1) ----- 10
Comprehensive Viva ----- 2
Semester Credits 20 Semester Credits 20
Cumulative Credits 68 Cumulative Credits 88
POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
MTPS 1101 L-T-P: 3-1-0
MODULE-1 Power System Network Matrices
Graph Theory: Definitions, Bus Incidence Matrix, Y bus formation
by Direct and Singular
Transformation Methods, Numerical Problems. Formation of Z Bus:
Algorithm for the Modification of Z Bus Matrix for addition
element for the following cases:
Addition of element from a new bus to reference, Addition of
element from a new bus to an
old bus, Addition of element between an old bus to reference and
Addition of element
between two old busses (Derivations and Numerical Problems). -
Modification of Z Bus for
the changes in network.
Power flow Studies
Necessity of Power Flow Studies Data for Power Flow Studies
Derivation of Static load
flow equations Load flow solutions using Gauss Seidel Method:
Acceleration Factor, Load
flow solution with and without P-V buses, Algorithm and
Flowchart. Numerical Load flow
Solution for Simple Power Systems (Max. 3-Buses): Determination
of Bus Voltages, Injected
Active and Reactive Powers (Sample One Iteration only) and
finding Line Flows/Losses for
the given Bus Voltages. Newton Raphson Method in Rectangular and
Form: Load Flow Solution with or Without PV Busses- Derivation
of Jacobian Elements,
Algorithm and Flowchart. Decoupled and Fast Decoupled
Methods-Comparison of Different
MethodsDC load Flow.
Short Circuit Analysis
Per-Unit System Representation. Per-Unit equivalent reactance
network of a three phase
Power System, Numerical Problems. Symmetrical fault Analysis:
Short Circuit Current and
MVA Calculations, Fault levels, Application of Series Reactors,
Symmetrical Component Theory: Symmetrical Component
Negative and Zero sequence components: Voltages, Currents and
Networks: Positive, Negative and Zero sequence Networks,
Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis: LG, LL, LLG faults with and
without fault impedance,
1. Computer Techniques in Power System Analysis by M.A.Pai, TMH
2. Modern Power system Analysis by I.J.Nagrath &
D.P.Kothari: Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing company, 2nd edition.
1. Power System Analysis by Grainger and Stevenson, Tata McGraw
2. Power System Analysis by A.R.Bergen, Prentice Hall, Inc.
3. Power System Analysis by Hadi Saadat TMH Edition.
4. Power System Analysis by B.R.Gupta, Wheeler Publications.
NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS MTPS 1102 L-T-P: 3-1-0
STATE SPACE ANALYSIS
State Space Representation, Solution of State Equation, State
Transition Matrix, Canonical
Forms Controllable Canonical Form, Observable Canonical Form,
Jordan Canonical Form.
CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY
Tests for controllability and observability for continuous time
systems Time varying case,
minimum energy control, time invariant case, Principle of
Duality, Controllability and
observability form Jordan canonical form and other canonical
DESCRIBING FUNCTION ANALYSIS
Introduction to nonlinear systems, Types of nonlinearities,
describing functions, describing
function analysis of nonlinear control systems.
Introduction to phase-plane analysis, Method of Isoclines for
singular points, phase-plane analysis of nonlinear control
Stability in the sense of Lypanov, Lypanovs stability and
Lypanovs instability theorems.
Direct method of Lypanov for the Linear and Nonlinear continuous
Effect of state feedback on controllability and observability,
Design of State Feedback
Control through Pole placement. Full order observer and reduced
CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS
Minimization of functional of single function, constrained
minimization. Minimum principle.
Control variable inequality constraints. Control and state
variable inequality constraints.
Euler Lagrangine Equation.
Formulation of optimal control problem. Minimum time, Minimum
energy, minimum fuel
problems. State regulator problem. Output regulator problem.
Tracking problem, Continuous-
Time Linear Regulators.
1. Modern Control System Theory by M. Gopal, New Age
International Publishers, 2nd
1. Modern Control Engineering by K. Ogata, Prentice Hall of
India, 3rd edition, 1998
2. Control Systems Engineering by I.J. Nagarath and M.Gopal, New
Age International (P)
3. Digital Control and State Variable Methods by M. Gopal, Tata
4. Systems and Control by Stainslaw H. Zak , Oxford Press,
COMPUTER AIDED POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION
MTPS 1103 L-T-P: 3-1-0
Module-I Introduction To Computer Relaying: Development of
computer relaying, Historical
background, Expected benefits of computer relaying, Computer
relay architecture, Analog to
digital converter, Anti-aliasing filter, Substation computer
Relaying Practices: Introduction to protection systems,
Functions of a protection system,
Protection of transmission lines, Transformer, reactor &
generator protection, Bus protection,
Performance of current & voltage transformers.
Module-II Mathematical Basis For Protective Relaying Algorithms:
Introduction, Fourier series, Other
orthogonal expansion, Fourier transform, Use of fourier
transform, Discrete fourier
transform, Introduction to probability & random processes,
Random processes, Kalman
Transmission Line Relaying: Introduction, Sources of error,
relaying as parameter estimation,
Beyond parameter estimation, Symmetrical component distance
relay, protection of series
Module-III Protection Of Transformers, Machines & Buses:
Introduction, Power transformer algorithms,
Generator protection,, Motor protection, Digital bus
Hardware Organisation In Integrated Systems: The nature of
hardware issues, Computers for
relaying, The substation environment, Industry environmental
against EMI, Supplementary equipment, Redundancy & backup,
Servicing, training &
System Relaying & Control: Introduction, Measurement of
frequency & phase, Sampling
clock synchronization, Application of Phasor measurements to
state estimation, Phasor
measurement in dynamic state estimation, Monitoring.
Developments In New Relaying Principles: Introduction, Traveling
waves on single-phase
lines, Traveling waves on three-phase lines, Traveling waves due
to faults, Directional wave
relays, Traveling wave distance relay, Differential relaying
with phasors, Traveling ` wave
differential relays, Adaptive relaying.
1.A.G. Phadke and J.S. Thorp, " Computer Relaying for Power
Systems", John Wiley and Sons,
HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING (Elective-1)
MODULE-1 INTRODUCTION TO HIGH VOLTAGE TECHNOLOGY AND
APPLICATIONS Electric Field Stresses, Gas / Vaccum as Insulator,
Liquid Dielectrics, Solids and Composites,
Estimation and Control of Electric Stress, Numerical methods for
electric field computation,
Surge voltages, their distribution and control, Applications of
insulating materials in
transformers, rotating machines, circuit breakers, cable power
capacitors and bushings.
BREAK DOWN IN GASEOUS AND LIQUID DIELECTRICS
Gases as insulating media, collision process, Ionization
process, Townsends criteria of
breakdown in gases, Paschens law. Liquid as Insulator, pure and
breakdown in pure and commercial liquids.
BREAK DOWN IN SOLID DIELECTRICS
Intrinsic breakdown, electromechanical breakdown, thermal
breakdown, breakdown of solid
dielectrics in practice, Breakdown in composite dielectrics,
solid dielectrics used in practice.
GENERATION OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS
Generation of High Direct Current Voltages, Generation of High
Generation of Impulse Voltages, Generation of Impulse currents,
Tripping and control of
MEASUREMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS
Measurement of High Direct Current voltages, Measurement of High
and impulse, Measurement of High Currents-direct, alternating
and Impulse, Oscilloscope for
impulse voltage and current measurements.
OVER VOLTAGE PHENOMENON AND INSULATION CO-ORDINATION Natural
causes for over voltages Lightning phenomenon, Overvoltage due to
surges, system faults and other abnormal conditions, Principles
of Insulation Coordination on
High voltage and Extra High Voltage power systems.
NON-DISTRUCTIVE TESTING OF MATERIAL AND ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Measurement of D.C Resistivity, Measurement of Dielectric
Constant and loss factor, Partial
HIGH VOLTAGE TESTING OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Testing of Insulators and bushings, Testing of Isolators and
circuit breakers, Testing of
cables, Testing of Transformers, Testing of Surge Arresters,
1. High Voltage Engineering by M.S.Naidu and V. Kamaraju TMH
Publications, 3rd Edition
2. High Voltage Engineering: Fundamentals by E.Kuffel,
W.S.Zaengl, J.Kuffel by Elsevier,
1. High Voltage Engineering by C.L.Wadhwa, New Age
Internationals (P) Limited, 1997.
2. High Voltage Insulation Engineering by Ravindra Arora,
Wolfgang Mosch, New Age
International (P) Limited, 1995.
EHV AC TRANSMISSION (Elective-1)
MODULE-1 Necessity of EHV AC transmission advantages and
problemspower handling capacity and
line losses mechanical considerations resistance of conductors
properties of bundled
conductors bundle spacing and bundle radius- Examples.
Line and ground reactive parameters:
Line inductance and capacitances sequence inductances and
capacitances modes of
propagation ground return - Examples
Voltage gradients of conductors:
Electrostatics field of sphere gap field of line changes and
properties charge potential
relations for multi-conductors surface voltage gradient on
conductors distribution of
voltage gradient on sub conductors of bundle Examples.
Power loss and audible noise (AN) corona loss formulae charge
generation, characteristics - limits and measurements of AN
relation between 1-phase and
3-phase AN levels Examples.
Radio interference (RI) - corona pulses generation, properties,
limits frequency spectrum
modes of propagation excitation function measurement of RI, RIV
Electro static field:
Electrostatic field: calculation of electrostatic field of
EHV/AC lines effect on humans,
animals and plants Electrostatic induction in unenergised
circuit of double-circuit line
Traveling wave theory
Traveling wave expression and solution- source of excitation-
terminal conditions- open
circuited and Short-circuited end- reflection and refraction
of distributed lines generalized constants-No load voltage
conditions and charging current.
Power circle diagram and its use voltage control using
synchronous condensers cascade
connection of shunt and series compensation sub synchronous
resonance in series capacitor
compensated lines static VAR compensating system. TEXT
1. EHVAC Transmission Engineering by R. D. Begamudre, New Age
International (p) Ltd.
2. HVAC and DC Transmission by S. Rao
FACTS CONTROLLERS (Elective-1) MODULE-1 Transmission
interconnections, power flow in an AC System, loading capability
Power flow and Dynamic stability considerations, importance of
Opportunities for FACTS, basic types of FACTS controllers,
benefits from FACTS
controllers, Requirements and Characteristics of High Power
devices Voltage and Current
rating, losses and speed of switching, parameter trade-off of
Basic concept of Voltage source converter, Single phase full
wave bridge converter, Single
phase-leg (pole) operation, Square-wave voltage harmonics for a
single phase Bridge, 3
Phase full wave bridge converter.
MODULE-2 Transformer connections for 12 pulse, 24 and 48 pulse
operation. Three level voltage source
converter, pulse width modulation converter, basic concept of
current source converters,
comparison of current source converters with voltage source
Objectives of shunt compensation, mid point voltage regulation
for line segmentation, End of
line voltage support to prevent voltage instability, improvement
of transient stability, Power
Methods of controllable var generation: variable impedance type
static var generators TCR
and TSR, TSC, FC-TCR, TSC-TCR, switching converter type var
generators, hybrid var
MODULE-3 SVC and STATCOM : The regulation and slope transfer
function and dynamic performance, transient stability enhancement
and power oscillation damping, operating point control and
summary of compensation control.
Static series compensators : Concept of series capacitive
compensation, improvement of
transient stability, power oscillation damping, functional
requirements. GTO thyristor
controlled series capacitor (GSC), thyristor switched series
capacitor (TSSC), and thyristor
controlled series capacitor (TCSC), control schemes for GSC,
TSSC and TCSC.
1. Understanding FACTS N.G.Hingorani and L.Guygi, IEEE Press.
Indian Edition is available:--Standard Publications, 2001.
2. Flexible a c transmission system (FACTS) Edited by YONG HUE
ALLAN T JOHNS, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London.
POWER SYSTEMS TRANSIENTS (Elective-2) MODULE-1 INTRODUCTION TO
Origin and nature of power system Transients, traveling waves on
transmission system, the
line equation, the shape attenuation and distortion of waves,
reflection of traveling waves ,
successive reflections, traveling waves on multi conductor
systems, transition points on multi
Charge formation, mechanism of lightning stroke. Mathematical
model of lightning stroke.
MODULE-2 THEORY OF GROUNDS WIRES: Direct stoke to a tower,
effect of reflection up and down the tower, the counterpoise.
Normal frequency effects, high charging currents, cancellation
waves, recovery voltage,
restricting phenomena. Protection of transmission systems
against surge. High frequency
oscillations and terminal transients of transformer.
MODULE-3 INSULATION COORDINATION:
Insulation coordination procedures (IEC) for high voltage
systems: Design criteria,
classification of over voltages, insulation design for
switching, lightning and temporary over
voltages, pollution, application of arresters for protection of
lines and stations, statistical
methods of insulation coordination, risk of failure, test
prescriptions. Insulation coordination
procedures (IEC) for low voltage systems: representative over
voltages, selection of clearance
and creepage distances, macro and micro environments, testing
(switching and lightning) voltage surge suppression in
industrial and commercial electrical
installations, protection of electronic devices.
REFERENCES 1.Allan Greenwood , Electrical Transients in power
Systems , Wiley Iterscience, 1991 2.Lou Van Der Sluis, Transients
in power Systems , John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2001
3.R Rudenterg, Transient Performance of Electric power systems,
Phenomenon in Lumped
Networks, MGH, 1950
4.R Rudenterg, Electric Stroke waves in power systems, Harvard
Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1968
5.Transmission Line Reference Book, EPRI, USA, 1982.
ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONICS (Elective-2)
Module-I 1- and 3- Controlled rectifiers-Average output voltages
and currents for R-L. load
performance parameters of rectifier 1- and 3- converter. DC-DC
Boost, Buck-boost converters, linear power supplies. Switch mode
DC Power supplies,
Fly back converter, Forward converter, push pull converter, half
bridge and full bridge
Module-II Basic concepts of switch mode inverter, pulse width
modulated switching scheme ,
unipolar and bipolar Switching scheme, 1- inverters, push pull
inverters, 3- inverters,
PWM in 3- voltage source inverters. Reduction of Harmonies,
switching, programmed Harmonic elimination switching.
Module-III Resonant pulse Converters: Classification of resonant
Converters, series Resonant
Inverter: Series Resonant inverters with unidirectional
switches, series resonant inverters
with bi-directional switches. Parallel Resonant Inverters, Zero
current switching resonant
converters, zero voltage switching resonant converters.
Books for Reference: 1. Power electronics, Circuits, devices.
Application by M.H.Rashid (PHI) 2. Power electronics, converters,
applications and Design N.Mohan undeland and
Robbins John wily and sons inc. 3. Modern Power electronics and
AC Drives by B.K .Bose.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL (Elective-2)
MODULE-1 Unit commitment problem : Introductions to UCP, thermal
& Hydral constraints in Unit
commitment : Priority list scheme method, unit commitment
problem solution by priority list
Unit commitment problem solutions by Dynamic programming
advantages of DP method over priority list scheme, Back word DP
approach, forward DP
approach algorithm and their flow charts solution UCP using
Dynamic program method.
MODULE-2 Load Frequency Control-I : Necessity of keeping
frequency constant. Definition of control
area, single area control, Block diagram representation of an
isolated Power System, Steady
State analysis, Dynamic response-Uncontrolled case.
Proportional plus Integral control of single area and its block
diagram representation, steady
state response, load frequency control and Economic dispatch
Load Frequency Control-II : Load frequency control of 2-area
system : uncontrolled case and
controlled case, tie-time bias control.
MODULE-3 Optimal LF control-steady state representation,
performance Index and optimal parameter
Generation with limited Energy supply : Take-or-pay fuel supply
generation production cost function. Solution by gradient search
techniques, Hard limits and
slack variables, Fuel scheduling by linear programming.
Interchange Evaluation and Power Pools Economy Interchange,
Evaluation, Interchange Evaluation with unit commitment,
Multiple Interchange contracts.
After-the-fact production costing, Transmission Losses in
transaction Evaluation, other types
of Interchange, power pools.
Reference Books :
1. Electrical Energy Systems Theory - by O.I.Elgerd, Tata Mc
Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, 2
2. Power System Analysis by Hadi Saadat Tata Mc Graw Hill
Publications 3. Power Generation, Operation and Control - by
A.J.Wood and B.F.Wollenberg,John
wiley & sons Inc. 1984.
4. Modern Power System Analysis - by I.J.Nagrath &
D.P.Kothari, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company ltd, 2
POWER SYSTEMS & SIMULATION LAB
1. Fault Analysis of 3-phase Alternator
2. Determination of Xd and Xq of 3-phase salient pole
3. IDMT (Inverse Definite Minimum Time) relay
4. Determination of breakdown strength of oil by variable
5. Determination of transmission line parameters.
6. Fault analysis (LL, LG, and LLL) of transmission lines.
SIMULATION BASED (USING MATLAB OR ANY OTHER SOFTWARE) 1. To
obtain steady-state, transient and sub-transient short-circuit
currents in an alternator. 2. To formulate the Y-Bus matrix and
perform load flow analysis. 3. To compute voltage, current, power
factor, regulation and efficiency at the receiving end of a three
phase Transmission line when the voltage and power at the sending
end are given. Use model. 4. To perform symmetrical fault analysis
in a power system. 5. To perform unsymmetrical fault analysis in a
DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
MTPS 1201 L-T-P: 3-1-0
SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Introduction, Examples of Data control systems Digital to Analog
conversion and Analog
to Digital conversion, sample and hold operations.
THE Z TRANSFORMS
Introduction, Linear difference equations, pulse response, Z
transforms, Theorems of Z
Transforms, the inverse Z transforms, Modified Z- Transforms
Z-PLANE ANALYSIS OF DISCRETE-TIME CONTROL SYSTEM
Z-Transform method for solving difference equations; Pulse
transforms function, block
diagram analysis of sampled data systems, mapping between
s-plane and z-plane.
MODULE-2 STATE SPACE ANALYSIS
State Space Representation of discrete time systems, Pulse
Transfer Function Matrix solving
discrete time state space equations, State transition matrix and
its Properties, Methods for
Computation of State Transition Matrix, Discretization of
continuous time state space
CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY
Concepts of Controllability and Observability, Tests for
controllability and Observability.
Duality between Controllability and Observability,
Controllability and Observability
conditions for Pulse Transfer Function
Mapping between the S-Plane and the Z-Plane Primary strips and
Constant frequency loci, Constant damping ratio loci, Stability
Analysis of closed loop
systems in the Z-Plane. Jury stability test Stability Analysis
by use of the Bilinear
Transformation and Routh Stability criterion.
DESIGN OF DISCRETE TIME CONTROL SYSTEM BY CONVENTIONAL
METHODS Transient and steady State response Analysis Design
based on the frequency response
method Bilinear Transformation and Design procedure in the
w-plane, Lead, Lag and Lead-
Lag compensators and digital PID controllers.
.STATE FEEDBACK CONTROLLERS AND OBSERVERS
Design of state feedback controller through pole placement
Necessary and sufficient
conditions, Ackermans formula.
State Observers Full order and Reduced order observers.
1. Discrete-Time Control systems - K. Ogata, Pearson
Education/PHI, 2nd Edition
1. Digital Control Systems, Kuo, Oxford University Press, 2nd
2. Digital Control and State Variable Methods by M.Gopal,
MTPS 1202 L-T-P: 3-1-0
Introduction: power quality (PQ) problem, Voltage sag, Swell ,
Surges, Harmonic, over
voltages, spikes, Voltage fluctuations, Transients, interruption
overview of power quality
phenomenon , Remedies to improve power quality, power quality
Interruptions: Definition, Difference between failure, outage,
causes and origin of
interruptions, limits for the interruption frequency, limits for
the interruption duration , costs
of interruption, overview of Reliability , evaluation to power
quality, comparison of
observations and reliability evaluation. MODULE-2 Voltage Sag:
Characterization of voltage sag, definition, causes of voltage sag,
magnitude, monitoring, theoretical calculation of voltage sag
magnitude voltage sag
calculation in non-radial systems, meshed systems, voltage sag
PQ considerations in Industrial Power Systems: voltage sag
effects, equipment behaviour
of power electronic loads, induction motors, synchronous motors,
electronics, adjustable speed AC drives and its operation.
Mitigation of AC drives,
Adjustable speed DC drive and its operation, mitigation methods
of DC drives.
MODULE-3 Mitigation of Interruptions and Voltage Sags: Overview
of mitigation methods- form fault
to trip, reducing the number of faults, reducing the fault
clearing time changing the power
system, installing mitigation equipment, improving equipment
immunity, different events and
mitigation methods. System equipment interface- voltage source
converter, series voltage
controller, shunt controller, combined shunt and series
Power Quality and EMC Standards: Introduction to
standardization, IEC Electromagnetic
compatibility standards, European voltage characteristics
standards, PQ surveys.
1. Understanding Power Quality Problems by Math H J Bollen, IEEE
Press. 2. Electrical power quality R C Dugan, M.F,M Granghar,
POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS & STABILITY
MTPS 1203 L-T-P: 3-1-0
MODULE-1 System Dynamics: Synchronous machine model in state
space form, computer representation
for excitation and governor systems modeling of loads and
Stability steady state stability limit Dynamic Stability limit
Dynamic stability analysis.
MODULE-2 State space representation of synchronous machine
connected to infinite bus, Time response
Stability by Eigen value approach.
Digital Simulation of Transient Stability: Swing equation,
Concept of Multi machine Stability, Multi machine Transient
Stability Under Different
Faulted Conditions. MODULE-3 Effect of governor action and
exciter on power system stability. Effect of saturation,
& automatic voltage regulators on stability.
Excitation Systems: Rotating Self-excited Exciter with direct
acting Rheostatic type, voltage
regulator Rotating main and Pilot Exciters with Indirect Acting
Rheostatic Type Voltage
Rotating Main Exciter, Rotating Amplifier and Static Voltage
Regulator Static excitation
scheme Brushless excitation system.
Reference Books: 1. Power System Stability by Kimbark Vol.
I&II, III 1968, Dover Publication Inc, New
2. Power System control and stability by Anderson and Fund, Vol
I, P.M.Arolerson & A.A.fouad, Galgotia Publications 3B/12,
Uttari marg Rajunder Nagar, New Delhi
110060, 1981, 1 st edition.
3. Power System Dynamics Stability and Control by K.R.Padiyar,
Second edition B.S.Publications 2002.
4. Computer Applications to Power SystemsGlenn.W.Stagg &
5. Power Systems Analysis & Stability S.S.Vadhera Khanna
Publishers. 6. Power System Analysis by Hadi Saadat Tata McGraw
Hill Publications 7. Power System Analysis by John J.Graniger
William D.Stevenson. JR. Tata McGraw
ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS (Elective-3)
MODULE-1 General : Introduction to Distribution systems, an
overview of the role of computers in
distribution system planning-Load modeling and characteristics:
definition of basic terms like
demand factor, utilization factor, load factor, plant factor,
diversity factor, coincidence factor,
contribution factor and loss factor-Relationship between the
load factor and loss factor -
Classification of loads (Residential, Commercial, Agricultural
and Industrial) and their
characteristics. Distribution Feeders and Substations: Design
consideration of Distribution
feeders: Radial and loop types of primary feeders, voltage
levels, and feeder-loading.
MODULE-2 Design practice of the secondary distribution system.
Location of Substations: Rating of a
Distribution Substation, service area with primary feeders.
Benefits derived through optimal
location of substations. System analysis: Voltage drop and power
Derivation for volt-drop and power loss in lines, manual methods
of solution for radial
networks, three-phase balanced primary lines, non-three-phase
Protective devices and coordination: Objectives of distribution
system protection, types of
common faults and procedure for fault calculation.
MODULE-3 Protective Devices: Principle of operation of fuses,
circuit reclosers, line sectionalizer and
circuit breakers. Coordination of protective devices: General
Capacitive compensation for power factor control: Different
types of power capacitors, shunt
and series capacitors, effect of shunt capacitors (Fixed and
switched) power factor correction,
capacitor location. Economic justification. Procedure to
determine the best capacitor location.
Voltage control : Equipment for voltage control, effect of
series capacitors, effect of
AVB/AVR, line drop compensation. Reference Books: 1. Electric
Power Distribution System Engineering by Turan Gonen, Mc.Graw-Hill
2. Electric Power Distribution-by A.S.Pabla, Tata Mc Graw-Hill
POWER SYSTEM RELIABILITY (Elective-3)
MODULE-1 Basics of Probability theory & Distribution: Basic
probability theory rules for combining
probabilities of events Bernoullis trials probabilities density
and distribution functions
binomial distribution expected value and standard deviation of
Network Modelling and Reliability Analysis: Analysis of Series,
networks complex networks decomposition method.
Reliability functions :Reliability functions f(t), F(t), R(t),
h(t) and their relationships
exponential distribution Expected value and standard deviation
of exponential distribution
Bath tub curve reliability analysis of series parallel networks
using exponential distribution
reliability measures MTTF, MTTR, MTBF.
Markov Modelling : Markov chains concept of stochastic
transitional probability Matrix,
Evaluation of limiting state Probabilities. Markov processes one
system time dependent probability evaluation using Laplace
evaluation of limiting state probabilities using STPM two
component repairable models.
Frequency & Duration Techniques : Frequency and duration
concept Evaluation of
frequency of encountering state, mean cycle time, for one , two
component repairable models
evaluation of cumulative probability and cumulative frequency of
encountering of merged
MODULE-3 Generation System Reliability Analysis : Reliability
model of a generation system
recursive relation for unit addition and removal load modeling -
Merging of generation load
model evaluation of transition rates for merged state model
cumulative frequency of failure evaluation LOLP, LOLE.
Composite Systems Reliability Analysis: Decompositions method
Weather Effects on Transmission Lines.
Distribution System and Reliability Analysis: Basic Concepts
Evaluation of Basic and
performance reliability indices of radial networks.
Reference Books: 1. Reliability Evaluation of Engg. System R.
Billinton, R.N.Allan, Plenum Press, New
York. 2. Reliability Evaluation of Power systems R. Billinton,
R.N.Allan, Pitman Advance
Publishing Program, New York.
3. An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability
Engineering. Charles E. Ebeling, TATA Mc Graw - Hill Edition.
ADVANCED DSP (Elective-3)
MODULE-1 Digital Filter Structure
Block diagram representation-Equivalent Structures-FIR and IIR
digital filter Structures All
pass Filters-tunable IIR Digital Filters-IIR tapped cascaded
Lattice Structures-FIR cascaded
Lattice structures-Parallel-Digital Sine-cosine
generator-Computational complexity of digital
Digital filter design Preliminary considerations-Bilinear
transformation method of IIR filter design-design of Low
pass highpass-Bandpass, and Band stop- IIR digital
filters-Spectral transformations of IIR
filters- FIR filter design-based on Windowed Fourier series-
design of FIR digital filters with
least mean- Square-error-constrained Least-square design of FIR
MODULE-2 DSPalgorithm implementation
Computation of the discrete Fourier transform- Number
operations-handling of overflow-Tunable digital filters-function
Analysis of finite Word length effects
The Quantization process and errors- Quantization of fixed
-point and floating -point
Numbers-Analysis of coefficient Quantization effects - Analysis
of Arithmetic Round-off
errors-Dynamic range scaling-signal- to- noise ratio in Low
-order IIR filters-Low-Sensitivity
Digital filters-Reduction of Product round-off errors using
error feedback-Limit cycles in IIR
digital filters- Round-off errors in FFT Algorithms.
Power Spectrum Estimation
Estimation of spectra from Finite Duration Observations signals
for power spectrum Estimation parametric method for power
Estimation of spectral form-Finite duration observation of
for power spectrum estimation-Walsh methods-Blackman &
Reference Books: 1. Digital signal processing-sanjit K.
Mitra-TMH second edition 2. Discrete Time Signal Processing Alan
V.Oppenheim, Ronald W.Shafer - PHI-1996 1st
3 Digital Signal Processing principles, algorithms and
G.Proakis -PHI 3rd edition-2002
4 Digital Signal Processing S.Salivahanan, A.Vallavaraj, C.
Gnanapriya TMH - 2nd
5 Theory and Applications of Digital Signal Proceesing-LourensR.
Digital Filter Analysis and Design-Auntonian-TMH
POWER SYSTEM DEREGULATION (Elective-4)
MODULE-1 Need and conditions for deregulation. Introduction of
Market structure, Market
Architecture, Spot market, forward markets and settlements.
Review of Concepts marginal
cost of generation, least-cost operation, incremental cost of
Power System Operation: Old vs New
Electricity sector structures and Ownership /management, the
forms of Ownership and
management. Different structure model like Monopoly model,
Purchasing agency model,
wholesale competition model, Retail competition model.
MODULE-2 Framework and methods for the analysis of Bilateral and
pool markets, LMP based markets,
auction models and price formation, price based unit commitment,
Transmission network and market power. Power wheeling
transactions and marginal costing,
transmission costing. Congestion management methods- market
Effect of congestion on LMPs- country practices MODULE-3
Ancillary Services and System Security in Deregulation.
Classifications and definitions,
AS management in various markets- country practices. Technical,
economic, & regulatory
issues involved in the deregulation of the power industry.
Reference Books: 1. Power System Economics: Designing markets
for electricity - S. Stoft 2. Power generation, operation and
control, -J. Wood and B. F. Wollenberg
3. Operation of restructured power systems - K. Bhattacharya,
M.H.J. Bollen and J.E.
4. Market operations in electric power systems - M.
Shahidehpour, H. Yamin and Z. Li
5. Fundamentals of power system economics - S. Kirschen and G.
6. Optimization principles: Practical Applications to the
Operation and Markets
of the Electric Power Industry - N. S. Rau
7. Competition and Choice in Electricity - Sally Hunt and Graham
REAL TIME CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS (Elective-4) MODULE-1 State
Estimation : Different types of State Estimations, Theory of WLS
sequential and non-sequential methods to process
Bad data Observability, Bad data detection, identification and
Security and Contingency Evaluation : Security concept, Security
Analysis and monitoring,
Contingency Analysis for Generator and line outages by iterative
linear power flow method,
Fast Decoupled model, and network sensitivity methods.
MODULE-2 Computer Control of Power Systems : Need for real time
and computer control of power
systems, operating states of a power system,
SCADA - Supervisory control and Data Acquisition systems
energy control centres, software requirements for implementing
the above functions.
MODULE-3 Voltage Stability : What is voltage stability, voltage
collapse, and voltage security, relation of
voltage stability to rotor angle stability.
Voltage stability analysis Introduction to voltage stability
analysis `P-V curves and `Q-V
curves, voltage stability in mature power systems, long-term
voltage stability, power flow
analysis for voltage stability, voltage stability static indices
and Research Areas
Application of AI and ANN in Power System : Basic concepts and
definitions, algorithms for
load flow, short term load forecasting, fault diagnosis and
Reference Books : 1. John J.Grainger and William D.Stevenson,
Jr. : Power System Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1994, International
1. Allen J.Wood and Bruce F.Wollenberg : Power Generation
operation and control, John Wiley & Sons, 1984
2. R.N.Dhar : Computer Aided Power Systems Operation and
Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill, 1982
3. L.P.Singh : Advanced Power System Analysis and Dynamics,
Wiley Eastern Ltd. 1986
4. Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and Control -, McGraw
Hill, 1994 5. P.D.Wasserman : `Neural Computing : Theory and
Practice Van Nostrand -
Feinhold, New York.
REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION AND MANAGEMENT
MODULE-1 Load Compensation Objectives and specifications
reactive power characteristics inductive and capacitive
approximate biasing Load compensator as a voltage regulator
phase balancing and power
factor correction of unsymmetrical loads- examples.
Steady state reactive power compensation in transmission
Uncompensated line types of compensation Passive shunt and
series and dynamic shunt
Transient state reactive power compensation in transmission
systems: Characteristic time periods passive shunt compensation
static compensations- series
capacitor compensation compensation using synchronous condensers
Reactive power coordination: Objective Mathematical modeling
Operation planning transmission benefits Basic
concepts of quality of power supply disturbances- steady state
variations effects of under
voltages frequency Harmonics, radio frequency and
Demand side management: Load patterns basic methods load shaping
power tariffs- KVAR based tariffs penalties for
voltage flickers and Harmonic voltage levels
Distribution side Reactive power Management:
System losses loss reduction methods examples Reactive power
Economics Planning capacitor placement retrofitting of capacitor
User side reactive power management: KVAR requirements for
domestic appliances Purpose of using capacitors selection of
capacitors deciding factors types of available capacitor,
characteristics and Limitations
Reactive power management in electric traction systems and are
Typical layout of traction systems reactive power control
transformers- Electric arc furnaces basic operations- furnaces
requirements remedial measures power factor of an arc
Reference Books: 1. Reactive power control in Electric power
systems by T.J.E.Miller, John Wiley and sons, 1982 (Units I to
2. Reactive power Management by D.M.Tagare,Tata McGraw
Hill,2004.(Units V toVIII
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS SIMULATION LAB
(Any TEN Experiments of the following to be done)
1. Obtain frequency response of a given system by using various
(a)General method of finding the frequency domain
(b) Polar plot
(c) Bode plot
Also obtain the Gain margin and Phase margin.
2. Determine stability of a given dynamical system using
a) Root locus
b) Bode plot
c) Nyquist plot
d) Lypanov stability criteria
3. Transform a given dynamical system from I/O model to state
variable model and vice
4. Conduct a power flow study on a given power system.
5. Conduct a power flow study on a given power system network
using Gauss-Seidel iterative
6. Develop a Simulink model for a single area load frequency
problem and simulate the same.
7. Develop a Simulink model for a two-area load frequency
problem and simulate the same.
8. Design a PID controller for two-area power system and
simulate the same.
9. PSPICE Simulation of Single phase full converter using RLE
10. PSPICE Simulation of Three phase full converter using RLE
11. PSPICE Simulation of Single phase AC Voltage controller
using RL load.
12. PSPICE Simulation of Three phase inverter with PWM
13. PSPICE Simulation of Resonant Pulse commutation Circuit.
14. PSPICE Simulation of Impulse Commutation Circuit.
ADAPTIVE & CONTROL THEORY
MTPS 2101 L-T-P: 3-1-0
Module-I Introduction and overview of Systems Identification,
Adaptive Control and applications. Parameter Estimation: Least
Square, Generalized and Recursive Least Square, Estimator
properties including error bounds and convergence, MES, ML and MAP
estimators, Nonlinear Least Squares. Model Structures and
Predictors. Module-II Recursive Identification of Linear dynamic
systems: RLS, ELS, IV, RML, Stochastic Approximation, Extended
Kalman Filter, generalized prediction error framework and its
application to ARMA and state models, convergence analysis, Time
varying parameters. Nonlinear System Identification. ; Adaptive
schemes. Adaptive control theory. Applications. Situations when
constant Gain feedback is insufficient. ; Robust control. ; The
adaptive control problem. ; The model following problem. MRAS based
on stability theory. Model following when the full state is
measurable. Module-III Direct MRAS for general linear systems.
Prior knowledge in MRAS. MRAS for partially known systems. Use of
robust estimation methods in MRAS. ; The basic idea. Indirect
self-tuning regulators. Direct Self-tuning regulators. Linear
Quadratic STR. Adaptive Predictive control. Prior knowledge in
STR.; Linear-in-the-parameters model. Least squares estimation.
Experimental conditions. Recursive estimators. Extended least
squares. Robust estimation methods (dead zone,
projection).Implementation issues. ; Nonlinear System
Identification Techniques Text Books:
1. K.J. Astrom and B. Wittenmark, Adaptive Control, Addison,
Pearson 2006. 2. L. Ljung, System Identification Theory for the
user, Prentice-Hall, 2007.
1. K.S. Narendra and A.M. Annaswamy, Stable Adaptive Systems,
2. Landau and Zito, Digital Control Systems: Design,
Identification and Implementation, Springer, 2006
POWER APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS (Elective-5) MODULE-1
Synchronous Machines: The basis of General Theory and
Generalized Equation of A.C
machines, Equation in terms of phases variable parks
transformation, Various reference
frames, Derivation of two-axis equation, Torque equation, Field
and damper windings,
Equivalent circuits, Operational impedances and frequency
response loci, Modified equation
with more accurate coupling between field and damper
Selected topics on prime mover and energy supply systems:
Governors for hydraulic and
steam turbines, Transient droop, speed governing system.
MODULE-2 Synchronous Generator short circuit and system faults:
Symmetrical short circuit of
unloaded generator, Analysis of short circuit oscillograms,
short circuit of loaded
synchronous generator, Unsymmetrical short of synchronous
generator, system fault
calculation, Sudden load changes, Equivalent circuit under
transient condition, Constant flux
linkage theorem, Simplified Phasor diagram for transient
Selected topics on excitation systems: Modelling of excitation
system components, exciter
(D.C and A.C), Amplifier, Stabilizing circuit
MODULE-3 Induction machines: Generator equation of the induction
motor (equation), Application of
equation in primary and secondary reference frames and complex
form of equation, Short
circuit and fault current due to the induction motor, fault
Transformers: Transient phenomena in transformer and transformer
characteristics of over voltage and current inrush, Transient
over voltage characteristics tics,
Ferro resonant over voltage, protection against surges and
1. The Generalized theory of electrical machines (Chapters:
1,2,34,5,8 and 11 by
B.Adkins and R.H. Hiiley.
2. Principle, Operation and Design of power Transformer By S.B
3. The J & P transformer Book (Chapter: 22&23) By S.
Austen Stigant and A.C Franklin.
4. Power System Stability & Control ( Chapters: 8&9) By
P.Kundur, McGraw Hill-1994.
POWER SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION (Elective-5)
Introduction to optimization and classical optimization
Linear Programming: Standard form, geometry of LPP, Simplex
Method pf solving LPP,
revised simplex method, duality, decomposition principle, and
Non-Linear Problem (NLP): one dimensional method, Elimination
Non-Linear Programming (NLP): Unconstrained optimization
and Descent methods, constrained optimization techniques, direct
and indirect methods
MODULE-2 Dynamic Programming: Multistage decision processes,
concept of sub-optimization and
principle of optimality, conversion of final value problem into
an initial value problem.
CPM and PERT
Genetic Algorithm: Introduction to genetic Algorithm, working
principle, coding of
variables, fitness function. GA operators; Similarities and
differences between Gas and
Traditional methods; Unconstrained and constrained optimization
using Genetic Algorithm,
real coded gas, Advanced Gas, global optimization using GA.
Applications to Power system: Economic Load Dispatch in thermal
system using GA and classical optimization techniques, Unit
commitment problem, reactive
power optimization. Optimal power flow, LPP and NLP techniques
to optimal flow
References: 1. "Optimization - Theory and Applications",
S.S.Rao, Wiley-Eastern Limited
2. "Introduction of Linear and Non-Linear Programming ", David
G. Luenberger, Wesley
3. "Computational methods in Optimization ", Polak, Academic
4. "Optimization Theory with Applications" Pierre D.A., Wiley
5. "Optimization for Engineering Design: Algorithms and
Examples", Kalyanmoy deb, PHI
6. "Genetic Algorithm in Search Optimization and Machine
Learning ", D.E. Goldberg,
Addision-Wesley Publication, 1989
7. "Advanced Power System Analysis and Dynamics " L.P. Singh,
Wiley Eastern Limited.
8. "Power System Analysis ", Hadi Saadat, TMH Publication.
9. " Electrical Energy System : An Introduction ". Olle
I.Elewgerd, TMH Publication, New
DEMAND SIDE ENERGY MANAGEMENT (Elective-5) MODULE-1 Energy
Audit: Definitions-Need-concepts-Types of energy audit; Energy
index cost index
pie Charts Sankey diagrams.
Energy Economics: Introduction-Cost benefit risk
analysis-Payback period-Straight line
depreciation-Sinking fund depreciationReducing balance
depreciation-Net present value
method-Internal rate of return method-Profitability index for
benefit cost ratio.
Energy Conservation in Electric utilities and Industry:
Electrical load management: Energy
and load management devices-Conservation strategies;
conservation in electric utilities and
industry: Introduction-Energy conservation in utilities by
improving load factor-Utility
voltage regulation-Energy conservation in Industries-Power
Energyefficient electric motors (EEMs): Energy efficient
motors-construction and technical
features-case studies of EEMs with respect to cost
Economics of EEMs and system life cycle-direct savings and
factor or efficiency evaluation factor
Electric Lighting: Introduction-Need for an energy management
Modification of existing systems-Replacement of existing
Illumination requirement: Task lighting requirements-lighting
non illumination modifications-lighting for non-task
MODULE-3 Light sources - characteristics of families of
lamps-lamp substitution in existing systems-
selection of higher efficiency lamps for a new
conservation in lighting. White light LED and conducting
Space Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning (HVAC) and Water
Heating of buildings-Transfer of Heat-Space heating
methods-Ventilation and air-
conditioning-Insulation-Cooling load-Electric water heating
Co-generation and storage: Combined cycle cogeneration-energy
storage: pumped hydro
schemes-compressed air energy storage (CAES)-storage
energy storage (SMES)
References: 1.Energy management Hand book by Wayne C.Turner,John
wiley and sons publications
2.Electric Energy Utilization and Conservation by S C
hill publiching company ltd.New Delhi
3.Energy efficient electric motors selection and application by
4.Hand book on Energy Audit and Management by Amit kumar
by TERI(Tata energy research Institute)
5.Energy management by Paul W.O Callaghan McGraw hill book
6.Energy conversion systems by Rakosh Das Begamudre New age