Text of MP and MPM that contain protoalkaloids and tropane protoalkaloids and tropane alkaloids alkaloids
MP and MPM that contain protoalkaloids and tropane protoalkaloids and tropane alkaloids alkaloids
Biological Effect and Application of Alkaloids Alkaloid-bearing plants are used in Pharmacy and Medicine with different purposes. They are used directly at the Chemists shops for manufacturing of extracts and decoctions (thermopsis Thermopsis Lanceolata). The others are used for manufacturing galenicals tinctures, extracts, neogalenicals. Alkaloids are produced from raw stuff in pure form and then manufactured as: tablets, ampoules, drage. Medical significance of alkaloids: analgetics (Poppy remedies) hemostatics (Claviceps purpurea medicines ) cardiovascular remedies (ephedra) anticancer (autumn crocus remedies ) spasmolytic (beladonna). It is not possible to describe all types of phamacological effects. Effects of some alkaloids on the human body are studied well. These substances effect on specific receptors or influence enzyme activity.
MP and MPM containing protoalkaloids
Fructus Capsici Capsicum annuum- Chilli Solanaceae Constituents. Contains capsaicinoids (0.1-1.9%) and the main among them is capsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin. Fruits are rich in vitamins C, P, B1, B2, nikotinic and folic acids, carotinoids; also contains steroidal saponins, flavonoids, coumarin scopoletin; salts of potassium, sodium, calcium, aluminium, iron. Uses. Medicines from Capsicum annuum are used externally to treat neuralgia and radiculitis as they have irritating properties. Medicines: infusion, patch. Infusion is part of ointment against frostbites, capsitrin, espol and capsin. Internally infusion can be used to induce appetite and normalise indigestion, but in high doses it can irritate gastro- intestinal system.
Herba Ephedrae Ephedra equisetina- Ma huang Ephedraceae Constituents. Herb contains about 0.5-2.0% of alkaloids, and the main is L-ephedrin; approx. 10% of tannins. Uses. Ephedrin is used for the relief of asthma and hay fever. Its action is more prolonged than that of adrenaline, and it has the further advantage that it need not be given by injection but may be administered by mouth. Also used to stimulate CNS during morphine and scopolamine poisoning. Medicines: theoephedrin, antasthman, ephatin spray, solutan, broncholitin (all have broncholitic properties).
Bulbotubera Colchici recentia Colchicum speciosum, Colchicum autumnale- Autumn crocus, Naked lady Melanthiaceae Constituents. Contain more than 10 colchicinoalkaloids: colchamin, colchicin, colchicein; flavonoids, fitosterins, hydrocarbons and aromatic acids. Uses. Colchamin is used to treat cancer.
MP and MPM containing tropane alkaloids
Folia Belladonnae Herba Belladonnae Radices Belladonnae Atropa belladonna, Atropa caucasica- Belladonna herb Solanaceae Constituents. All plant contain tropane alkaloids, the chief of it is hyoscyamine Uses. Preparations from belladonna have spasmolitic, broncholitic and pain-killing action, reduce the secretion of salivary, sweat and gastric glands, extend pupils, cause tachycardia. Medicines: dry extract, tincture, belastesin, besalol, belalgin, becarbon, belataminal- spasmolitic remedies, to reduce spasms of gastro-intestinal system; Zelenin drops- heart neurosis; beloid- violations of autonomic nervous system; akliman- klimacteric violations; anusol and betiol suppositories have anesthetic action and thus are used to treat hemorrhoids.
Folia Hyoscyami Herba Hyoscyami Hyoscyamus niger- Henbane Solanaceae Constituents. Hyoscyamus niger contains tropane alkaloids: gyosciamin, scopolamin etc. (0.05- 0.1%). Leaves are rich on flavonoids (rutin). Uses. Oil of henbane is used externally to treat neuralgias and rheumatism.
Folia Daturae Datura stramonium- Thornapple Solanaceae Constituents. 0.25- 0.4% of alkaloids, chiefly hyoscyamin and scopolamin; volatile oils; carotinoids; tannic substances. Uses. Oil has the same application as henbane oil.