MP T The Importance of Proof of Design Generating Renewable Energy from W ast ewater Innovation on Display at WEFTEC 2015 Providing Solutions for the Worldwide Pump Industry    S    E    P    T    E    M    B    E    R    2    0    1    5  www.moder npumpingtoday.com Modern Pumping Today ®

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MPTThe Importance of

Proof of Design

GeneratingRenewable Energy

from Wastewater

Innovation on Displayat WEFTEC 2015Providing Solutions for the Worldwide Pump Industry


Modern Pumping Today®

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 www.modernpumpingtoday.comP.O. Box 660197 |  Birmingham, Alabama 35266

Modern Pumping Today®

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by anymeans, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any informationstorage-and-retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher. Theviews expressed by those not on the staff of Modern Pumping Today, or who arenot specifically employed by Highlands Publications, Inc., are purely their own. AllIndustry News material has either been submitted by the subject company or pulleddirectly from their corporate website, which is assumed to be cleared forrelease. Comments and submissions are welcome, and can be submitted to jay@modernpumpi ngtoday.com.

For all subscription inquiries or changes, call






 VP, Editorial





 www.highlandspublications.com312 Lorna Square |  Birmingham, Alabama 35216

T: 866.251.1777 |  F: 205.824.9796



 [email protected]


 [email protected]

MICHELLE SEGREST Editorial Consultant


[email protected]

LISA AVERY  Assistant Art [email protected]

TONYA BROWNING Associate Publisher

[email protected]

DAVID MARLOW Account Executive

[email protected]

INGRID BERKY  Admin Assistant



Terry Bell Product Manager, Baldor Electric Company

Heinz P. Bloch, P.E. Consulting Engineer, Process Machinery Consulting 

Robert G. Havrin Director of Technology, Centrisys Corporation

Michael Mancini Consultant and Trainer, Mancini Consulting Services

 John M. Roach Engineering Manager for New Product Development, Trebor International,Inc.: A Unit of IDEX

Lisa Riles Business Development Manager, Wastewater Pumps, Xylem Inc.: Flygt

Greg Towsley Director of Regulatory and Technical Affairs, GrundfosTrey Walters, P.E. President, Applied Flow Technology




For many people, even decades after they’ve completed their

formal education, autumn brings back that “first day of school”feeling. That’s especially true for the water and wastewater

 professionals who will be attending WEFTEC 2015, held this

year in Chicago. As the largest annual water industry event, WEFTEC rightfully has the reputation as the place to be to see

both technical innovation and professional contacts.

In many ways, it really is the first day of school for the water

industry because the topics and techniques discussed in

Chicago will set the agenda for the coming year—and in the

water industry, the learning never stops. Be sure to stop byBooth 5414 and add MPT to your schedule at WEFTEC.

 As you’re reading this issue, give special attention to one of our case studies, “TheImportance of Proof of Design” by Blacoh Surge Control’s Frank Knowles Smith III.

Blacoh Surge Control is a new venture from Blacoh Industries focused on custom-

designed solutions for large scale pressure vessels in surge protection, pressureregulation, storage, and pump control.

Its launch is a testament to the growth of this industry and the positive vision we see

from so many of the professionals we are lucky enough to meet at WEFTEC and othertrade shows throughout the year.

 J. Campbell, Edito r

Modern Pumping Today 

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14  Improving Water Security with Strategic Control Valves

18  The Importance of Proof of Design

24  Haines City, Florida, Upgrades to Class AA/EQ Fertilizer

12  WEFTEC 2015


62  Featured Product Release: SENSAPHONESentinelTM Monitoring System

30  U.S. Water Establishes Treatment Program for theUniversity of Texas at Austin's ReclaimedWater Cooling System

  Part 2 of 2

32  Innovative Technology Improves Residential WaterManagement

  Part 2 of 2

34  Root Cause Analysis: The Justification Game

  Part 1 of 2

38  Even New Pumps Can Have Bearing Life Issues

  Part 2 of 2

42  Energy Savings Up to 70 Percent

  Part 2 of 2

46  Auto Supplier Finds the Proper Fit

54  A Major Milestone for Offshore Wind Power

64  Welcome to the Internet of Things

60  Getting the Most Out of PTFE Diaphragms

Part 2 of 2

58  In a Tight Spot

56  Generating Renewable Energy from Wastewater

50  Encompassing an Optimized Match Between Bearingsand Applications

Part 2 of 2


   C  o  v  e  r  p   h  o   t  o  c  o  u  r   t  e  s  y  o   f   U  n   i   t  e   d   R  e  n   t  a   l  s ,   I  n  c .   w   w   w .   u   n     i    t   e    d   r   e   n    t   a    l   s .   c   o   m .

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6  | September 2015 | Modern Pumping Today   www.modernpumpingtoday.com





 professionals are


Hydro, Inc.’s Jagdish

"Jay" Shah, who died

 August 5, 2015,while attending a

sales meeting in

Las Vegas. He was

73. Mr. Shah joined

Hydro as its first

salesman in 1969. He later became a partner in the company

and, as the company expanded internationally, he served as

 president of Hydro Inter national .

 A ti reless traveler, logging more than three million mi les,

 Jay Shah cult ivated a wide network of f riends throughout the

world. Services were held on August 10. In his memory, the

family is requesting that donations be made to the Michael J.

Fox Parkinson’s Foundation: www.michaeljfox.org .


One of the United Kingdom’s longest established water and

wastewater solutions providers is set to make its debut at

 WEFTEC. Among the sixteen-strong, $60 mi llion-plus turnover,

Ham Baker Group of companies featuring at WEFTEC will be

Kempster Engineering, who have manufactured knife gate

 valves for more than 130 years. The Group also includes IVL

Flow Control, who specialize in all aspects of leakage and

 pressure management of water supply networks.

Ham Baker Group Managing Director Andrew Williams,

says, “With our plans to break into the North American

market, the time is right for us to make our debut at this top

quality water industry event.”

Established in 1884, Ham Baker is synonymous in the

industry for long-lasting, precision-engineered products, with

some still in operation from around a century ago. Ham Baker

Group will be on hand at Booth 5369 to provide information on

its penstocks and flood defense systems, which have helped

build its reputation for complete engineered solutions in the

UK, the Middle East, Australia, South Africa, and Hong Kong.


TKM Industries, a manufacturer of high-quality, custom-

engineered metering pumps for the chemical, wastewater,

and mining industries, is now operating from its 3,000-square-

foot facility in Marietta, Georgia. With more than sixty years of

engineering expertise, TKM has developed a modular design

using common components across the product line providing

the customer with highly reliable, low maintenance costs, and

extended pump longevity.

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8  | September 2015 | Modern Pumping Today   www.modernpumpingtoday.com


 A family-owned and operated company, TKM is dedicated

to taking care of its customers from order to operation. “We

are able to produce high-quali ty, precision engineered pumps

designed for specific applications with quick delivery and

superior service reliability,” says TKM president Tim Mann.

“We take customer service to the next level. We don’t just

take orders. We form valuable relationships with responsive

customer ser vice. From initial receipt of the order, delivery,

installation, and service maintenance. Our goal is to help our

customer’s process run with minimum downtime.”

TKM Industries is a global manufacturer of metering pumps,

mechanical diaphragm pumps, hydraulic diaphragm and

 plunger pumps for the chemical, water, wastewater, oil & gas,

mining, pulp & paper, and agricultural industries. Contact

TKM at 770.943.4922 and visit  www.tkmindustr ies.com  to

learn more. Meet the TKM team at Booth 3902 at WEFTEC in

Chicago, September 28-30, 2015.



Danfoss Turbocor Compressors Inc. has appointed Jose

 Alvares as vice president of sales & market ing and global

customer support. In this new role, Alvares will help Danfoss

continue to define and refine its customers’ needs for new

 product development and product features and services, as

well as accelerate the company’s growth. Specifical ly, as part

of the newly-established role of Global Customer Support,

 Alvares will be responsible for application/technical support,

 product management and marketing, business development,

and a digital service platform within Danfoss Turbocor


 Alvares has more than twenty years of experience in

 various global HVAC and refr igeration roles, including sales,

business development, market analysis, product management,

and application and design engineering. He began working

with Danfoss Turbocor Compressors in 2006 and has held

multiple positions in the sales and marketing and engineering

departments. Alvares previously was director of sales for

North America, and will continue to be based out of Danfoss

Turbocor Compressors’ headquarters in Tallahassee, Florida.



To meet the full scope of its customers’ needs and to

broaden the already diverse family of products and

 professional services, Blacoh Industr ies expands its depth of

industry expertise with the launch of Blacoh Surge Control

( www.blacohsurge.com) and Blacoh Metal Solutions

( www.blacohmetals.com).

The new addition of Blacoh Surge Control provides

customized engineering solutions for large scale pressure

 vessels in surge protect ion, pressure regulation, s torage,

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10  | September 2015 | Modern Pumping Today   www.modernpumpingtoday.com


S I N C E 1 9 5 8 

It’s More than a Check Valve 

It’s a Check-All


When You Need Absolute Precision


Our spring loaded check valves are assembled

to your exact needs, ensuring absolute precision

and reliability. They work like they should. Plus,

most lead times are less than one week. That’s

what makes Check-All® the only choice.

Get me a Check-All®.

Manufactured in

West Des Moines, Iowa USA

515-224-2301 • [email protected] • www.checkall.com

and pump control. These types of large surge vessels are

typically used in chemical processes, water, wastewater, fire

 protection, mining, oil and gas pipelines, loading terminals,

and refining applications. Dedicated to delivering system-

wide surge assessment and modeling services, Blacoh Surge

Control provides fully personalized consulting from start to


Blacoh Metal Solutions offers a one-stop sourcing service

for metal tubing and piping products. Backed with industry

expertise and established relationships with leading

suppliers worldwide, Blacoh Metal Solutions provides

convenience and reliability to source all metal product needs.



 Wilo USA unveiled its new Wilo Groundwater Select website

for easy selection of submersible well pumps, motors

and accessories for water wells, agriculture, dewatering

and industrial applications. The website automatically

recommends products based on users’ design points, energy

considerations, applications and a variety of other selectable


The website welcomes visitors with easy access to

complete product selection in three categories: Calculators,

 Advanced Criteria and Manual Selection. The section for the

Calculators includes Rated Design Point, Fluid and NPSH,

Types and Speeds and Motor selection. Advanced criteria

includes preferred operating ranges, secondary operating

 point, pump and curve limits or, if preferred, manual


The site allows quick and easy solutions to groundwater

abstraction such as Wilo submersible 3HE, TWI, TWU, 3

to 10 inch pumps, motors and accessories. Wilo pumps

are ideal for groundwater applications as it is naturally

filtered, which makes it ideal for pumping operations. Visit

 wilo.pump-flo.com for more information and to register.



Ludeca announces that they are now an approved Reliability

Leadership Institute (RLI) Mapped Services and Training

(MSAT) Provider. As such Ludeca provides training and

services aligned with the Reliabilityweb® Uptime Elements

for the Alignment/Balancing (A/B) domain under Asset

Condition Management (ACM).

To support the MSAT program and better serve their

customers with their maintenance and reliability needs,

Ludeca recently certified twenty-five team members as

Certified Reliability Leaders (CRL) and has embarked on a

Reliability Journey to educate customers on the benefits of

 proactive precision alignment and balancing as a key step on

the road to world-class reliability excellence. ◆

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12  | September 2015 | Modern Pumping Today   www.modernpumpingtoday.com


R ecognized as the

largest annual water

quality exhibition in

the world, WEFTEC, the Water

Environment Federation’s

 Annual Technical Exhibit ion

and Conference, provides

unparalleled access to

the most cutting-edge

technologies in the f ield;

serves as a forum for domestic and

international business opportunities;

and promotes invaluable peer-to-peer

networking between its more than

22,000 attendees.



The Opening General Session sets

the tone for the conference that

draws thousands of water quality

 professionals from around the

world each year. Scheduled for

Monday, September 28, this year's

 program wil l feature remarks from

 WEF President Ed McCormick

and a keynote address from Rob

Stewart, an award-winning biologist,

 photographer, conservationist,

filmmaker, and author. Stewart will

discuss his f ilm, Revolution, and his

efforts to raise awareness about the

greatest evolutionary journey in

human history and the awe-inspiring

revolution that’s underway to save

life on Ear th. Stewart’s thought-

 provoking presentation wil l help framethe water sector’s own revolutionary

efforts to transform sustainable water

management and push water to the

forefront of innovation.

In dealing with critical issues facing

today’s water environment—impacts

of climate change, resource depletion,

emerging contaminants—water

 professionals have increasingly found

themselves on the leading edge of

a major evolutionary leap in water

management and environmental


 Accelerated innovation in water

technologies and approaches;

increased collaboration with traditional

and non-traditional partners both

inside and outside of the water sector;

and the transformation of wastewatertreatment from waste disposal to

resource recovery have all contributed

to a new and exciting paradigm for


By capturing valuable resources

and useful products for society— 

such as clean renewable energy,

recycled water, fertilizer, nutrients,

heat, and even transportation fuel— 

the water sector is rapidly becoming

manufacturing facilities, “green

factories,” and “Utilities of

the Future” that work to

reduce costs and increase

revenue, while becoming

more sustainable, positive

contributors to our shared




 A wide range of topics and focus

areas allow attendees to design their

own, unique learning experience

while earning up to 35 contact

hours for continuing education units

and 9 professional development

hours. An increasing number of

abstract submittals from experts in

the water quality field results in a

world-class technical program of

technical sessions and workshops

that addresses a diverse and

comprehensive list of contemporary

water and wastewater issues and

solutions including collection systems,

energy conservation and management,

membrane technologies, plant

operations and treatment, regulations,

research, residuals and biosolids,

stormwater, utility management, water

reuse/recycling, water quality, and

watershed management.


The technical program is the most

respected and competitive educational

 program of its kind featuring over 900speakers. The program is put together

by over 230 topical experts in the

Program Committee using a highly

rigorous selection process ensuring

a high quality program. Sessions

are made up of presentations by

individuals or panels, and all sessions

have opportunities for questions and


If it is related to water quality or

quantity, it is at WEFTEC. ◆

WEFTEC 2015Leading the Water Resource Revolution


  Where: McCormick Place

Chicago, Illinois

  When: September 26-30, 2015

  Website: www.weftec.org

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14  | September 2015 | Modern Pumping Today www.modernpumpingtoday.com


Improving WaterSecurity with StrategicControl Valves

Security of supply is a major issue for

water companies all over the world who

spend millions on leakage and burst

reduction. In the United Kingdom, Pressure

Reducing Valves (PRVs) are the preferred

option of the industry. However, IVL Flow

Control says water companies are still too

 vulnerable to something potentially fatal or

incapacitating getting in to the network.


The UK’s drinking water is at far too great a

risk from potential contamination of supply

by terrorists, with current systems simply

not quick enough to contain a chemical or

biological attack. According to IVL Flow

Control, water companies are still leaving

themselves extremely vulnerable, with the

 present District Metered Area (DMA) structures

too slow to close down or divert something

Reducing monitoring response timethe key to better safety

By Chris French

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Modern Pumping Today | September 2015 | 15www.modernpumpingtoday.com

 potentially fata l or incapacitating in

the network.

“What’s in place at the moment

isn’t anywhere near quick enough to

cope,” says Craig Stanners, director

of IVL Flow Control. “Those wishing

to cause damage to our drinking

water would laugh at our response

that we’re waiting five days for results

to come back from the lab. By then, it

will be too late.”


Instead, claims Stanners, a water

quality monitoring system coupled

to strategic control nodes/valves is

the answer—so that in the event of

a water quality failure or terrorist

attack, intelligent rezoning would

automatically prevent unwanted

biological content or chemicals

reaching the distribution network.

“We’re currently working on a

major industrial installation, where

we’ve designed in a preventative

 valve and penstock contamination

system to eliminate any r isk

whatsoever of hydrocarbons entering

the local sewer network,” he adds,

“yet we aren’t being called in to

 protect the public from a potential

terrorist wave of water-soluble

biological or chemical contaminants.

This can’t be right.”



Stanners cites Al-Qaida’s threats to

 poison drinking water in American

and Western cities, as well as arrests

made in Jordan of Iraqi agents who

attempted to poison the water supply

that serves American troops in the

eastern Jordanian desert.

“As it stands,” continues Stanners,“the contaminant can be detected

as it enters the water treatment

 plant, and even in the very best-

case scenario it would then be shut

down while the harmful bacteria

is neutralized. This would usually

result in a ‘boil your water’ alert,

but this delayed reaction caused

by outdated technology means that

the contaminant is undetected and

 people begin to get sick or die.”

Stanners also points to two recent

high profile events where power

tools had been used to commit major

offences, namely the £60M Hatton

Garden jewellery heist in London

and the escape of two convicted

murderers in New York.

“It’s well within a terrorist’s

capability to use power tools to dr ill

straight into a trunk main,” he says.

“It’s quick—whereas identifying

the type of illness and the actual

source of the contamination would

take a substantial amount of time.

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The technology to intelligently shut

systems down without the public

coming to harm is now available, so

one has to ask, why take the risk?”



Stanners is well aware that his viewsmay not be popular throughout the

industry, but he believes the issue is

too important to ignore—and he is

not alone: “Despite some negativity,

it is heartening to hear many in the

industry recognize that there should

be some reviews and that as much

as any of us don’t want to think

about or talk about terrorism, it is,

unfortunately, part of the world we

now live in.”

“What we need to consider though

is a more intelligent type of valve that

checks to see if water is available

upstream of its location before

supplying the required downstream

demand, which is why we designed

the Demand Control Valve.”

“Are you really happy with water

quality readings currently taken with

a three-to-five-day cultured period

for biological results, as so many

are?” Stanners asks. “Shouldn’t it be

taken at key locations throughout

a trunk main system, down to DMA

levels so that a problem can be

localised and isolated immediately?

Or would you rather still wait and

then send out a team of people to

deal with a problem, by which time it

could be too late?”


On top of the normal water quality

 parameters such as turbidity, IVL has

added to its system a Tryptophan

like f luorescence (TLF) monitor that

monitors the optical space based

on its fluorescent properties. Within

this optical space there is a specific

area that highlights the presence of

free amino acids, which are present

within any organic matter or bacteria

that is present within the water. This

is then relayed back to either a RCC

(regional control room) or directly

to the strategic control nodes or the

intelligent demand control valves

within the network that can then

autonomously close or restrict the

flow preventing the contamination of

the rest of the distribution network.

Combining this with an autonomous

network control theory, other control

nodes/valves will then autonomously

open and supply flow from other

 parts of the network ensuring proper

security of supply. ◆

IVL Flow Control, part of Ham

Baker Group, will be making

its debut at WEFTEC (Booth #5639). IVL Flow Control provides

solutions for a range of water

utilities and industrial markets.

For more information, visit


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The Importanceof Proof of Design

Y ou may have heard the term,

“wastewater flows downhill.”

In this article, we will refer to

this as gravity flow. In many cases,

municipal wastewater systems have

to pump the fluid uphill first. This

 presents many issues with regard to

minimum flow velocities and pressure

surge issues. This article describes

the typical sewage pump station

force main problems that can arise

after startup.


The submersible dry-pit angle flow

solids-handling pumps used for this

 par ticular appl icat ion were sized to

move 1,750 gallons per minute at

100 feet of head in a 20 inch, 10,000

feet long force main. The pump

station elevation was 315 feet and the

discharge was 369 feet. The system

was designed with four 2-inch air/

 vacuum release valves. The force

main was pressure tested and passedthe specified requirements.

Shortly after commissioning,

residents living close to where the

force main discharged, began to

complain of extremely harsh odor.

Later, we found that the odor was

amplified because the sewage was

subject to a full vacuum and gases

were released when the force main

discharge into a gravity sewer


 After a heavy rain storm, a

major leak in the force main was

discovered. Unfortunately for one

of the residents, their swimming

 pool was fi lled with a river of

wastewater. The contractor exposed

the pipeline to find that the pipe had



Repairs were made to the force

main. The assumption was made

that they had water hammer issues.

The municipality installed a relief

 valve at the pump station to relieve

high pressures that may have

occurred during maximum flow

during the rain event. A 4-inch

sewage pressure relief valve was

installed, and the pump station was

 put back into service.

The set point on the pressure

relief valve was set at 30 psi. This

was determined by looking at the

steady state pressure of the pump

discharge pressure, which was

20 psi. The pump was started and

stopped, and the operator could

hear flow through the pressure

relief valve. The municipality and

contractor concluded that the high-

 pressure problem had been solved.

Designing a sewage lift station and force mainwithout performing a computer surge analysisleads to trial and error.

By Frank Knowles Smith III, Blacoh Surge Control 

The contractor exposed the pipeline to find that the pipe had failed.

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The next day the mayor received

a call from the same residents who

were complaining of harsh odors. The

mayor, director of public works and

two operators met with residents at

the manhole cover where the force

main feeds into the gravity sewer.

They opened the main way cover

to see if maybe a dead animal

could have been lodged into the

 piping system. As they were looking

down into the manhole, a surge

of water shot upward, soaking thefour individuals. The flow stopped

abruptly. Seconds later, water shot out

of the manhole again and the manhole

cover was put back in place.


The next day, the director of public

works called the air/vacuum valve

manufacturer and described what had

happened. The manufacturer installed

data into their sizing software and

determined that on this 20-inch

diameter force main (10,000 feet

long) that 6-inch air/vacuum valves

should be installed at the high points

and not 2-inch.

The 20-inch force main was tapped

with a 6-inch tapping sleeve and the

first 6-inch air/vacuum valve was

installed. The pump station was put

back into ser vice. The municipality

and contractor concluded that the

wastewater surge problem had been


 A few days later, the same residents

called to report that wastewater was

running into their yard. The operators

drove down the force main until they

came to the new 6-inch sewage air/

 vacuum valve.

The 6-inch air/vacuum valve

was destroyed. The lower float had

collapsed as if it had been run over

by a steam roller. The 6-inch air/

 vacuum valve was isolated, and

another 6-inch air/vacuum valve was

installed, but not put into service.



The next day when the operator

returned to the pump station, he

noticed the check valves on the

 pumps were leaking through the

bearing. The operator could hear

reversal of flow through the valve. The

check valve had an outside level and


The operator forced the check

 valve lever arm open to clear debr is

that could be stuck in the check valve.

Then he turned on the pump by

“hand” on the selector switch on the

 pump control panel, ran the pump for

a couple minutes, then turned off the

 pump. The check valve slammed shut,

rattling the piping inside the pump


The operator thought that if he

added more weight to the arm it

might help to force it to close more

quickly. His old barbells mounted

nicely to the check valve arm. He

turned on and off the pump, the check

Investigation to see ifthe new 6-inch sewageair/vacuum valve wasdestroyed.

Optifloats installed inwet well.

Pump discharge flange damaged and bolts sheared offbetween discharge 90 and check valve.

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 valve slammed shut and rattled the

 piping inside the pump stat ion. The

next day the operator removed all the

weight and added a spring to the level


The next day, while in the pump

station, the operator noticed that the

 pumps were running and had been

running for some time. Normally,

the station would run for about six

minutes, then shut off. He checked

the float switches in the wet well and

found the mercury explosion-proof

float switch had failed due to wire

fatigue. Finally, something broke the

he knew he could fix!


He installed the new Optifloat relays

inside the pump control panel. Instead

of wires going to the float, the Optifloat

uses a fiber optic cable that transmits

a beam of light f rom an LED in a

remote transceiver down to the float,

where the beam makes and breaks

depending on the tilt of the float.

The transceiver detects the

 presence or absence of l ight . It

activates a relay in the transceiver,

which turns on and off the pumps.

Since the float does not have any

electrical parts or wires, it cannot

under any condition produce arcs or

sparks and cannot cause an explosion,

therefore making it inherently safe.

Operators put the pump station back

into service.

The pump turned off, the check

 valve slammed shut , rattl ing the piping

inside the pump station and sewage

started spraying. The bolts between

the pump and the outlet 90 sheared

off. The megalug bolts sheared on the

 piping and the pump stat ion was shut



The computer surge analyses without

surge control devices properly

designed into the system could be

devastating to your system. At Blacoh

Surge Control, we do not allow a

ductile iron force main to drop below

-6 psi, and do not allow a PVC pipeline

to drop below -2 psi. If the pressure

drops below this pressure, we design

Without surge control devices, the software in animation shows the force main subject to damaging vacuum conditions.

Through Blacoh Surge Control’s computer surge analyses, the proper installation of surge control devices andtransient monitoring equipment that records 100 times per second to document operations and design performanceall material, these transient issues can be quickly solved. KY Pipe Surge Software allows analysis of every part of your

 pumping and piping system.

Modeling resulted when the municipality added the 4-inch pressure relief valve. The valve opened, only allowing asmall amount of f low. It is c oncluded that there is no high pressure issue. Negative pressures were causing damage tothe piping system.

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Computer model showing flow out of the 4-inch pressure relief valve.

a system with a sewage surge vessel

to give energy to minimize vacuum


To avoid odor i ssues and pipeline

corrosion, try to design the system so

that negative pressure waves do not

drop below atmospheric pressure.

 Assume that while designing a

sewage force main, the ai r/vacuum

 valves may become clogged and

stop working. Develop a maintenance

 plan to check the operation of the air /

 vacuum valves. Install air /vacuum/

 pressure air release valves to allow

The field evaluation of the sewage force maindetermined it was necessary to install a transientmonitoring system on the air/vacuum release valve.

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trapped air to exit the pipeline to

maximize pump efficiency.

If the air/vacuum valve slams shut on

the return pressure wave Blacoh Surge

Control can model a three-stage air

 vacuum valve with adjustable switch

time and second orif ice size. The

 valve will then be field adjusted and

calibrated with transient monitoring


In vertical discharge piping from the

 pump, insta ll a 90-degree Szuster Angle

Ball Check Valve to increase closing

time and reduce the chances of debris

causing the check valve to malfunction.

Perform a computer surge model using

KY Pipe Surge software. The software

will aid in the design of the surge

control devices. In the system described

in this article, we installed 2-inch air/

 vacuum valves.

The field evaluation of the sewage

force main determined it was necessary

to install a transient monitoring system

on the air/vacuum release valve. This

will determine the opening time of the

The 6-inch sewage air/vaccum replacement valve was put into serv ice. Through transient monitor ing data andcomputer surge analysis, it was determined that thevalve was over sized, reacted to slow to the negative

 pressure wave, and d ischarged wastewater into theenvironment.

Installing a Blacoh TP3 transient monitoring systemwill allow evaluation of the pumping operation, checkvalve closing time, surge vessel operation and thefunctionality of all surge control devices. If the air/ vacuum valves are not functioning, the transientmonitoring system will relay an alarm. During atransient pressure event, the transient monitoringsystem records pressures at 100 times per second.

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air/vacuum valve and assure that

it is sized properly. This field data

will be compared to the computer

surge analysis. ◆

In conclusion of the computer surge model, a 1,600-gallonBlacoh Sewage Surge Vessel was installed which kept theforce main pressure at atmosphere during a pump trip.

1,600 gallon Blacoh Bladder Type Sewage Surge Vesseldesigned to give energy to the change in velocity causedby the pump trip.

Frank Knowles Smith III leads the

Blacoh Surge Control team as the

executive vice president. Smith

is a well-respected trailblazer in

fluid dynamics with 28 years of

academic, design and application

experience. The foremost

expert on surge control, Smith’s

specialties include pump station/

 pipeline design and computer

modeling, piping components,

instrumentation, and electrical

control panel design. His unique

expertise and personalized

engineering services areunparalleled in the industry.

He can be reached at frank@

blacoh.com or 951.342.3100.

For more information, visit


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24  | September 2015 | Modern Pumping Today www.modernpumpingtoday.com


Haines City, Florida,Upgrades to ClassAA/EQ Fertilizer

NuTerra upgraded

Haines City’swastewater

treatment plant from Class

B biosolids to a Class AA/

EQ fer tilizer product. The

new BCR Environmental

(BCR) Neutralizer® system

delivered significant cost

savings and expanded

beneficial reuse options

for Haines City’s fer tilizer


NuTerra™ lowers the costs and risksof managing biosolids and organic waste

By Aaron Zahn, NuTerra


• Escalating energy costs

• Citizen complaints about odors

• Digester capacity limitations

• Stringent environmental regulations

• Rising operating expenses

• Limited capital for process


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Serving 20,000 residents and

its businesses, Haines City’s 3

MGD (million of gallons per day)

wastewater treatment plant treated

secondary s ludge through aerobic

digestion and subsequently hauled

the Class B residuals to a landfill or

land application site. The operation

 presented the fol lowing costs and


• Escalating energy costs

• Citizen complaints about odors

(next to baseball field)

• Digester capacity limitations

• Stringent environmental


• Rising operating expenses• Limited capital for process


“We are ahead of the curve as far

as compliance issues,” notes Nathan

Silveira, licensed operator and

interim pretreatment coordinator

at the plant. “We had a lot of odors

because of the digesters and that’s

something that’s been eliminated.”


Through value engineering,

NuTerra was able to deliver a

design-build biosolids treatment

solution that met Haines City’s

financial and Class AA/EQ

 product goals. Installation of the

dual-train Neutralizer system

with a centrifuge for sludge

dewatering was completed in a

new 5,000-square-foot building on

the site of the plant’s unused drying

beds in late 2011. Since becoming

fully operational in early 2012, the

solution has delivered the following


• Residuals that now meet Class

 AA/EQ standards

• Treated nutrient-r ich residualsregistered as a commercial

fertilizer with the Florida

Department of Agriculture

• Elimination of $2.75 million

in capital expenditures for



• Residuals meet Class

 AA/EQ standards

• Residuals registered

as commercialfertilizer with the

Florida Department of


• Elimination of $2.75M in

capital expenditures

• $133,000 annual

reduction in biosolids

treatment and

disposition costs

• 97 percent reduction

in energy costs forbiosolids treatment

• Virtually odorless

wastewater treatment

The chemical systems automatically inject a mixture ofsulfuric acid, sodium chlorite, sodium hydroxide, ferricchloride and sodium nitrite in two processing steps.

The Neutralizer batch processing tanks at the HainesCity facility.

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digester rehabilitation and

dewatering equipment

• Twenty-year reduction in total

annual biosolids treatment

and disposition costs of

approximately $133,000 per

year (includes financing costs

of the Neutralizer equipment)

• Reduced energy costs for

biosolids treatment of around

97 percent compared to

 previous aerobic digestion

• Virtually odor-free wastewater

treatment plant operation

Not only are residuals free from

foul odors, but the pH can also

be adjusted to suit the needs of

fertilizer customers. Neutralizer

residuals meet the strict nutrient

and pollutant limits of the State

of Florida with an extremely low

Phosphorus Source Coefficient. Ina Penn State University study, the

Phosphorus Source Coefficient of

Neutralizer residuals was 0.1.



NuTerra’s unique before-and-after

models based on real/verifiable

operational and financial data

demonstrate that Haines City’s

Neutralizer system delivers an

estimated $4.8 million in cumulative

operating cost savings over the

initial twenty-year project period.

Net capital cost savings to the city,

including avoided capital costs for

digester upgrades, were estimated

initially at $2.8 million. This cost

savings translates to a $1.8 million

 present value economic benef it

based on a twenty-year net present





Neutralizer, BCR’s patented

Class AA/EQ residuals

treatment solution, is

a two-stage chemical

system that treats Waste

 Act ivated Sludge (WAS)

and produces Class A/

EQ residuals in a matterof hours. Approved by the

U.S. EPA as a Process to

Further Reduce Pathogens

(PFRP), Neutralizer has

become the preferred Class

 AA/EQ solution in Florida

because it is safe, simple,

environmentally responsible,

and cost effective for

wastewater treatment plants.

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Instead of the city having

to pay the cost to haul and

dump the sludge from the

traditional system in the landfill,

Stripling said the City uses the

concentrated fer tilizer on all

municipal rights-of-way, parks,

and at various city facilities. The

fertilizer also can be sold to

other fertilizer companies.


Projected energy costs at Haines

City dropped 97 percent, from an

average approximately $333,000

 per year to approximately

$9,000 per year with Neutralizer.

The Neutralizer system relies

on chemistry rather than on

energy-intensive treatment with

digesters, dryers, incinerators, or

gasifiers. The entire process is

designed using energy efficient

equipment to minimize electrical

consumption. Process automation

ensures maximum energy

efficiency every time the batch

flow system operates.

 According to Haines City

Public Works Director Mike

Stripling, “Shutting down the

 plant’s three digesters, which

used to process the waste solids,

means a terrific energy savings.

 We no longer have to run two

125-horsepower motors 24/7.”


Haines City has engaged

NuTerra to design, build,

and maintain a new organics

recycling facility at its current

wastewater treatment property

site. The city will own the

building, which will blendresidents’ yard waste with

wastewater treatment biosolids

and other organic waste

accepted from surrounding

communities and commercial

interests. NuTerra will market

the resulting federal- and state-

approved Class AA/EQ compost

 product for unrestr icted reuse

locally and in surrounding

communities. ◆

 Aaron Zahn  is president and CEO of NuTerra. NuTerra designs, builds, and assumes full

 projec t accountabili ty for long-term, sustai nable wastewater treatment/organic waste/

biosolids management solutions that deliver municipalities on average savings of 40-

 plus percent in operati ng costs and 90-plus percen t in energy consumption. For more

information, visit www.nuter ra.green or call 904.819.9170.

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W A T E R & W A S T E W A T E R S O L U T I O N S

U.S. Water EstablishesTreatment Programfor the Universityof Texas at Austin’sReclaimed WaterCooling System 

In last month’s introduction to this case study, U.S.

 Water implemented a water treatment program to

minimize issues in off-line condensers and established

a microbiological and biofilm control program to help the

University of Texas meet its goal of introducing a reclaimed

water program to its campus.


Installation of up-to-date feed and control equipment

made it possible to

constantly measure and

control all treatment parameters. Information

was outputted directly

to the U.S. Water web-

based data management

 program providing

access to real time

conditions for both

university and U.S. Water


Corrosion rates

(see figure 2) were

continuously monitored using LPR style corrosion sensors.

 A DATS deposit ion monitor continuously measured heat

transfer efficiency. Heat exchanger surface temperatures

were set at 42 degrees Fahrenheit (5.6 degrees Celsius)

over the operating condensers to provide early warning

of any possible fouling issues. Microbiological activity

was monitored by plating bacteria cultures and with ATP

(Adenosine TriPhosphate) testing (see figure 3). Regular field

tests measured conductivity, pH, ATP, iron, copper, phosphate,

and corrosion inhibitor


 Additionally, once perquarter, samples were

sent to the U.S. Water

analytical laboratory,

in order to verify field

results with more

extensive testing.



The results pointed

to a program that

Part 2 of 2

By Gary Engstrom and Jim Lukanich, U.S. Water 

See Part 1 onmodernpumpingtoday.com

Cooling towers at work on the University ofTexas campus.

U.S. Water’s DATS deposition monitorcontinuously measures heat transfer efficiencyin the cooling system.

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 provided solid corrosion, deposition

and microbiological control. There

have been no deposition or corrosion

related issues after almost two years in

Chiller Station 5. Biomonitoring showed

less than 1000 cfu/ml total aerobic

bacteria counts with less than 10 cfu/

ml of sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB)

 present in the system. Based on this

multiyear s tudy, the University of Texas

at Austin is building a new 15,000-ton

chilling station which will use reclaim

water for cooling tower make-up.


Municipal reclaim water can

successfully replace potable water in

district energy/power applications.

 Actions to take include analyzing the

reclaim water over extended time

frames to capture the diurnal and

seasonal variability of the reclaimed

water quality, identifying the critical

 parameters that are unique to reclaim

water such as chlorides, phosphate,

ammonia, total organic carbon, and

total suspended solids and selecting

options to address or mitigate the

 problems that each may cause. These

options may include changes in system

design, materials of construction,

chemical treatment, or system

operation and control.

The University of Texas at Austin

employed all of these in their solution

 producing excellent results. ◆

Gary Engstrom is technical manager

for U.S. Water. Jim Lukanich is

technical resource for U.S. Water. U.S.

 Water, a subsidiary of ALLETE, Inc. ,

 provides options for environmentallyfriendly, safe, and cost-effective water

management. As experts in water,

they use their in depth industry

knowledge and experience to

enhance system reliability, efficiency,

and profitability. For more information,

 visit  www.uswaterservices.com .



U.S. Water’s integrated

equipment, chemistry and

operations addressed allsystem metal corrosion,

deposit and microbiological

control related issues. State

of the ar t filtration minimized

fouling while on and offsite

testing by qualified engineers

and staff assured total system


Corrosion rates have

been reduced, which

translates into extended

equipment life. Excellentmicrobiological control

eliminated corrosion and

fouling from microorganisms.

Less fouling means cleaner

heat exchange surfaces,

which results in dollars saved

in maintenance hours and

energy. Superior monitoring

and control means no

chemistry, or resources, are

wasted or under-applied.

Figure 2 Figure 3  

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W A T E R & W A S T E W A T E R S O L U T I O N S

Innovative TechnologyImproves ResidentialWater Management

In part 1 of this article, we

noted that, in residential

settings, drains that can

act as a physical barrier to

water provide an extra layer of

 protection against damage to

homes. However, there is always

a push to optimize drain design

for improved function as well

as aesthetics. One of the most

innovative products when it

comes to design aesthetics is

the ACO Self HexaLine Brickslot

slotted trench drain system,

which provides effective,

yet discreet, slot drainage

in domestic paver or tileinstallation.


One of the clearest ways to

improve water management

in residential settings is to

minimize the impact of the

factors that call for management

in the f irst place. One of

these, as mentioned above,

is pavement. More pavement

means more drainage is

necessary, as pavement is

non-permeable and blocks

stormwater from being absorbed

into the ground. Reducing or

eliminating pavement may be

a clear water management

solution; however, it isn’t an easy

one, given the function pavement

serves in accommodating

 vehicular and foot traffic.

Because of this, innovative new

water management technologies

have been developed to help

homeowners minimize the

amount of pavement near

their homes, without losing thefunctionality that the pavement

usually serves.

Take, for example, the

GrassGrid product. GrassGrid

creates a stable surface that

is simultaneously capable of

supporting vehicles and allowing

rainwater to be absorbed

where it falls. This product, a

modular plastic grid structure

that allows for easy installation

Products help conserve waterand protect hardscapes inconstruction applications

By Dinu Filip, ACO Systems, Ltd.

See Part 1 onmodernpumpingtoday.comPart 2 of 2

GrassGrid offers a surface strong enough to withstand vehicles’load, while allowing for easy water drainage.

GrassGrid offers easy installation and an aesthetically pleasingalternative to pavement.

Grass or Gravel In-Fill

1.5” Compacted Sand

Fill/Bedding Layer

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in any size or shaped area, is installed on a supporting

bed of gravel and sand, much like a driveway. Unlike a

driveway, however, the plastic grid of GrassGrid suppor ts

 vehicles or foot traff ic while covering only 10 percent of

the ground at its surface. The other 90 percent of space is

designed to be filled with soil and seeded with grass, or

filled and covered by gravel. These covering options keep

GrassGrid out of sight, while GrassGrid prevents erosion

of the underlying materials.

GrassGrid is rated to withstand 28 tons per square

foot, and so the load from vehicles and foot traffic is

transferred through the grid into the sand and gravel

bed without compacting the topsoil. The product design

allows rainwater to be absorbed by the ground where

it falls, thereby minimizing the impact on the natural

water cycle and reducing the load on stormwater

drains. With GrassGrid and other products that replace

traditional hardscaping, vehicular and foot traffic can be

accommodated while effectively managing stormwater.



Of course, even with the availability of products like

GrassGrid, a significant amount of residential property

is covered by non-permeable surfaces or roofed areas.

Further efforts, therefore, must be made to reduce

the load on storm drains and minimize the impact of

development on the natural water cycle. Traditional water

management systems rely heavily on municipal storm

drains to handle stormwater runoff from roofs and paved

areas during storm events. These drains, however, often

flood, alter the natural water cycle, and are not available

in all areas.

How, then, can residential water management systems

better handle the runoff collected from non-porous

or roofed areas? Over the last several years, ACO has

been researching the use of underground stormwater

management technology to minimize environmental

impact of development and accompanying drainage

systems while reducing the likelihood of flooding. The

results of this research have been innovative products for

both commercial and residential use.

 ACO wi ll introduce a residential Infiltration Line product

to the market later this year that collects water and slowly

releases it into the soil. Infiltration systems, also known

as “dry wells” or “soakaways,” can mitigate the effects of

drought by storing excess rainwater for release into the

ground during dry periods. These systems also reduce

the demand for water to maintain landscaping, saving

costs, and solve drainage issues where there is no outlet

 pipe available.


 With the use of all of these groundbreaking water

management technologies, it is possible for any

construction company or contractor to greatly improve

water collection, storage, and release on their customers’

residential properties. These technologies protect

customers’ investment in their homes, while positively

impacting the water cycle, reducing the likelihood of

dangerous flooding, reducing the impacts of drought, and

retaining landscape aesthetics. ◆

Dinu Filip is president of ACO Systems, Ltd. ACO Polymer

Products, Inc. introduced the concept of modular trench drains

to North America over thirty years ago. ACO specializes

in the manufacture of drainage products utilizing polymer

concrete, cast iron foundr y and plastic extr usion. Today, ACO

manufactures a range of drainage and landscape products

from polymer concrete, stainless steel, mild steel, cast iron,

fiberglass, and molded plastics. These diverse material

types are used to produce components for all applications:

commercial and residential construction, as well as

electromechanical engineering and environmental protection.

 ACO USA is a par t of the ACO Group, which employs

more than 3800 people worldwide in forty countries, with

 production facil ities in North America , Europe, China, and

 Australia. These resources, supplemented with a worldwide

network of agents, make superior-quality ACO products

available in every corner of the world.

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Root Cause Analysis:The JustificationGame


ow often are good ideas

turned away because we

cannot seem to justify their

returns with hard dollars? More often

than not, it is not because they do

not provide the expected quantum

returns, but that we do not know how

to properly communicate what the

returns are. In this article we will

review and discuss the barriers to

selling not only the concept of Root

Cause Analysis (RCA) but also the

recommendations generated as a

result of these analyses.



 Just if icat ion! While it may be defined

By Rober t J. Latino, CEO, Reliability Center, Inc.

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differently by different people,

we find ourselves faced with its

ramifications every day. In our work

lives we are constantly justifying our

worth to the corporation in an effor t

to succeed and prosper (especially

when the next “reorganization” is

announced). At home we rationalize

why it would be cheaper to purchase

a new car versus continue to repair

the existing one over and over again.

This game is nothing new to us. The

difference between those who are

successful at justification and those

who are not, is merely the ability to


 We find ourselves in this position

when trying to sell the concept of

Root Cause Analysis (RCA) as well.

Many of our clients spend millions

of dollars on fancy new high tech

equipment because the old ones

always failed. Many spend millions

of dollars on improved methods of

repairing equipment and better

 predictive tools. However, looking at

why all this money is spent, we find

that it is to compensate for the failure

of existing equipment to perform as

we expect it to.



Does buying new equipment ensure

that it will not fail due to the same

reasons the old equipment did?

Does improving our Mean Time

Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean

Time to Restore (MTTR) ensure that

failure will not occur? No it will not.

It only means that we will predict it

earlier, and then fix it faster. So how

do people justify the expenditure of

such investments, when the returns

are questionable? Salesmanship!

 We find that money seems to be

available and justifiable when we

buy tangible things such as a new

 piece of operating equipment or

an infrared imaging unit. When we

 purchase such items we can actually

see what we purchased. What about

the intangibles that can save us

money? Failures do not just happen;

they are a result of a series of cause

and effect relationships stemming

from the involvement of the human




Do bearings just fail (other than

when they reach their design life,

which is rare)? Oftentimes we

find that the human involvement

with the decisions about the type

of bearing in a specific service,

the frequency of lubr ication, the

type of lubr icant, the method of

installation are incorrect. The fix in

these circumstances require that

we correct the flawed decision

making systems of our personnel.

This means that we would have to

update our outdated installation

 procedures, implement a system of

 proper lubrication and educate our

designers about installing the proper

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Even New PumpsCan Have BearingLife Issues

In part 1 of this article, we

introduced a case study wherein

two new process pumps at an oil

refinery were experiencing bearing

issues. Now in the fourth day of

addressing the problem—which has

led to multiple diagnoses and the

fabrication of a new bolt-on bearing

housing end plate for one of the

 pumps—the operators were facing

down basic engineering questions

related to design and factory

fabrication issues.



There were engineering design

discrepancies, initially acknowledged

by the pump manufacturer, in

regards to the following: First, the

constant level lubricators were not

located at the bear ing housing

elevation needed to maintain an

oil level at the center of the sightglass. The as-installed constant

level lubricators maintained an oil

level well above the top of the sight

glass. The original diameter oil rings

would therefore run much deeper

into the oil reservoir.

 Also, the pump manufacturer’s

general arrangement drawing

showed both oilers at the 3 o’clock

location. The inboard bearing

housings had the constant level

lubricator at 9 o’clock—they can’t

both be right (see references 1

and 2).

Furthermore, the sight glass

nozzles are visibly sloped downward

such that the center of the sight

glass was below the desired oil

level, disregarding the constant level

lubricator elevation issue.

The factory test ran the 3,600 rpm

design pumps at 1,800 rpm with

the oil level at half the sight glass

level, and without the constant level

lubricators being filled. A filled

Part 2 of 2

By Heinz P. Bloch, Process Machinery Consulting 

See Part 1 onmodernpumpingtoday.com

 Figure 2: Modern closed-loop oil mist module for use on important process pumps, fans, blowers, etc. The unitreplaces troublesome constant level lubricators and unreliable oil rings (Photo courtesy of Colfax Industries, Houston,Texas).

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constant level lubricator would have

resulted in a much higher operating

oil level during the factory testing.

The refinery requested from the

 pump manufacturer dimensional

information on how to resolve the oil

level issue:

• Bearing housing drawings to

evaluate the bottom of the oil ring

relative to the operating oil level.

• Sight glass nozzle elevation on the

bearing housing.

• Constant level lubricator nozzle

elevation on the bearing housing,

taking into account the internal oil

level set point of the constant level

lubricator itself.

• A water cooled bearing housing

is really not useful on pumps

with rolling element bear ings.

Moreover, pumps with a water

 jacket have l imitations on

where the sight glass and oiler

nozzles can be located without

 penetrating the water jacket. The

refinery believed that bearing

housing fabrication drawings are

required to assess this issue.

• Proper oil ring dimension for

operating at 3,600 rpm with ISO

 VG 68 oil and with an assumed 3/8

to 1/4 inch oil ring depth in the oil

reservoir. Most oil rings are not

designed for thick oils and deep


• The originally used inboard

bearing for this pump model was

a roller bearing. The P-45C/D

 pumps both have rol ler bearingsas inboard bearings, but the

housings do not have the required

components to firmly fix the

 position of the outer race. The

refinery had requested contacts

or names of other same-model-

users that have the inboard roller

bearings; the refinery wanted

to know how the bearing was

assembled on pumps owned and

successfully operated by others.

• The refinery requested contacts

for other users of the same model

 pump to invest igate possible

successful modifications that

have been used to resolve similar

design issues.

• The manual indicted coverage

for different model pumps. What

changes are involved for this

 par ticular model pump?

The refinery acknowledged

that both pump owner and pump

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40  | September 2015 | Modern Pumping Today   www.modernpumpingtoday.com


manufacturer had been treating

failure symptoms instead of the root

causes of unsatisfactory bearing

and lubrication performance. They

well recognized that there was no

assurance that the steps taken were

the correct engineering fixes for

long term reliability. The user’s and

manufacturer’s interim measures were

based on general pump practices, but

without any engineering validation

by the pump manufacturer. And, of

course, it was not the function of their

field service people to re-engineer

a product. It should, however, be the

manufacturer’s responsibility to submit

rigorous factory engineered solutions.

People—including designers—can

make mistakes, but lack of response

can become a big problem for user

and manufacturer. So, choose your

 pump manufacturer carefully. Better

yet, avoid problems altogether.


 When, after ten days, there stil l was no

 Figure 3 : Althoughoriginally designed for dualmechanical seals, this pressurized

 pump-aroun d system is easi ly adapted to provide cont inuous and reliable oil spray lubricationfor process pump bearings (Courtesy of AESSEAL Inc.,Rotherham, UK, and Rockford, Tennessee, USA).

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Modern Pumping Today | September 2015 | 41www.modernpumpingtoday.com

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response from the manufacturer’s

engineering department, the

refinery activated more responsive

and productive sources. As a

refinery engineer put it: “On-

the-fly best guesses and field-

generated modifications are not

the way to solve pump problems

which so obviously have far-

reaching safety and reliability


In this instance, there was such

 potential impact. It has been

suggested that the two pumps

were designed and produced

with skimpy bearing housings.

Their oil sump volumes could

have been out of harmony with

assured long-term reliability. For a

certainty there are potential safety

and reliability hazards whenever

oil rings are either not properly

designed or improperly fabricated.

The oil rings in this instance were

not suitable for depth of immersion

and viscosity grade of the lubricant.

 With the help and concurrence

of competent consultants, the

refinery took steps to entirely

discard oil rings and constant

level lubricators on these pumps.

They now use a pre-packaged

oil mist module (see f igure 2)

to provide lubrication to both


 A wel l-designed oil mist module

(see figure 2) will incorporate a

heater and helpful supervisory

instrumentation. For process

 plants preferring circulating

(liquid) lube oil, another option

 presents itself . Small pump-

around units originally designed

for dual mechanical seal barrier

fluids (including oil) and similar

to the one shown in figure 3 are

readily available as upgrades.

They can be fitted and connected

by pump users who place safety

and reliability ahead of the lower

initial cost of oil ring and old-style

static sump lubrication. ◆


1. Bloch, Heinz P.; “Pump Wisdom—Problem

Solving for Operators and Specialists”

(2011), John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New


2. Bloch, Heinz P. and Allan R. Budris, “Pump

User’s Handbook: Life Extension,” 4th Ed.,

(2013), Fairmont Publishing Company,

Lilburn, Georgia.

Heinz P. Bloch, P.E., is one of the

world’s most recognized experts

in machine reliability and has

served as a founding member

of the board of the Texas A&M

University's International Pump

Users' Symposium. He is a Life

Fellow of the ASME, in addition to

having maintained his registration

as a Professional Engineer in both

New Jersey and Texas for several

straight decades. As a consultant,

Mr. Bloch is world-renowned and

 value-adding. He can be con tacted

at [email protected].

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Energy SavingsUp to 70 Percent

Pump selection for variable flow applications is a little

different than choosing a pump for a single duty

 point. Variable flow applications are just as the name

describes–variable flow. Selecting a pump for a single duty

 point is more defined, in that the pump selected should

meet the duty point at, or very near, the best efficiency

 point (BEP). Pumps are “happiest” when they run near their

BEP. They are the most efficient and have their highest life

expectancy when they can run near their BEP. But what

about variable f low applications?


There is no single duty point for the pump(s), but rather, a

range of duty points. Selecting pump(s) for variable f low

service is more of an art, in that some considerations must

be taken into account:

• NPSH available

• Possibili ty of the pump system to be oversized or


• What type of pump—single impeller or multiple impeller

 When selecting a pump for variable flow ser vice, the duty point used to select the pump value should be to the right

of the BEP. The BEP is typically near the center of the pump

curve with efficiency dropping as you look to the left and

right of the BEP along the pump curve. Selecting a pump to

the right of the BEP will allow the pump(s) to operate longer

in the best efficiency range with the variable f low demand.

Selecting a pump to the right of the BEP is generally in an

area of the pump curve where the pump has an increased

NPSH requirement. For this reason not every pump

selection for variable flow should be selected to the right of

the BEP.

The type of pump is another consideration. Single

impeller pumps typically have a f latter curve compared to

multiple impeller pumps, and single impeller pumps are

less forgiving in situations where conditions change and the

 pumps are undersized. An oversized pump with VFD control

can be electronically “trimmed,” where the maximum speed

is reduced to eliminate the possibility of the pump running

off its curve. The steeper curve of a multiple impeller pump

will allow for a greater opportunity for speed reduction at

lower flows and help increase the pump(s) f lexibility to meet

a changing design pressure requirement. Multistage pumps

are more service-friendly than single impeller, end suction

 pumps. A multistage pump paired together with VFD control,

Packaged pump systems and variable flow pressure boosting 

Part 2 of 2

By Brian James and Roger Weldon, Grundfos Pumps Corporation

See Part 1 onmodernpumpingtoday.com

 Figure 5 

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be used, and VFD-controlled pumps

would not be the most efficient

control, but may be desirable for other

reasons. VFD-controlled pumps and

 pump systems may not be the best

for all applications, but for variable

flow applications such as domestic

water pressure boosting, they really

do have the ability to save energy and

decrease maintenance costs.


The city of Cottonwood, Arizona,

nearly doubled its population between

1990 and 2010, which put significant

strain on the community’s aging water

delivery system.

Residents were faced with frequent

water outages that would last a day or

two, as well as inconsistent pressure

and continual water hammer noises in

their homes.

The majority of pumps in the city’s

existing distribution system were

constant speed, across-the-line pumps

that were either off, or running at

top speed. The resulting pressure

surges subjected the pipes to a 25

 psi pressure swing, which stressed

and prematurely aged the lines

(some dating back to 1930), causing

significant leakage and capital repair


The city replaced the old, inefficient

 pumps with the Grundfos Hydro

MPC BoosterpaQ. These integrated

 pumping systems util ize an advanced

controller to adjust pump speed and

to stage additional pumps to meet

fluctuating system demand.

Overall, eliminating pressure

surges in the system has slashed the

number of pipe breaks and leaks for

Cottonwood by 30 percent or roughly

$38,000 in capital repairs. Moreover,

the proportional pressure setting

lowers water pressure/volume during

off-peak demand cycles, such as

overnight, which translates into less

wear-and-tear on the community’s

 pipe infrastructure, as well as less

water lost to leaks.

Moreover, the level of “unaccounted

water”—which refers to the difference

in the amount of water extracted

 versus the amount of water billed to

customers—has dropped to 11 percent

from 40 percent, helping to bridge the

water crisis facing the southwest. ◆

Brian James, P.E., is business

development manager and Roger

Weldon is service engineer for

Grundfos Pumps Corporation.

Grundfos is the world's largest pump

manufacturer. For more information,

 visit  www.grundfos.us.

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Auto Supplier Findsthe Proper Fit

Finding the right pump

for a specific application

can mean the difference

between operating efficiently and

spending thousands of dollars in

maintenance. Though determining

the ideal industrial pump requires the

evaluation of critical characteristics,

such as desired head, flow rate,

suction, fluid att ributes, etc., it is

equally important to work with

a trusted and reputable pump

distributor that has in-depth

knowledge of the many pumps on the

market which are specially designed

to offer specific benefits for certain




In January 2014, Premier Pump Co.,

a national distributor and service

 provider of industr ial pumps and

equipment, was contacted by an auto

 par ts supplier to address a persistent

 pump problem. The automot ive

manufacturer required a solution thatwould enable them to stop spending

thousands of dollars every month on

repair and replacement sump pumps.

The automotive supplier

manufactures die cast parts which are

used in an automated assembly line

to construct power steering units. The

 power steering units manufactured

by this automotive supplier are

distributed to several major car

manufacturers in the U.S. and abroad.

Premier Pump Co. was contacted by

the automotive manufacturer in an

effort to find the right submersible

 pump for their dewatering appl ication.



The dewatering pumps, which run in

series within a duplex system, pump

coolant water after the machining

 process. The coolant water being

 pumped contains metal f ines, or

shavings, that completely saturate the

water. Even though the metal fines

are small in nature, the high ratio of

fines to water creates an abrasive

slurry. The abrasive slurry had been

causing extensive damage to the

sump pumps’ mechanical seals, which

resulted in pump failure. When the

 primary pump had failed, the system

had been switching operation over

to the secondary back-up pump.

Unfortunately, by the time a new

 primary pump had been installed,

the secondary pump had failed.

This problem continued for several

months, and the constant turnover of

 pumps became quite cost ly to the


The auto parts manufacturer

contacted Premier Pump Co. to

KB-Series submersible pumpsreduce maintenance costs

By Mike Bjorkman, BJM Corp.

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determine if there was a heavy duty

submersible pump on the market that

could operate more reliably for their

specific application. “This automotive

manufacturer needed a durable

dewatering sump pump that could

 process an abrasive slurr y, and they

needed it fast,” explains George T.

Bennett, president of Premier Pump


Premier Pump Co. was asked to

source heavy duty submersible

 pumps that would meet the following


• Abrasive Resistant —The new

 pumps had to be able to process

water that was heavily saturated

with metal f ines. The new pumps’

internal components would need

to withstand the abrasive slurry

to reduce the possibility of pump

failure and costly downtime.

• Proper Fit —The new pumps

had to be the right size to fi t in

the sump in addition to being

easily installed and removed for

maintenance. To avoid delays and

increased maintenance expenses,

the new pumps would need to

feature a design that would allow

them to be installed and removed


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to within "inches" of the bottom. A side

discharge pump without a cooling

 jacket must stay submerged to avoid

overheating, leaving as much as 3 feet

of un-pumped slurry.

Top discharge means “SLIM”; even

the largest model with a 13.5 inch

"waistline" will fit down a manhole

with a hose attached.

Protection Engineered for Maximum


Every KB75H submersible pump

model is protected by:

• Class H motor insulation, built in

amperage (FLA), and temperature

overload protection.

• Double mechanical seals; of which

the lower seal is made of silicon

carbide/silicon carbide, and the

upper seal, made of carbon/

ceramic, is in a separate oil-filled

seal chamber.

• A heavy duty lip seal which

 provides additional protection for

the mechanical seals, helping to

 prevent abrasives from enter ing

the seal chamber.

• A stainless steel shaft and shaft

sleeve which minimizes shaft wear

due to abrasives and corrosion.


Once the automotive manufacturer

approved the recommendation to use

the BJM submersible pumps, Premier

Pump Co. acted quickly to get a new

sump pump installed at their facility.

“We ordered the KB75H submersible

 pump on a Friday, arranged a courier

to deliver the pump on Saturday

morning, and had it installed and

running Saturday afternoon,”

Bennett reports. “The automotive

manufacturer installed a second

KB75H in the duplex system and has

a back-up pump on the shelf; though

they don’t expect to use it since the

first pump has been running great

for about ten months now and has not

been pul led once.”

The key to solving this pump

 problem was essentially a challenge

that every pump user faces—finding

the right pump for the application.

Premier Pump Co. has helped the

automotive manufacturer increase

the efficiency of their operation and

save thousands of dollars in their

maintenance budget by installing

durable BJM Pumps. ◆

Mike Bjorkman is vice president

and director of marketing for BJM

Corp. BJM Pumps®, headquartered

in Old Saybrook, Connecticut,

has been providing fluid handling

solutions for industrial and

municipal services since 1983. Over

its thirty year history, BJM Pumpshas grown quickly by supplying

world class pumps and accessories,

 priced competitively, through

its global network of stocking


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50  | September 2015 | Modern Pumping Today   www.modernpumpingtoday.com


Encompassing anOptimized MatchBetween Bearingsand Applications

In last month’s introduction to this

article, we discussed how the

evolution of ISO standards has

gradually refined l ife calculation

methods to help close the gap between

the calculated life of a bearing and

the anticipated service life in an

application. In this month’s conclusion,

we’ll take an up-close look at SKF’s

EnCompass Program, including the

calculation software SimPro Quick and

SimPro Expert, which equip engineers

with both the knowledge and the means

to promote ideal bearing selection.


Supporting the axiom that better

knowledge yields better products and

technologies, the EnCompass Program

with its bearing rating life model has

already been leveraged to optimizefour existing SKF bearing product lines.

They are SKF Explorer sealed spherical

roller bearings, SKF Energy Efficient

deep groove ball bearings, SKF Energy

Efficient Y-bearings and units, and SKF

Explorer steel/steel plain bearings.

More innovations and upgrades for

additional bearing types are on the


 Among the improvements: new

bearing designs and engineering,

weight reductions, specialized surface

finishes and heat treatment, ready-to-

mount unit assemblies, and optimized

lubrication and sealing systems, among


For example, upgraded SKF Explorer

spherical roller bearings in the

smaller size range include a new seal

design that results in up to 50 percent

less seal friction, allowing operating

temperatures to be reduced by up to

68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees

Celsius) and enabling limiting speeds

to be doubled. All SKF Explorer

spherical roller bearings, since 2011,

also incorporate improvements such

as special surface finishes and heat

treatment, which can deliver a service

life twice that of the previous industry-

leading SKF Explorer bearings,

especially under contaminated or poor

lubrication conditions.

 As another example, SKF Energy

Efficient deep groove ball bearings

Part 2 of 2

By Brian P. Dahmer, SKF USA, Inc.

 An engineer stu dies bearing parameter s as par t of the new bearing rating l ife model developed by SKF.

See Part 1 onmodernpumpingtoday.com

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now cover a larger size range, allowing

designers to reduce energy usage in a

broader assortment of machines. Any

reductions in energy use can prove

especially advantageous in the process

 pump industr y, based on energy-

related numbers. Studies have shown

that 5 percent of all industrial energy is

estimated to be consumed by pumps;

in certain industrial plant operations

 pumps can account for up to 25 percent

of energy usage; 20 percent of the

world’s electrical energy demand can

be attributed to pumping sys tems;

and fully 45 percent of the total cost

of pump ownership can be linked

to energy consumption. Any energy

savings will ripple posi tively across

 pump operations.


Dedicated to improving bearing

 performance in the fie ld, the SKF

EnCompass program has led to a new

family of advanced software tools,

too. Two proprietary SKF calculation

software programs—SimPro Quick

and SimPro Exper t—have been

introduced to equip engineers with

both the knowledge and the means to

 promote ideal bear ing selection and

fine-tune the designs of pumps or other

machinery to achieve optimal f ield

 performance, based on appl ication

requirements and conditions.

The SKF SimPro Quick is a single-

shaft bearing simulation software

 program, which guides users through

a series of steps and simplifies

calculations required to correctly select

the most appropriate bearing for the

 job. The SimPro Expert program allows

in-depth analysis of more complicated,

multi-shaft designs and is ideal for

engineers involved in the design of very complex bear ing systems. Both

software programs enable engineers

to consider shaft, housing, bearings,

external forces, and gear loads when it

is time to specify for an application.

Prevailing trends in the pump

industry swirl with requirements to

reduce energy consumption, increase

system service reliability, reinforce

robustness, minimize maintenance,

and comply with stringent safety and

environmental regulations. Advantages

flowing from the new bearing rating

life model, associated innovations in a

range of bearing types, and software

 programs to assist in bearing selection

can combine to help remove many

of the pressures typically confronting

 pump operat ions every day. ◆

Brian P. Dahmer is an application

engineering manager at SKF USA

Inc., the world’s leading bearing

manufacturer. He can be reached at

[email protected]. For more

information, visit www.skfusa.com

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52  | September 2015 | Modern Pumping Today   www.modernpumpingtoday.com

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54  | September 2015 | Modern Pumping Today   www.modernpumpingtoday.com


A Major Milestone forOffshore Wind Power

Block Island, Rhode Island, is a

 popular summer destination

for New Englanders who enjoy

scenic vistas and outdoor activity.

 With ample opportuni ty for hiking,

biking, and boating, Block Island

typifies the classic image of an

 Atlantic Coast vacations spot. Soon,

the beautiful views of the Block Island

Sound will include more than the

silhouettes provided by the annual

sailboat race as the area will be

home to America’s first commercial

offshore wind farm, which will

 provide the island with much neededrenewable power.



Deepwater Wind Block Island, a

wholly-owned subsidiary of Deepwater

 Wind, recently announced it has fully

financed the Block Island Wind Farm,

reaching financial close. The project

will feature five Alstom Haliade 150

6-MW offshore wind turbines.

“This is a major milestone and the

confirmation that this project, the

first commercial offshore project in

the United States for Alstom, will now

materialize,” says Yves Rannou, senior

 vice president wind for Alstom.“Securing final financing for this

ambitious project is an exceptional

achievement for Deepwater Wind,”

says Anders Soe-Jensen, vice president

 Alstom Wind Offshore. “We believe

this project will highlight both the

commercial and technological viability

of offshore wind in the US and we are

 proud to be par t of the team making

it happen. This is the start of a new

chapter in sustainable energy for the

US.” Wind turbine, foundation, and

electrical interface engineering

is advancing on schedule to

meet Deepwater Wind’s project

specifications, including installation of

the five foundations during summer

2015. Located about 3 miles off the

coast of Block Island, Rhode Island, the

Block Island Wind Farm is scheduled

for commercial service in the four th

quarter of 2016.



Thanks to its 500-foot diameter rotor

(with blades stretching 240 feet),

the turbine has a yield 15 percent

better than existing offshore turbines,

enabling it to supply power to the

equivalent of about 5,000 households.

Developed for all offshore conditions,

the offshore 6 MW direct drive wind

turbine combines proven technology

and innovation. Building on Alstom’s

Pure Torque® design, it provides high

yield and uncompromising reliability

that will lower the cost of offshoreenergy.

 America’s first commercial offshorewind farm is coming to New England

By Cécile Dodat, Alstom

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In April 2012, the consortium led by EDF EN for which Alstom

is the exclusive turbine supplier won three offshore wind

farms in France (Saint-Nazaire, Courseulles-sur-Mer and

Fécamp for a total of around 240 wind turbines). Alstom has

since confirmed setting up of four facilities in France: two in

Saint-Nazaire dedicated to nacelles and generators assembly,

and two in Cherbourg for blades and towers manufacturing.

Saint-Nazaire factories have been inaugurated in December

2014, in the presence of French Prime Minister Manuel Valls.

The first Haliade™ 150-6MW has successfully obtained the

IEC power performance measurement (power curve) after

three months of performance measurements at Le Carnet site,

in France.

 A year later, Alstom installed Haliade™ off the coas ts of

Ostend harbour at the Belwind site in Belgium. This is the

largest offshore wind turbine ever installed in sea waters. This

installation will help in confirming how the machine behaves

within the offshore environment for which it was specifically

designed and developed. These successes proved that five

offshore wind turbines for Deepwater Wind’s 30-MW Block

Island pilot Wind Farm located off the coast of Rhode Island

would be a natural fit.


Floating wind energy provides an innovative alternative for

enhancing the energy potential of maritime settings that are

too deep to install f ixed-bottom foundations. Such settings

usually provide better wind conditions while being more

extensive and less travelled than near-coastal areas.

In October of last year, Alstom joins with DCNS to found

a sector of excellence in the f loating wind energy business.

The par tnership agreement aims at developing and then

commercializing an integrated system for a semi-submersible

floating wind turbine delivering 6 MW.

The groups will combine their respective skills as naval

architect and turbine manufacturer to develop a competitive,

 powerful solution for a large potential market. The objective

is to be in a position to produce an initial 6MW wind turbine

by 2017, featuring a semi-submersible floating system

developed by DCNS plus Alstom’s Haliade 150 offshore wind

turbine, already being used in fixed-bottom offshore wind

turbine technology (SEA REED project).◆

Cécile Dodat is media relations and content senior manager

for Alstom Renewable Power. Alstom is a global leader in

the world of power generation, power transmission and rail

infrastructure and sets the benchmark for innovative and

environmentally friendly technologies. For more information,

 visit  www.alstom.com.

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A s industrial customers seek greater water reuse and

repurpose, while facing more stringent discharge

limits, creating new designs and applications

becomes critical to meet their growing needs. In the future,

industrial customers will seek solutions that reuse their

wastewater and generate energy to reduce their costs and

become energy eff icient.


To answer that demand, GE Power

& Water’s latest membrane-based

wastewater treatment technology

combines anaerobic digestion technology

with its ZeeWeed 500 membranes to

create anaerobic membrane bioreactor

(AnMBR). AnMBR offers lower costs,

better performance and the ability to

generate renewable energy from industrial


GE’s new technology is an ideal

solution for industrial wastewater with

high biochemicaloxygen demand and

chemical oxygen demand

concentrations that

result in higher aerobic

treatment operational

expenses. GE’s AnMBR

 provides reduced energy

consumption, energy

recovery and reduced

sludge production both

economically and reliably.


 Anaerobic digestion is a biological process in which

microorganisms break down biodegradable material in

the absence of oxygen. One of the end products is biogas,

which can be combusted to generate electricity and heat.

 Advantages of anaerobic treatment include energy savings

by not requiring oxygen, reduced sludge production and

reduced footprint. However, the traditional anaerobic

 processes have disadvantages such as lesser eff luent qual ity,

 process sensi tivity, slow biomass growth

rate, difficulty retaining methanogens and

long-time or difficult-to-settle sludge.

GE’s AnMBR separates solids retention

time from hydraulic retention time for a

more robust biological process, retaining

methanogens in anaerobic reactor,

increasing methane production with

no suspended solids in permeate and

improving final effluent quality.

“GE’s most recent development in

membranes unites our proven ZeeWeed

reinforced hollowfiber membranes with

anaerobic digestion

technology to construct

the new AnMBR. The

future of water treatment

has a new component

and reinforces GE’s

commitment to energy

neutrality. Our industrial

customers are yearning

for more energy

GeneratingRenewable Energyfrom WastewaterNext-generation wastewater treatmenttechnology combines anaerobic digestionwith ultrafiltration membrane

By GE Power & Water 

ZeeWeed 500 hollow fiber membranes.

By combining anaerobic digestion and ZeeWeed membrane technology, GE has solved theissues associated with traditional anaerobic processes.

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reduction in wastewater treatment, and

GE's AnMBR will give them a way to

generate renewable energy from their

wastewater,” says Yuvbir Singh, general

manager, engineered systems—water

and process technologies for GE Power

& Water.




Over the past three decades GE has

continued to expand, refine, and update

its Winflows software as technology

and design standards have evolved

to ensure it is relevant for the water

industry. GE has expanded its original

RO projection software to include NF

 projections, chemical addition, pre-

treatment, chemical/anti-scalent dosing,

the RO/NF system, energy recovery

devices and post treatment—all within

a single platform.

 The latest upgrade to the Winf lows

reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration

(NF) design and simulation software

is the inclusion of ZeeWeed 1500

membranes. This new projection

software application enables users

to design a spiral-wound membrane

system with hollow fiber ultrafiltration

 pre-treatment in a single platform.

There are two more significant

additions to Winf lows. The first is

the addition of its newest membrane

elements that have been recently

launched including the extreme low-

energy RO membranes called the

 AP series and the seawater sulfate

reducing NF membranes. The second

major upgrade is the ability to choose

Mandarin as a language preference.

 The extreme low pressure

membranes are ideal for high flow

and low energy applications. The

seawater sulfate removal membranes

are specifically targeted for removing

sulfate from injection water in offshore

oil production. ◆

For more information on AnMBR,

contact GE Power & Water's Jeff

Cumin at 905.465.3030 x3105

or [email protected]. For

more information on Winflows,contact GE Power & Water's

Erik Hanson at 952.988.6420 or

[email protected]. To download

the newest version of Winflows, visit


GE’s pressurized ZeeWeed 1500 ultrafiltrationmembranes are ideal f or drinking water treatment,tertiary filtration and pretreatment applications forbrackish and seawater desalination for small-to-medium

 plants requiring quick deliver y and installati on.

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 V A LV E S & C O N T R O L S S O L U T I O N S

In a Tight Spot

Municipal water plant engineers in a tight spot

over cramped chlorine system equipment

areas will f ind the Model ST100L Air/Gas

In-Line Thermal Mass Flow Meter with Vortab® Flow

Conditioner from Fluid Components International (FCI)

 provides accurate flow measurement without the long

straight pipe runs required by other meters.


In order to provide a safe source of clean drinking

water, all municipal water system operators rely on

a disinfection system to kill germs. There are several

different methods of disinfection treatment, such as

chlorine and ozone, but chlorine remains a popular

disinfectant around the world. Where chlorine systems

are in use, accurate chlorine gas measurement is

essential for disinfection and safe operation of thesystem.

The successful measurement of chlor ine presents a

challenge for f low meter suppliers. Due to safety hazard

regulations, flow meter manufacturers cannot flow

chlorine gas at their facilities to calibrate chlorine gas

flow meters accurately. Furthermore, research has shown

that the theoretical “air equivalency” calibrations for

chlorine gas are inaccurate and inadequate. To address

this problem, certified FCI field technicians perform

on-site calibration adjustments to match the site specific



The Model ST100L is an in-line, spool piece gas

mass flow meter suitable for chlorine gas service

and is available with an optional built-in Vortab Flow

Conditioner. This inline model is designed specifically

for line sizes of 1, 1.5, or 2 inches [DN25, DN40 or

DN50], and the optional built-in f low conditioner

overcomes any lack of available straight-run pipe in

the installation. The meter’s Vortab flow conditioner

eliminates both swirl and profile disturbances

throughout the full f low range, including transitional

region, to produce a repeatable flow profile for accurate,

highly repeatable flow measurement.

The ST100L Flow Meter is typically installed in a

water disinfection system’s chlorine gas inlet line to the

chlorinator panel. For operation in corrosive chlorine

gas environments, this meter’s wetted material, including

sensor element, inline flow body, flow conditioner, and

 process connections, are al l fabricated of Hastelloy C-276

to ensure their corrosion protection and long life.


 When selecting the ST100L Flow Meter, users have

multiple communication options: 4-20 mA analog,

frequency/pulse, or certif ied digital bus communications

Flow meter ideal for cramped

chlorination system equipmentareas where others fail

By Randy Brown

ST100L Flow Meter utilizes con stant power.

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such as HART, Foundation Fieldbus, Profibus PA, or Modbus

RS485. Should a water plant’s communication need change, so

can the ST100L meter with field or factory replacement of the

output circuit board.

Fluid Components International is a global company

committed to meeting the needs of its customersthrough innovative solutions for the most challenging

requirements for sensing and measuring f low, pressure,

and temperature of gases. For more information, call

760.744.6950, email [email protected],

or visit  www.fluidcomponents.com.

Developed with a graphical, multivariable backlit

LCD display, the ST100L Flow Meter brings new

meaning to the term “process information.” Its

sophisticated readout continuously displays all

 process measurements and alarm status for easy on-

site viewing by technicians, and it has the ability to

query for service diagnostics.

The feature-rich ST100L Flow Meter utilizes constant

 power thermal mass flow sensing technology that

measure flow with 100:1 turndown in ranges from

0.006 to 1850 SCFM [0.01 to 3140 NCMH]. The

transmitter/electronics can be integrally mounted with

the flow body or may be remote mounted to 1000 feet

away. The transmitter enclosure is NEMA4X/IP67 rated

and available in painted aluminum or stainless steel. ◆

The ST100L offers various output options..

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Getting the Most Outof PTFE Diaphragms

There are two grades of PTFE that

can be used in the manufacture

of diaphragms: conventional

(homopolymer) and modified

(copolymer). The lowest performing

grade is conventional PTFE. White

in color, it exhibits poor f lex life

and high void content. Modif ied

PTFE is conventional PTFE whose

characteristics have been chemically

altered; it is translucent and offers

improved flex life and lower void



PTFE sheets are produced by one

of three primary methods: skiving,

expanding, or calendering. Skiving

employs a compression molding

 process to create bil lets of PTFE,

which are then sliced into thin layers.

This process results in lower flex

life, uneven tensile strength and high

 void content, all of which lead to poor

diaphragm performance. Skived PTFE

can be made from either conventional

or modified PTFE.

Expanding and stretching PTFE

is done to produce very high, eventensile strength, high flex li fe, excellent

abrasion resistance, and low void

content. Expanded PTFE can be made

from either conventional or modified

PTFE, however conventional PTFE is

more often used and results in a white


Calendering uses large rollers to

 press the PTFE f ibers together which

yield even tensile strength, high

flex life, and ultra-low void content.

Calendered PTFE is typically made

using modified PTFE and is clear in


Figure 3 shows the differences in

appearance when the materials are

 placed on top of white lettering with

a black background. The modified

calendered PTFE is nearly translucent,

the modified skived PTFE is cloudy

and both the conventional skived and

expanded PTFE are white.


Table 1 shows actual test results

of these four materials. In terms of

 permeation resistance (SVI) and

cycle life, the modified calendered

PTFE has superior results. This

material is typically recommended for

applications involving steam cycling,

strong chemicals, ultra-pure media,

or for pumps operating in clean

environments such as the production

of semiconductors, photovoltaic cells

for solar energy, chemicals, LEDs, flat

 panel displays, or pharmaceuticals.

Conventional expanded PTFE

is the s trongest material and is

recommended for pumps operatingat high pressure differentials or

for abrasive media. Common

applications include paints, coatings,

mining, ceramics manufacturing,

 pickling baths, and electroplating.

Conventional and modified

skived PTFE are considered lower

 performing materials and are typically

used in non-critical applications or

applications where the diaphragm is

changed at fixed intervals.

Diaphragm performance and ease of

installation can be further improved by

adding ribs, using one-piece designs

and molding the piston into the

diaphragm. Flexing a diaphragm can

create stress points; incorporating ribs

in the PTFE and backing it with rubber

allow the material to flex more easily

thereby reducing stress and extending

service life. Diaphragms with rubber

backings are available in one- or two-

 piece designs. One-piece diaphragms

(see figure 4) involve the added step

of bonding the PTFE to rubber. This

makes the diaphragm easier to install

Part 2 of 2

By Michael Brooks and Sarah Young, Garlock Sealing Technologies 

 Figure 3 : Clarity of PTFE materials produced by

different methods.

 Figure 4: Cross-section of an integral piston diaphragm(IPD) consisting of a PTFE face, fabric reinforced rubberbacker and integrated piston to attach directly to the

 pump shaf t.

See Part 1 onmodernpumpingtoday.com

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and reduces the potential for improper

installation, such as having the wrong

side facing the media.

Diaphragms used in mechanically

and air-operated pumps use pistons

to connect the shaft to the diaphragm.

Integrating a piston into the design of

a diaphragm eliminates metal contact

with the process media, reduces the

 potential for cross-contamination, and

makes it easier to clean and install.

This design is commonly used in areas

where CIP/SIP is performed, paint

or coating operations and for some

critical chemical and hazardous gas



The grade of material and

manufacturing method have anenormous effect on the overall

 performance of PTFE diaphragms.

For optimal pump operation it is vital

to review the specific application

requirements and select the best

PTFE diaphragm material. Using

the wrong type of material can lead

to equipment downtime, loss of

 product, and potential safety hazards.

Pump diaphragms are low cost, high

consequence components, where

the cost of the actual diaphragm is

negligible compared to the cost of

failure. ◆

Michael Brooks is the applications

engineer and Sarah Young is

 product manager of diaphragms

and valves for Garlock Sealing

Technologies. They can be reached

at [email protected] and

[email protected]. Based in

Palmyra, New York, the Garlock family

of companies is acknowledged as the

global leader in high-performance

fluid sealing and pipeline

 protection products for industry and

infrastructure. For more information,

 visit www.garlock.com.

Table 1: Typical Material Properties

Property ASTM





Skived PTFE










SVI (Stretch Void




15.7% @


2.2% @


1.55% @

8,000 psi

< .7% @


Flex Life (Millions

of cycles)

D1276.020” thick

x 6” long 

5.7 6.5 **70+ 17.6

Tensile Strength,

Transverse (psi)D1708


(+/-.002”)3,984 5,419 14,920 5,269

Tensile Strength,

Longitudinal (psi)D1708


(+/-.002”)4,951 5,148 14,860 5,462

*The SVI test compares the specific gravity of PTFE to PTFE samples stretched at 4,500 psi stress. Due to its very hightensile strength the expanded PTFE was stretched at 8,000 psi.

**Test was stopped over time. Flex life is very high due to the high tensile strength.

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 A Series Eccentr ic Disc PumpsMouvex A Series pumps are positive displacement pumps that utilize eccentric disctechnology, which enables self-priming and run-dry capabilities while maintaininga constant flow rate regardless of changes in viscosity and pressure. These pumpsalso maintain their initial performance over time and are ATEX-certified for use in

 potentially dangerous environments with the abil ity to r un-dry for up to s ix minutes. Available in seven di fferent s izes–AZ, AD, A6, A12, A18, A31, and A55–Mouvex ASeries pumps have maximum speeds to 600 rpm, can handle temperatures up to302 degrees Fahrenheit (150 degrees Celsius), as well as suction and discharge

 por ts f rom 1-½ through 4-inch in s ize. A Series pumps are offered with a var ietyof connection types and options, including the availability of both Mouvex orstandardized mechanical seals, which helps expedite installations regardless oflocation. For more information, contact Christophe Jovani, PSG ® –EMEA marketing,at [email protected].



The Tidalflux 2300 is Krohne’s unique flow meter for par tially filled pipes. Themeter can measure flows in pipes between 10 and 100 percent full and its non-contact sensor is not affected by oils and fats floating on the surface. In addition,Tidalflux has a broad diameter range to f it pipes up to DN1600 or 64 inches, andhas high chemical and abrasion resistance to provide exceptional durability. Formore information, contact Sandy Olley at 800.356.9464 or [email protected],or visit  www.krohne.com . Also, Visit WEFTEC Booth 3216 to learn more about thelatest analytical sensors, flow meters, and level meters.


Sentinel™ Monitoring System

Sensaphone has introduced a cellular version of itsSentinel™ system to provide 24/7 monitoring of pumps

and other critical equipment at remote locations that don’t

have Internet or Ethernet connectivity. When the systemdetects leaks, temperature changes, incorrect flow rate,

 power outages, or other out-of-parameter conditions, it

sends alerts by phone, text or email over standard AT&Tor Verizon cellular networks. This instant notification

allows personnel to take corrective action to maintain

uptime and production.

One Sentinel unit can monitor up to twelve differentconditions, and multiple Sensaphone units can be

managed from one account using web-based tools.The system stores all sensor readings in the cloud, forunlimited information storage and data protection. No

software is required, so installation and management of

the system are fast and easy.

Featured Product

For more information or to watch a product video, visit www.sensaphone.com .

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Eradicator™ Solids Management System

Gorman-Rupp, pump manufacturer of Mansfield, Ohio, offers new Eradicator™Solids Management System for Super T Series® line of self-priming centrifugaltrash pumps. Eradicator was developed for demanding applications. It dramaticallyimproves system uptime, thus decreasing service calls and overall maintenancecosts. The system consists of a new, patented lightweight inspection cover, aninnovative back cover plate incorporating an obstruction free flow path, and an

aggressive self-cleaning wear plate including laser cut notches and grooves,along with a revolutionary tooth designed to clear material from the eye ofthe impeller. For more information, contact Cyndi Hoffner at 419.755.1207 [email protected], or visit  www.grpumps.com.


Universal Mounting Brackets

New Universal Mounting Brackets allow fast, easy installation of Aegis® iPro, Aegis® iPro-MR, and Aegis® WTG Bearing Protection Rings on large motors.Specially designed brackets attach to iPro or WTG Rings with screws and haveslotted legs (for mounting to motor) that accommodate bolt circles from 2.64 to7.79 inches in diameter. Brackets are provided with ½, 1, and 1-½inch standoffspacers to provide sufficient clearance for shaft shoulders, slingers, or otherend bell protrusions. Mounting bolts, flat washers, and lock washers are alsoincluded. For more information, contact Adam Willwerth, sales and marketingmanager, at 866.738.1857 or [email protected], or visit  www.est-aegis.com .


CirrusSense ® TDWLB Remote Monitoring for Android

Transducers Direct introduces its new Android app for remote monitoring and programming of the CirrusSense® TDWLB pressure transducer, the first sensor in theworld to use wireless Bluetooth LE and a patent pending design to connect pressure

sensors to mobile devices and computers. The CirrusSense


 sensor is ideal forremote reading of pressure/temperature in A/C and refrigeration lines, compressedair lines, water lines, dental and industrial gas lines, etc. It uses patent-pendingcircuitry to provide a twelve-to-eighteen month battery life and redundant sensing.The sensor is available in two different compensated accuracies of 1 percent and0.25 percent, with an external temperature sensing probe as an option for measuringsub-cooling and superheat in HVAC applications. The CirrusSense transducer iscertified Bluetooth® Smart, as well as FCC certified. For more information, contactMark McDaniel at 513.583.9491 or [email protected], or visit www.transducersdirect.com.


Gold Assay Furnaces, Crucible, and Cupels

Morgan Advanced Materials offers gold assay fusion and cupellationfurnaces, crucibles, and cupels, ideal for quantitative and qualitative analysisof mined ore samples in the gold mineralization industry. Morgan’s excellentmanufacturing quality, superior technical service, and responsive lead times,have led to recognition as a leader in the supply of crucibles to non-ferrousmetals industries worldwide. Morgan’s gold assay furnaces, crucibles, andcupels are an excellent choice for both exploration multi-sample testing, todetermine a mine’s potential and for quality control grade tests, to ensureconsistent gold content levels in material sent to mills. For more information,contact Francesca Minett at [email protected].

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Welcome to theInternet of Things

Sensaphone ®  will

introduce its Sentinel™

PRO remote monitoring

system, an enhanced version

of the Sentinel cloud-based

system, at WEFTEC 2015.

Sentinel PRO monitors up to

twelve conditions at remote

 pump stations and tank

farms, including power, pump

status, tank level, and flow

rate. Sensaphone’s Technical

Support and Service

Manager Robert Fusco

 joined MPT to discuss the

benefits available for water

and wastewater professionals

who need a convenient wayto remotely monitor remote

locations and equipment.

MPT: Sensaphone will introduce its new Sentinel PRO

remote monitoring system at this year’s WEFTEC in

Chicago. What makes this system unique? 

Robert Fusco: The Sentinel PRO is the most advanced

monitoring and data acquisition system available today. It

interacts with all the existing sensors within a facility and

introduces them to the world of IoT (internet of things) for

on-demand, real-time status and data acquisition from anyinternet connected device.

The Sentinel PRO has twelve universal Inputs, multiple

outputs, and added protocol support with Modbus RTU/

TCP and Canbus. The Sentinel PRO also has Ethernet,

cellular, and wi-fi options to fit any site requirements.

MPT: What are some of the enhancements pump users

can expect to see? 

Robert Fusco: The Sentinel PRO can collect data, and

 push it to the Cloud for Alarming, Reporting, and Real-

Time Status. The end user

now has full capability to

 view the entire facility’s

 performance from anywhere

at a moment’s notice. The

Sentinel PRO can generate

custom reports on runtimes,

levels, and pulse counts

then have them emailed

as a PDF, CSV, or text

document at the user’s

defined interval.

MPT: What are some of

the applications in which

water and wastewater

 professionals could see

immediate benefits? 

Robert Fusco: The

cloud service also has

the capabilities for unlimited data and event logging for

safe, secure data storage. In addition, the Sentinel PRO is

a supervised system; the cloud can alert you if ever the

Sentinel PRO fails to check in. Unlike many systems, the

Sensaphone Cloud service offers superior protection that

your facility is monitored 24/7.

MPT: As a cloud-based system, what innovations do users

now have available for accessing their data? 

Robert Fusco: The Sentinel also incorporates CanBus

 protocol . CanBus is a ver y useful protocol to get crucial

engine diagnostics from generators and motors such

as fuel, oil, and coolant levels, as well as engine speed,

 pressures, and internal temperatures. When any of the user

defined limits are crossed, the Sentinel PRO can alert a

user via text, voice call, or email. When appropriate action

needs to be taken, a motor could be safely shut down from

the phone App or Cloud to avoid a costly thermal overload

situation which will prevent catastrophic damage. ◆

Sensaphone’s Robert Fusco on bringingreal-time data acquisition to any facility

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