MSE-630 Amorphous Semiconductors And Solar Cells

  • View
    216

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

Text of MSE-630 Amorphous Semiconductors And Solar Cells

  • Slide 1
  • MSE-630 Amorphous Semiconductors And Solar Cells
  • Slide 2
  • MSE-630 Amorphous Semiconductors are used in many applications, including: Solar Cells Switching devices Thin Film Displays Electrophotography
  • Slide 3
  • MSE-630 Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) LCD Displays Liquid Crystal Displays Developed by RCA Laboratories in 1968 Work by acting as a light valve either blocking light or allowing it to pass An electric field is applied to alter the properties of each Liquid Crystal Cell (LCC) to change each pixels light absorption properties Colors are added through filtering process Modern Laptops produce virtually unlimited colors at very high resolution
  • Slide 4
  • Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) LCD Displays Path of light through a TFT LCD Light comes from behind either LED or fluorescent source Beam of light is polarized, then goes through TFT matrix, which decides which pixels should be on or off If on, molecules in LCC will align in a single direction, allowing light to pass Color filters block all wavelengths of light except those within the range of the pixel. Areas between pixels are printed black to increase contrast. Exiting light passes through another polarizer to sharpen image and eliminate glare MSE-630 In an TFT display, each LCC is stimulated by a dedicated thin-film transistor matrix, with one transistor at each pixel.
  • Slide 5
  • MSE-630 LCD Addressing Modes Three types of addressing have emerged since LCD became the display medium in 1971: Direct Multiplex Active Matrix Active matrix allows charge storage, enabling pixels to refresh enabling real-time video on large screens In Direct, one signal controls many segments. Useful for numeric displays, e.g., watches and calculators Wires in Multiplex are shared through a matrix wiring scheme, allowing separate signals to be delivered to each pixel
  • Slide 6
  • MSE-630 Manufacturing and Display Configurations Photolithography used to lay insulators, transistors and conductors down on a glass substrate the lower glass in an LCD TFT displays require a transistor and capacitor for each pixel For highest fidelity, RGB is replaced by GRGB and RGB Delta Displays
  • Slide 7
  • MSE-630 Three switch technologies: Amorphous Silicon (a-Si), Polycrystalline Silicon )p- Si) and Single Crystal Silicon (x-Si) Amorphous Silicon is the standard for TFT LCDs because they have: Good Color Good Grayscale Reproduction Fast Response Advantages: An a-Si TFT production process requires only 4 basic lithography steps, and produces good quality large screens low cost Disadvantage: Because a-Si has low mobility, a capacitor must be added to each pixel TFT Process Mobility (cm^2/V sec) A-Si0.3-0.7 conventional p-Si 6 eximer p-Si329 singe crystal Si (x-Si) 600
  • Slide 8
  • MSE-630 Polycrystalline Silicon Disadvantage: Requires higher process temperatures than a-Si 600 o C softens most types of glass Advantage: Adding only two process steps, NMOS and PMOS transistors can be formed Meet requirements for HDTV displays p-Si junction a-Si junction
  • Slide 9
  • MSE-630 Breakthrough Technology The eximer laser annealing process is capable of recrystallizing p-Si film, increasing its mobility 660 times. This is possible because polycrystalline Si absorbs UV light. The absorbed energy raises the temperature of the p-Si film, thus annealing it. The eximer laser process allows a cheaper and more conventional glass to be used as a substrate, reducing production costs for the mass production of p-Si TFTs.
  • Slide 10
  • MSE-630 Photovoltaics Photoelectric effect discovered by Edmund Bequerel in 1830 Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize for describing the nature of light and the photoelectric effect in 1905 Bell Laboratories made the first photovoltaic module in 1954. The space industry in the 1960s and the energy crisis in the 1970s spurred further photovoltaic development
  • Slide 11
  • MSE-630 Photovoltaics Operating Principles Photovoltaics, also known as Solar Cells are semiconductors, typically Silicon A solar cell uses junctions of an n-type semiconductor (freely moving electrons) with a p-type semiconductor (freely moving holes) which creates a type of diode that is in electric equilibrium in the dark Photons (electromagnetic radiation) from the sun free electrons and holes, causing a DC current to flow from the n- to the p-type material Several cells are placed in series in modules to achieve higher voltages and power
  • Slide 12
  • Two Photovoltaic Cell Types MSE-630 Single crystal or polycrystalline cells use doped crystals for making the cells, much like computer chips This is the most common technology Crystalline cells are expensive but last many years with little degradation Silicon is the most common material, although others are under development, such as Gallium Arsenide and Indium Selenide
  • Slide 13
  • Improving Solar Cell Efficiency MSE-630 The energy of a photon is E = h Electrons are elevated to the conduction band if the frequency of the light equals or exceeds the band gap energy This means that light at a lower frequencies do no work To get around this, cells with different band gap energies are assembled into multijunction cells
  • Slide 14
  • MSE-630 Multi-junction Solar Cells The stack at right is a multijunction with descending order of band gap energy, Eg. Junction materials can be mixed (e.g., GaAs and Si) provided they are dimensionally compatible to tailor bandgap energy Multijunction solar cells have reached efficiencies of up to 35% Cell materials of interest include: Amorphous Silicon Copper Indium Diselenide Gallium Aresnide and Gallium Indium Phosphide
  • Slide 15
  • MSE-630 Amorphous Silicon Amorphous materials have no long-range crystalline order In 1974, researchers found that photovoltaic devices could be made using amorphous silicon by properly controlling deposition and composition Amorphous silicon absorbs solar radiation 40 times more efficiently than single- crystal silicon a film 1-micron thick can absorb 90% of the usable solar energy Amorphous silicon can be processed at relatively low temperatures on low-cost substrates making it very economical
  • Slide 16
  • MSE-630 Amorphous Silicon The lack of crystalline regularity in amorphous silicon results in dangling bonds. Here, electrons recombine with holes. When amorphous silicon is doped with small amounts of hydrogen (hydrogenation), the hydrogen atoms combine chemically with the dangling bonds, permitting electrons to move through the amorphous silicon Cells are designed to have ultra-thin (0.008- micron) p-type top layer, a thicker (0.5 to 1- micron) intrinsic (middle) layer, a very thin (0.02-micron) n-type bottom layer. The top layer is so thin and transparent that most light passes right through. The p- and n- layers create an electric field across the entire intrinsic region
  • Slide 17
  • MSE-630 Solar Cell Processing Steps
  • Slide 18
  • MSE-630 Solar Cell Efficiency Power is the product of voltage and current: V max X I max = P max A solar cells energy conversion efficiency, ( or eta) is the percentage of power converted (from absorbed light to electrical energy) and collected, when a solar cell is connected to an electrical circuit. It is calculated using the ratio of P max divided by the input light irradiance under standard test conditions (E, in W/m 2 ) and the surface area of the solar cell (A c in m 2 )
  • Slide 19
  • MSE-630
  • Slide 20
  • Slide 21
  • Economics of Solar Power
  • Slide 22
  • MSE-630 Crystalline PV Cell Economics Total cost of conventional crystalline PV cells is about $500/m 2 ($50/sq.ft) of collector area The output of 1-m 2 is 125 Watts, so, at a cost of $500/m 2, this corresponds to $4/Watt of electricity, not counting necessary auxiliary components The lowest reported cost are $3/Watt for photovoltaic cells in 2002 (IEA). Crystalline silicon cells accounted for 80% of the total worldwide in 2002.
  • Slide 23
  • MSE-630 Efficiencies vary from 6% for amorphous Si cells to up to 35% for exotic GaAs or InSe cells Efficiencies Efficiency is 14-16% in commercially available mc- Si cells Photovoltaics - Economics Power distribution systems include inverters to connect to the grid system efficiencies are between 5- 19% A GaAs or InSe cell delivers 4 times the electrical power at over 100 times the cost! Costs In 2005, photovoltaic electricity cost $0.30 - $0.60/kWh in the US. Compare this to the ~$0.10/kWh from other sources The payback period for solar cell implementation can be from 1 to 20 years. A typical value is 5 years
  • Slide 24
  • MSE-630
  • Slide 25
  • Alternative energy sources
  • Slide 26
  • MSE-630
  • Slide 27
  • Slide 28
  • Slide 29
  • Solar Steam Plant Four Corners, CA
  • Slide 30
  • MSE-630
  • Slide 31
  • Optical Memory and Data Storage Use amorphous Chalcogen (group VI elements, e.g. Se, S or Te) Photo-induced phase transitions between crystalline and amorphous phases Photo-induced phase transitions between crystalline and amorphous phases or reversible photostructural changes in the amorphous phase Light induces cross-linking of neighboring chains in Se. Whe